Brought new ideas to Europe but also to the Middle East, as did the French Revolution of 1789.
Born 1769 died 1849 made Egypt more Western, which influenced Palestine as well – allowed modern Zionism a beginning
Forerunners of Zionism Zvi Hirsh Kalischer, 1843 3 principles salvation by natural means, colonization of Palestine, he revival of sacrifices Orthodox Rabbi
1884 AutoEmancipationChovevei Zion Physician Odessa rejected Orthodoxy enlightened
Philanthropist along with Nathan Rothschild. First Aliyah supporter
Romanticized Zionism before there were Zionists 1876
Father of modern Hebrew
1996 Jewish State
Degania, first Kibbutz, 1910
Arab revolts begin in 1920s
2002 We are responsible in large part for contradictory promises.
38 Hagannah personnel set out on foot from Hartuv at 11 PM on January 15, commanded by Danny Mas. Three were sent back because of injuries. The fate of the remaining 35 was reconstructed from British and Arab reports.
Rabbi Edwin Goldberg
Temple Sholom of Chicago
• Israel had restored its image as an independent and strong nation.
• Israel was now three times bigger than it had been in 1966.
• The pan-Arab ideas of Nasser had taken a huge knock.
• Israel now had the security risk of an extra 1 million Arab people inside its own
borders. About 1/3 million Arabs fled to Jordan- where they were easy prey to
• Israel was now easier to defend against outside aggression having wide
deserts and mountains just inside its borders.
• The status of the new territories was problematic. Should the residents get
citizen status?Could you have an Israeli/Arab Palestinian? Did Israel really
want all the land- especially that with inherent ownership problems (eg the
• Israel launched a huge settlement plan- to occupy the land won with people
loyal to Israel.
Hostile Ground: Israel’s Wars Since
s of Fighting
May 14, 1948
June 5, 1967
June 10, 1967
Oct. 6, 1973
May 31, 1974
PLO, Syria and
Recognizing the Two
The Palestinian Narrative:
Fear of Dispossession / 20th Century Jewish Immigration
Nakba of 1948
The 37-year Occupation (West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem)
Spiritual connection to the Holy Land
The Jewish Narrative:
History of Jewish Persecution
Israel as Jewish ‘Safe Haven’
Spiritual connection to the Promised Land
“I have spent a great deal of my life…advocating the rights of
the Palestinian people to national self-determination, but I have
always tried to do that with full attention paid to the reality of
the Jewish people and what they suffered by way of persecution
– the late Edward Said, leading Palestinian American intellectual,
Professor of literature at Columbia University and well-known author
“When Israelis ask me about the Palestinians, I tell
them they live like us, they suffer like us, they laugh
and cry like us. They are just like us, but they suffer
more than us.”
– the renowned Israeli immunologist, Dr. Zvi Bentwich,
founder of Israels first and largest AIDS clinic and member
of Physicians for Human Rights
Brief Historical Background
The area known as Palestine was part of the Ottoman empire for 400 years until World
War I, at which time Palestine fell under British control. In 1947, the U.N. proposed
partitioning the area into two states. In 1967, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East
Jerusalem came under Israeli occupation..
The Composition of the Holy
Source: 2003 CIA World Fact Book - Palestine data consists of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
In the land between the Mediterranean sea and the Jordan river…
UN HDI Rank
22 out of 177
Unemployment 1 out of 10
UN HDI Rank
102 out of 177
Unemployment 1 out of 2
Growth rate -18%
Growth rate -0.8%
A Palestinian has to work for 28 years to earn what an Israeli does in one year
Sources: United Nations 2004 Human Development Index (HDI), 2003 CIA World Fact Book.
Main Battle Tanks
2001 Military Expenditures
Official Active Forces
to maintain tens of
thousands of troops
in the West Bank and
Gaza – Israel invaded and
occupied those areas in
Source: Center for Strategic and International Studies
“We can argue with the Palestinians about who’s to blame; but about who is suffering
worse – there is no argument. They are a destitute nation living in an elaborate prison 55 of
under the guns of the Israeli army.” Jerusalem Post Editorial, March 3, 2004
The Conflict has taken 4,000 lives in 4
From September 29, 2000 to January 5, 2005
Sources: Middle East Policy Council, The Guardian Unlimited
How Do We Resolve the
The Formula for a Two State Solution:
Israel and Palestine based on 1967 borders with a
shared & open capital in Jerusalem
and a just settlement to the refugee problem
This will result in the following:
A new state of Palestine, viable and independent,
consisting of the West Bank and Gaza Strip with
Arab East Jerusalem as its capital.
A state of Israel, secure within its borders, fully
recognized by all 22 Arab countries along with
peace agreements with each Arab country
resulting in normalization of relations and an
official end to the Arab-Israeli conflict.
The Historic Arab Peace Initiative from the Arab League
The full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied since 1967.
The achievement of a just solution to the Palestinian Refugee problem to be agreed upon
in accordance with UN General Assembly Resolution 194.
The acceptance of the establishment of a Sovereign Independent Palestinian State on the
Palestinian territories occupied since the 4th of June 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza
Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
The Arab League would:
Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended, and enter into
a peace agreement with Israel, and provide security for
all the states of the region.
Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of
this comprehensive peace
Source: The Beirut Declaration of the League of Arab States, 2002.
