Zionism 101


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  • Brought new ideas to Europe but also to the Middle East, as did the French Revolution of 1789.
  • Born 1769 died 1849 made Egypt more Western, which influenced Palestine as well – allowed modern Zionism a beginning
  • Forerunners of Zionism Zvi Hirsh Kalischer, 1843 3 principles salvation by natural means, colonization of Palestine, he revival of sacrifices Orthodox Rabbi
  • 1884 AutoEmancipationChovevei Zion Physician Odessa rejected Orthodoxy enlightened
  • Philanthropist along with Nathan Rothschild. First Aliyah supporter
  • Romanticized Zionism before there were Zionists 1876
  • 1894
  • Father of modern Hebrew
  • 1996 Jewish State
  • 1897
  • Degania, first Kibbutz, 1910
  • Arab revolts begin in 1920s
  • 2002 We are responsible in large part for contradictory promises.
  • November 1995
  • 38 Hagannah personnel set out on foot from Hartuv at 11 PM on January 15, commanded by Danny Mas. Three were sent back because of injuries. The fate of the remaining 35 was reconstructed from British and Arab reports.
  • First Samuel
  • Zionism 101

    1. 1. Judaism 101 Rabbi Edwin Goldberg Temple Sholom of Chicago Fall 2013
    2. 2. What We Believe About Israel Judaism 101
    3. 3. 29th of November
    4. 4. UN TODAY
    5. 5. Arab Response to Partition Plan
    6. 6. When Does a State Become a State?
    7. 7. Napoleon
    8. 8. Mahemet Ali
    9. 9. Moses Montefiore
    10. 10. Daniel Deronda
    11. 11. Alfred Dreyfus
    12. 12. Theodor Herzl
    13. 13. The State of the Jews
    14. 14. First Zionist Congress
    15. 15. Rabbi Judah Magnes
    16. 16. Balfour Declaration
    17. 17. British Mandate
    18. 18. Israel’s Early Borders
    19. 19. Sykes-Picot 1916
    20. 20. Sykes-Picot 1916
    21. 21. UK Foreign Secretary Jack Straw
    22. 22. White Paper 1939
    23. 23. David ben Gurion
    24. 24. Altalena
    25. 25. The Players Menachem Begin Yitzchak Rabin
    26. 26. The Suez Campaign : A test of might for the young nation of Israel.
    27. 27. Israel expands at Egyptian expense.
    28. 28. Map of war zone 1967 Syrian forces ready here The Sinai Desert. Main Egyptian forces dug in here. Jordanian forces ready here
    29. 29. Israel before and after the six-day war 1967.
    30. 30. Results • Israel had restored its image as an independent and strong nation. • Israel was now three times bigger than it had been in 1966. • The pan-Arab ideas of Nasser had taken a huge knock. • Israel now had the security risk of an extra 1 million Arab people inside its own borders. About 1/3 million Arabs fled to Jordan- where they were easy prey to PLO recruiters. • Israel was now easier to defend against outside aggression having wide deserts and mountains just inside its borders. • The status of the new territories was problematic. Should the residents get citizen status?Could you have an Israeli/Arab Palestinian? Did Israel really want all the land- especially that with inherent ownership problems (eg the Gaza Strip)? • Israel launched a huge settlement plan- to occupy the land won with people loyal to Israel.
    31. 31. Hostile Ground: Israel’s Wars Since 1948 Conflict Started Ended Duration Parties Involved/Area s of Fighting War of May 14, 1948 Independence January 7, 1949 239 days Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq Suez War October 29, 1956 November 6, 1956 9 days Egypt, Syria and Jordan Six-Day War June 5, 1967 June 10, 1967 6 days Egypt, Syria and Jordan Yom Kippur War Oct. 6, 1973 May 31, 1974 238 days Egypt and Syria First Lebanon War June 1982 June 1985 Approx. 1,000 days PLO, Syria and Lebanon
    32. 32. Sadat in Jerusalem
    33. 33. Oslo Peace Accords
    34. 34. Lebanon 1982….
