The Internet: Communities,Collaborations & Concepts
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  • 1. www.isoc.ghThe Internet:Communities, Collaboration,and ConceptsInternet Governance & Standards Development WorkshopEdwin A.
  • 2. www.isoc.ghCommunities & Concepts
  • 3. www.isoc.ghOrganisations and Communitiesof the InternetThere is nodefinitive listof organisationsand there area lot ofparticipants!3Some of the significant entitiesinclude:• Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF)• Internet Society (ISOC)• Internet Architecture Board (IAB)• Internet Assigned NumbersAuthority (IANA)• Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)• Internet Corporation for AssignedNames and Numbers (ICANN)• Regional Network OperatorsGroups (*nogs)• W3C, ITU, and many more!
  • 4. www.isoc.ghThe Internet Society(ISOC)4
  • 5. www.isoc.ghISOC: MissionTo promote the open development, evolution, and useof the Internet for the benefit of all people throughoutthe world.5
  • 6. www.isoc.ghThe Internet is for EveryoneThree major focus areas:• Enabling Access• InterNetworks• Trust and IdentityThe Internet Society was foundedin 1992 as a nonprofit charitableorganisation.Our sole focus is promotingthe Internet.6
  • 7. www.isoc.ghISOC: Enabling AccessTechnical Capacity Building• Training• Community Building• Foster Technical LeadershipPolicy, Regulation and Access Environment• Education of key issues to promote sound policy making• Education on economic and social factors and how it impacts theInternetEnabling Access for Under-served Communities• The Internet as a non-Latin language medium• Advance development of technologies for facilitating the use ofthe Internet for individuals with disabilitiesFocuses on enabling access to the Internet by addressing thefundamental impediments to Internet growth and usability7
  • 8. www.isoc.ghISOC: Trust and IdentityArchitecture and Trust• Investigates the implementation of open-trust mechanismsthroughout the full cycle of Internetresearch, standardisation, development and deploymentCurrent Problems, Solutions and Trust• Investigates the mitigation of the social, policy and economicfactors that may hinder development and deployment for trust-enabling technologiesIdentity and Trust• Investigates the elevation of identity to a core issue in networkresearch and standards developmentIn order to be trusted, the Internet must provide channels forsecure, reliable, private communication between entities8
  • 9. www.isoc.ghISOC: InterNetworksGlobal Addressing Program• Identifies challenges to global addressing (IPv4 addressexhaustion, IPv6 deployment, etc.)Common Internet Program• Strives to eliminate “islands” of networking.• Aims to drive the development, acceptance, and consistentimplementation of the “end to end principle” of the InternetSecurity and Stability• Supports development and deployment of key technologies forensuring a stable and secure Internet infrastructureFocuses on the continued operation of the global Internet9
  • 10. www.isoc.ghThe InternetEngineering Task Force(IETF)
  • 11. www.isoc.ghThe IETF11Published through theRFC Editor:http://www.rfc-editor.orgThe IETF was formed in 1986 todevelop & promote Internetstandards and related technicaldocuments, including:• Request for Comments (RFCs)• Best Current Practices (BCPs)• Internet Drafts (IDs)
  • 12. www.isoc.ghThe IETF12Lots of work takesplace through mailinglists and other forms ofcommunication.• It is an open and participatoryprocess.• Meetings take place three times ayear around the globe.• Remote participation isencouraged as some IETFcontributors have neverphysically attended a meeting.
  • 13. www.isoc.ghIETF ScopeProtocols: “above the wire and belowthe application.”How to deliver the data across anetwork and how to deliver the datato the application.13IPTCPSMTPDNSSIPENUMHTTPSSLBGPetc.
  • 14. www.isoc.ghIt’s Only Good If People Use It• There is no formal recognition ofIETF standards.• The process works becausepeople choose to adopt thesestandards.• The goal is to set global standardsin protocol development.14Example:My email server knows howto talk to your email server…not knowing (or caring)about what serverapplication you chose toinstall.
