Diversity of Life

757 views
603 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
757
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Diversity of Life

  1. 1. Diversity of Modern Life
  2. 2. Kingdom Monera (“Monerans”) • Smallest and simplest lifeforms • Unicellular (one-celled) • no nucleus • Bacteria and cyanobacteria
  3. 3. Bacteria • Three basic shapes: • round (cocci) • rod (bacilli) • spiral (spirilli)
  4. 4. Questions • What are two characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Monera? • What is meant by unicellular? • What are the three shapes of bacteria?
  5. 5. Kingdom Protista(“Protists”) • Single-celled or multicellular • more complex than organisms in Kingdom Monera • nucleus • protozoans (animal-like) • algae (plant-like)
  6. 6. Protozoans • Kingdom Protista • no cell wall or chlorophyll • internal digestion • no locomotion (some)
  7. 7. Algae • Cell walls • Chlorophyll • Photosynthetic • Placed in groups according to color and structure
  8. 8. Questions • What are some characteristics of Protists? • What are the two types of Protists? • How are the two types of Protists different?
  9. 9. Kingdom Fungi • Multicellular; complex • cell walls, no chlorophyll • Threadlike fungi (bread mold) • club fungi (mushrooms) • sac fungi (yeast and mildew)
  10. 10. Questions • What are some characteristics of Fungi? • What are the three groups of fungi?
  11. 11. Kingdom Plantae • Multicellular, cell walls, and chlorophyll • Largest and longest-living things on Earth • Vascular or Nonvascular
  12. 12. Nonvascular Plants • CANNOT conduct water • Example: Moss • Moist environment
  13. 13. Vascular Plants • CAN conduct water • Capable of living in drier areas • Club mosses, Ferns, Horsetails, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms
  14. 14. Gymnosperms • Seed plant • name means “naked seed” • Most are conifers
  15. 15. Angiosperms -Flowering Plants • Seed plant • name means “covered seed” • Seeds are produced inside ovaries • A ripened ovary is a fruit • largest/most diverse plants
  16. 16. Questions • What is the major difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? • What are three plant characteristics? • How are vascular and non vascular plants different?
  17. 17. Sponges (invertebrate) • Simplest of the animal groups • lives in salt water attached to the bottom • Hollow central cavity • Two layers of body cells with tiny pores
  18. 18. Coelenterates (invertebrate) • Jellyfish, hydras, and corals • two cell layers • Live in water • hollow body with a single opening
  19. 19. Questions • What are three similarities between coelenterates and sponges?
  20. 20. Flatworms (invertebrate) • Flattened body; mostly parasitic • one body opening • two eyespots (light detection) • Turbellarians (free-living) • Planarians (freshwater Turbellarians)
  21. 21. Roundworms (invertebrate) • Rounded shaped • two body openings (eating and waste expulsion) • mostly free-living • Ex: Nematodes and hookworms
  22. 22. Segmented Worms (invertebrate) • Rounded, segmented bodies • two body openings • has five hearts and a brain • Ex: leeches and marine tube worms
  23. 23. Questions • In what major way are the three types of worms different? • How are the segmented worms MOST similar to the roundworms?
  24. 24. Mollusks (invertebrate) • Soft-bodies, no shell: (octopus/squid) • well-developed organs • some with shells: (clams/oysters)
  25. 25. Arthropods (invertebrate) • Largest group of animals • multiple body segments • jointed appendages (legs/arms) • exoskeleton (hard outer covering)
  26. 26. Arthropods (continued) • Well-developed organs • insects, lobsters, crabs, and spiders
  27. 27. Echinoderms (invertebrate) • Spiny skinned animals • star fish (sea stars), sand dollars, sea cucumbers • flexible arms; tube feet • known for regeneration (ability to grow new body parts)
  28. 28. Questions • What is the major similarity between mollusks, echinoderms, and arthropods? • Which group of organisms are known for regeneration? • What is regeneration?
  29. 29. Questions • What is the largest group of animals? • Describe an invertebrate. • An octopus and a clam belong to what group of invertebrates? • How is an endoskelton different from an exoskeleton?
  30. 30. Vertebrates • Have backbones • body with a head and most have appendages • endoskeleton (internal skeleton for support/protection)
  31. 31. Vertebrates (continued) • Endotherm (warm- blooded); these organisms can control their body temperature from within despite changes in the environment
  32. 32. Vertebrates (continued) • Ectotherm (cold-blooded); body temperature changes with the environment
  33. 33. Questions • What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm? • How is a vertebrate different from an invertebrate?
  34. 34. Jawless fishes • Ex: Sea lamprey • mouth is used for sucking fluids; no appendages (fins) • flexible skeleton made of cartilage • ectotherms
  35. 35. Cartilaginous Fishes • Two pairs of fins; gills • ectotherms • strong teeth (sharks) • SKELETON MADE OF CARTILAGE • stingrays, skates, sharks
  36. 36. Bony fishes • Flounder, eels, trout, and others • SKELETON MADE OF BONE • gills • streamlined bodies (narrow shape) • most numerous group of fish
  37. 37. Questions • How are the cartilaginous fishes mainly different from the bony fishes? • What do the other fishes have that the jawless fishes do not have?
  38. 38. Amphibians • Frogs, toads, salamanders • part of their life is spent on land and part of life is spent in the water; (ectotherms) • smooth, moist skin • gills when they are young and have lungs as adults
  39. 39. Reptiles • Adapted to live on land (terrestrial) • breathe with lungs • body covered with plates or scales • ectotherms
  40. 40. Reptiles • Dinosaurs • Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators • lay eggs in a leathery shell
  41. 41. Birds • Bodies adapted for flight (light, bones, feathers, and wings) • Scaly legs and feet • lay eggs in a hard shell • endotherms
  42. 42. Mammals • Advanced nervous system; highly developed brain • Endotherms • Hairy bodies • can occupy several habitats • give birth to live young;
  43. 43. Questions • Which animals spend part of their life on and part of it in the water? • What type of animals have scales or or hard plates?
  44. 44. Questions • Which two groups of animals are warm-blooded? • What is the difference between the eggs of reptiles and birds?

×