The Arab League 63 of
This offer was repeated in March 2005
Joint Israeli & Palestinian Public
76% of Israelis and Palestinians favor a two-state solution
The OneVoice poll of 23,000 Palestinians and
17,000 Israelis as reported in AP and
Ha’aretz found that 76% on each side
endorsed the two-state concept - a
Palestinian state existing beside a Jewish
state, "each recognizing the other as such,
both democratic and respecting human
rights, including minority rights."
Sources: Associated Press and Ha’aretz, May 2004.
Additional Palestinian Public
• 78% believe that the current Israeli measures, including
the building of the separation barrier reduce the chances
for the establishment of a Palestinian state.
• 85% support a mutual cessation of violence.
• 59% support taking measures by the Palestinian Authority
to prevent attacks on Israelis if an agreement is reached
on a mutual cessation of violence.
• 86% of the Palestinians believe that they cannot count on
Arab States to support them in regaining their rights.
The 1993 Oslo Accord marked an historic turning point
for Palestinians – they formally recognized, “the right
of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security.”
Furthermore, they reduced their claims to just 22% of
the land of historic Palestine (West Bank, Gaza Strip & East
Source: Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, October 2003. Oslo Accords, 1993.
Israeli Support for Ending the
Photo: Ami Ayalon
59% of the Jewish Israelis support a unilateral withdrawal
of the army from most of the occupied territories and
dismantling most of the settlements
1,371 Israeli soldiers now refuse to play a role in, “the
continued oppression of the Palestinian people in the
Four former Israeli security service chiefs called on
Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza Strip
and dismantle most of Jewish settlements
Ami Ayalon, ex-Shin Bet chief, “I favor unconditional
withdrawal from the Territories – preferably in the
context of agreement but not necessarily”
“The Occupation of Palestinian territory is eroding Israel’s international standing.
The U.S. is virtually our only friend, so we must remember that it, too, supports a
withdrawal almost to the borders of 1967.” – Ehud Olmert Current Deputy PM of Israel71 of
Sources: The Forward 8/20/04. DaHaf poll, May 6, 2002 by Peace Now. Refuseniks Watch. Yedioth Ahronoth, November 14, 2003
Current Challenges to a Two-State
The current path of the Israeli
barrier in the West Bank
The 200+ Israeli settlements in the
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Violence Against Civilians
Restarting the Peace Process
Challenge: The Path of the Israeli Barrier
The barrier’s path has been projected to
annex between 7% – 45% of Palestinian
land. This will:
Completely surround 100,000 people in 42 towns
Reduce the available water supply by 1 billion gallons
Confiscate hundreds of thousands of acres of land
Severely restrict travel to jobs, hospitals and schools
Adversely affect 4 out of 10 Palestinians
The Israeli Supreme Court has ruled that the
West Bank is “in belligerent [Israeli]
occupation…subject to international law”
And the International Court of Justice at the
Hague has ruled that the path of the barrier
in the West Bank is illegal and must be torn
down and compensation paid to the
Palestinians adversely affected by it.
Sources: B’Tselem, Gush Shalom, Ha’aretz, International Court of Justice
Is It Too Late For Two States?
Some people argue it is too late by pointing to the fact that there are literally hundreds of Israeli
settlement compounds throughout the occupied Palestinian territories with more being built
every day. According to Condoleeza Rice, “Settlement expansion is not consistent with our
understanding under the road map.”
Question: Have you tried
visualizing the settlements
without the settlers?
Evacuating the settlements is a key
ingredient for a just and final peace
between Israelis and Palestinians.
The Central Conference of American Rabbis in a letter to President Bush stated,
“No peace can be established without…the dismantling of certain Israeli settlements.”
Sources: Brit Tzedek v’Shalom Jewish Alliance for Justice & Peace, Americans for Peace Now, CCAR 6/11/03
Final Goal – Peace in the Middle
The Future State
Ups and downs of Jewish power
King David +
Concern #2 Should we launch a
When the Eternal your God brings you to the land that you are
about to enter and possess, and God dislodges many nations before
You – the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites,
Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you – and the
Eternal your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you
must doom them to destruction; grant them no terms and give them
no quarter. Deuteronomy 7:1-2
Remember what Amalek did to you on your journey after you left
Egypt – how undeterred by fear of God, he surprised you on the
march, when you were famished and weary, and cut down all the
stragglers in your rear. Therefore when the Eternal God grants you
safety from all your enemies around you, in the land that the Eternal
your God is giving you as a hereditary portion, you shall blot out the
memory of Amalek from under heaven. Do not forget!
The king may lead forth the army to a voluntary war on the
decision of a court of seventy-one. He may force a way
through private property and none may oppose him. There is
no limitation to the king’s way. The plunder taken by the
people in war must be given to him and he receives the first
choice when it is divided. Talmud Sanhedrin 20b
When you are at war in your land against an aggressor who
attacks you, you shall sound short blasts on the trumpets, that
you may be remembered before the Eternal your God and be
delivered from your enemies. Numbers 10:9
Preventive or Preemptive War?
Rava said: Everyone agrees that the wars Joshua fought to
conquer the Land of Israel were obligatory. Everyone agrees
that the expansionist wars of King David had to be
discretionary. They argue about a strike against gentiles in
order to weaken them from a future attack. One party
considers it commanded [in self defense] and one requires it
be discretionary. Talmud Sotah 44b