It is an acute diarrheal infection caused
by ingestion of food or water
contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio
Born in 1813-1858, was the son
of a coal-yard laborer in York,
“Father of modern epidemiology”
Discovered that cholera is spread
by contaminated water.
During the 19th century, cholera spread
across the world from its original
reservoir in the Ganges delta in India.
Six subsequent pandemics killed
millions of people across all continents.
The current (seventh) pandemic started
in South Asia in 1961, and reached
Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991.
Cholera is now endemic in many
Are gram-negative rods that are
First discovered by Filippo Pacini in Italy
The term “waterborne” refers
to the fact that water can serve
as a transmission vehicle to
cause disease. Pathogens
comprise bacteria, protozoa,
and viruses. All of them have
characteristics in different
water types. However, that
water is a common source for
It is the transmission
by ingestion of
Secondary cases can
occur through close
contact with infected
via the fecal oral
Mechanism of action for cholera
Vibrio cholerae, the causative bacterium, enters the through
contaminated food or drink.
The bacteria attach to the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
V. Cholerae toxin enters the cells and prevent them from down-
regulating secretion of water and electrolytes.
The epithelial cells pump water and electrolytes from the blood
into the intestinal lumen, causing watery diarrhea.
Shock and death occur because of fluid loss in the circulatory
system unless the fluid can be replaced.
The bacteria exit in the body through the feces.
o Abrupt onset of massive
followed by vomitting
without nausea, muscle
cramps and when severe
dehydration and shock.
Purification of water
Do not eat undercooked or raw shellfish or fish.
Proper cooking and storing practices, and personal
hygiene of food handlers.
Cholera vaccine contains a mixture of
inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria
and a non-toxic component of the
toxin that these bacteria produce. It
works by stimulating the body's
immune response to the cholera
bacteria, without actually causing the
80% of people can be treated
successfully through prompt
administration of oral rehydration salt.
Very severely dehydrated patients
administration of intravenous solution
(Na, K, Glucose).
Through the WHO Global Task Force on
Cholera Control, WHO works to:
provide technical advice and support for
cholera control and prevention at country
train health professionals at national,
regional and international levels in
prevention, preparedness and response of
diarrhoeal disease outbreaks
disseminate information and guidelines on
cholera and other epidemic-prone enteric
diseases to health professionals and the