  • 15. www.isoc.ghThe Internet Architecture Board(IAB)15
  • 16. www.isoc.ghIABIn 1984 the IAB started as areplacement for the InternetConfiguration Control Board (ICCB)and a committee of the IETF.Initially the IAB had oversight for manytaskforces, but eventually focused ontwo: IETF and IRTF (Internet ResearchTask Force).Responsibilities include:• Confirmation of IETF chairand IESG Area Directors• Architectural Oversight• Standards ProcessOversight and Appeal• RFC Series and the IANA• External Liaison betweenIETF and other entities• Advice to ISOC• Selection of IRTF Chair16
  • 17. www.isoc.ghThe Internet Corporation forAssigned Names and Numbers(ICANN)17
  • 18. www.isoc.ghICANNEstablished in 1998 as a globalnonprofit organisation to managefunctions that were previouslyperformed by U.S. governmentcontractors.Currently operates the IANA functionand is responsible for coordinating themanagement of the Internet domainname system (DNS).Develops policies andprocedures for DNSrelated activities:• New Top Level Domains• Accreditation of domainname registrars18
  • 19. www.isoc.ghThe Internet Assigned Naming Authority(IANA)19
  • 20. www.isoc.ghIANAIANA came from the need to startrecording unique identifiers on theInternet, a function operated by theUniversity of Southern California undercontract with the U.S. government until1998 when it was moved to ICANN.IANA works with the IAB and IETF asthe repository of unique identifiers asdescribed in RFCs and otherdocuments and distributes blocks of IPaddresses to the RIRs.Jon Postel,keeper of thefamousunique identifiers“black book”• Manages theDNS root zonefile• Manages andoperates variouscore DNSzones, such as.INT and parts of.ARPA20
  • 21. www.isoc.ghRegional Internet Registries(RIRs)APNIC: Asia and PacificAfriNIC: AfricaRIPE NCC: Europe, Middle East and parts of Central AsiaLACNIC: Latin America and parts of CaribbeanARIN: US, Canada and parts of Caribbean21
  • 22. www.isoc.ghRIRsThe RIRs are responsible, within theirassigned regions, for allocating globallyunique IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) andautonomous system numbers (ASNs).Allocation policies are determined in-region through open policy developmentprocesses.Number Resource Organisation (NRO) iscomprised of the five RIRs andcoordinates global allocation policies.22
  • 23. www.isoc.ghNetwork Operators Groups(*NOGs)PacNOGAfNOGSANOGAPRICOTNANOGWALC23
  • 24.*NOGs• *NOGs focus on informationexchange between ISPs and networkoperators within a region.• They work to deliver key informationand experiences to those who need it– the network operator.• The act as a human networkingopportunity so people can meet andinteract with their peers and othercompanies. Critical for when thingsgo bad on the network!24
  • 25. www.isoc.ghSo… who’s in charge??Information sharingis key to a successfulInternet!• There is no “central” Internet authority.• Each organisation or community tendsto specialise in a particular topic ofinterest or responsibility.• For instance, the network operatorgroups tend to focus primarily on everyday operational issues while the IETFfocuses on protocol development andstandards.• Overlap of interests are very common.25
  • 26. www.isoc.ghWhat does that mean to me?Participate!Your ideas and dialog really do make adifference in developing a globallyinter-operable Internet.There are many new technologiescoming out that really needparticipation from around the world(DNSSEC, IPv6, IDNs, etc.).Work to understand the strengths andlimitations of current Internetstandards.Wait…there’s more!• Participate globally!(can be remotely)• Participate locally!• There are manyopportunities tobecome involved!26
  • 27. www.isoc.ghEngaging in the Internet Collaboration
  • 28. www.isoc.ghWhat is Internet Collaboration?• Groups can be local, regional, orglobal and their efforts benefit theInternet.• Products can be new protocols, bestcommon practices, applications, etc.Collaboration is the act ofworking together to producesomething of mutual benefit.
  • 29. www.isoc.ghWhy Collaborate?• Doesn’t producing open standards go againstbusiness market share goals?• Common Foundation• Building Infrastructure• Open Standards leads to extensibleapplications• Best Practices leads to predictable behaviors
  • 30. www.isoc.ghWhere to ContributeStandardsDevelopment• IETF• W3CNetworkOrganisations• *nogs• ISOCPolicy andRegulation• ISOC• ICANN• RIRs• ITU
  • 31.• The IETF is global and focused ondeveloping Open Standards.• It develops Internet Drafts to bepublished as RFCs through theRFC Editor’s publication process.• Participation in the IETF is basedon individuals and is free (otherthan your time investment).Standards DevelopmentInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  • 32. www.isoc.ghStandards DevelopmentWorld Wide Web Consortium (W3C)• W3C is global and the next layerup from HTTP protocol anddevelops open standards for theweb.• It publishes the W3CRecommendations documentseries.• W3C membership is based onorganisations and is paid.
  • 33. www.isoc.ghStandards DevelopmentW3C Goals“Web for Everyone”To make the web available for allpeople regardless of thehardware, software, networkinfrastructure, nativelanguage, location, or physical ormental ability.“Web on Everything”To make the web available on thewide array of Internet “aware”devices.“Knowledge Base”Develop a web that holdsinformation for use by both humansand machine.“Trust and Confidence”Promote technologies that enable amore collaborative environmentwhereaccountability, security, confidenceand confidentiality are all possible.
  • 34. www.isoc.ghNetwork OrganisationsNetwork Operating Groups (nogs)To name just a few:• APNIC: Asia/Pacific Network Information Centre• APOPS: Asia/Pacific Operators Forum• APRICOT: Asia/Pacific Regional InternetConference on Operational Technologies• JANOG: Japanese Network Operators Group• NZNOG: New Zealand Network Operators Group• PACNOG: Pacific Network Operators Group• SANOG: South Asian Network Operators Group• NANOG: North American Network Operators Group• AFNOG: African Network Operators Group• EOF: European Operators Forum WG• FrNOG: French Network Operators Group• NordNog: Nordic Operators Group• RIPE and RIPE NCC: Promote Wide Area NetworkOperators in Europe• SwiNOG: Swiss Network Operators Group• ARIN: American Registry for Internet Numbers• LACNIC: Latin American and Caribbean IP addressRegional Registry• Network Operating Groups’ primarygoal is to coordinate and distributetechnical information relating to(mostly) backbone/enterprisenetworking technologies andoperational practices.• They act as a common ground formeeting peers within the networkcommunity and have “Birds of aFeather” (BoF) sessions that coverrelevant material to networkoperators.
  • 35. www.isoc.ghNetwork OrganisationsThe Internet Society (ISOC)• The Internet Society is both globaland regional.• Chapter membership allows forcommunication and coordination ofrelevant topics.• Global interest groups cancoordinate activities surrounding atopical item.
  • 36. www.isoc.ghInternet Policy and RegulationThe Internet Society (ISOC)• The Internet Society’s goal is tohelp work on policies that willbenefit the entire Internet andthose that use it.• It works with policymakers both ona regional and global level.• Chapters and members contributeby both helping to formulate ideasand messages, and also to deliverthose messages to their respectivegovernment or regulatory bodies.
  • 37. www.isoc.ghInternet Policy and RegulationICANN• ICANN is responsible for settingpolicies surrounding the creationof new Top-Level Domains(TLDs).• It is involved with InternetGovernance because of thecountry-code TLDs and hasmany councils and advisorycommittees to assist withunderstanding relevant issues.• The At-Large AdvisoryCommittee (ALAC) is a globalbody made up of individualInternet users, rather thanorganisational interests.• ICANN offers open commentperiods for many of the itemsthat their board will vote on.The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
  • 38. www.isoc.ghInternet Policy and RegulationRegional Internet Registries (RIRs)RIRs allocate IPv4, IPv6 Addresses andAutonomous System Numbers (ASNs) to theirrespective regions.Currently there are five regions.The RIRs have created the Number ResourceOrganization (NRO) to coordinate policies thathave a global impact.They develop policies surrounding IP addressand ASNs, includingvalidity, routability, allocation, and resourcescarcity.RIR communities are primarily made up from theISP and large business sector and academiahowever, policy discussion is typically open forall individuals.
  • 39. www.isoc.ghPutting it All TogetherSuggestion:Start with a focusedapproach on what is mostimportant to you, and thenbranch out from there.Which group should I join?• This depends on yourpersonal or professionalinterest area.• Membership doesn’t needto be limited to one.• The volume of informationcan be overwhelming.
  • 40. www.isoc.ghAcknowledgements40Steve ConteInternet Society