    35. 35. Assassination of Yitzchak Rabin
    36. 36. Recognizing the Two Narratives The Palestinian Narrative: • • • • Fear of Dispossession / 20th Century Jewish Immigration Nakba of 1948 The 37-year Occupation (West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem) Spiritual connection to the Holy Land The Jewish Narrative: • • • • History of Jewish Persecution Holocaust Israel as Jewish ‘Safe Haven’ Spiritual connection to the Promised Land Page 49 of 41
    37. 37. Intifadas
    38. 38. Two Perspectives “I have spent a great deal of my life…advocating the rights of the Palestinian people to national self-determination, but I have always tried to do that with full attention paid to the reality of the Jewish people and what they suffered by way of persecution and genocide.” – the late Edward Said, leading Palestinian American intellectual, Professor of literature at Columbia University and well-known author “When Israelis ask me about the Palestinians, I tell them they live like us, they suffer like us, they laugh and cry like us. They are just like us, but they suffer more than us.” – the renowned Israeli immunologist, Dr. Zvi Bentwich, founder of Israels first and largest AIDS clinic and member of Physicians for Human Rights Page 51 of 41
    39. 39. Brief Historical Background The area known as Palestine was part of the Ottoman empire for 400 years until World Page War I, at which time Palestine fell under British control. In 1947, the U.N. proposed 52 of partitioning the area into two states. In 1967, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East 41 Jerusalem came under Israeli occupation..
    40. 40. The Composition of the Holy Land Source: 2003 CIA World Fact Book - Palestine data consists of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Page 53 of 41
    41. 41. Economic Comparative Analysis In the land between the Mediterranean sea and the Jordan river… Israel GDP Per Capita Annual Budget UN HDI Rank $117.4 Billion $19,500 $45.1 Billion 22 out of 177 Unemployment 1 out of 10 Palestine GDP Per Capita Annual Budget UN HDI Rank $2.4 Billion $700 $1.2 Billion 102 out of 177 Unemployment 1 out of 2 Growth rate -18% Growth rate -0.8% A Palestinian has to work for 28 years to earn what an Israeli does in one year Sources: United Nations 2004 Human Development Index (HDI), 2003 CIA World Fact Book. Page 54 of 41
    42. 42. Military Comparison Israel Main Battle Tanks Combat Aircraft Artillery 2001 Military Expenditures Official Active Forces – – – – – Palestine 3,950 438 1,542 $10.1 billion 167,600 0 0 0 $85 million 35,000 Israel continues to maintain tens of thousands of troops in the West Bank and Gaza – Israel invaded and occupied those areas in the 1967 war Source: Center for Strategic and International Studies Page “We can argue with the Palestinians about who’s to blame; but about who is suffering worse – there is no argument. They are a destitute nation living in an elaborate prison 55 of 41 under the guns of the Israeli army.” Jerusalem Post Editorial, March 3, 2004
    43. 43. The Conflict has taken 4,000 lives in 4 years From September 29, 2000 to January 5, 2005 Population Citizens Killed U.S. Equivalent Israel 6,116,533 949 45,048 Palestine 3,512,062 3,538 292,487 Sources: Middle East Policy Council, The Guardian Unlimited Page 57 of 41
    44. 44. How Do We Resolve the Conflict? The Formula for a Two State Solution: Israel and Palestine based on 1967 borders with a shared & open capital in Jerusalem and a just settlement to the refugee problem This will result in the following: I. A new state of Palestine, viable and independent, consisting of the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Arab East Jerusalem as its capital. II. A state of Israel, secure within its borders, fully recognized by all 22 Arab countries along with peace agreements with each Arab country resulting in normalization of relations and an official end to the Arab-Israeli conflict. Page 61 of 41
    45. 45. The Historic Arab Peace Initiative from the Arab League 2002 1. The full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied since 1967. 2. The achievement of a just solution to the Palestinian Refugee problem to be agreed upon in accordance with UN General Assembly Resolution 194. 3. The acceptance of the establishment of a Sovereign Independent Palestinian State on the Palestinian territories occupied since the 4th of June 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital. The Arab League would: A. Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended, and enter into a peace agreement with Israel, and provide security for all the states of the region. B. Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this comprehensive peace Source: The Beirut Declaration of the League of Arab States, 2002. Page The Arab League 63 of 41 This offer was repeated in March 2005
    46. 46. Joint Israeli & Palestinian Public Opinion 76% of Israelis and Palestinians favor a two-state solution The OneVoice poll of 23,000 Palestinians and 17,000 Israelis as reported in AP and Ha’aretz found that 76% on each side endorsed the two-state concept - a Palestinian state existing beside a Jewish state, "each recognizing the other as such, both democratic and respecting human rights, including minority rights." Sources: Associated Press and Ha’aretz, May 2004. Page 66 of 41
    47. 47. Additional Palestinian Public Opinion • 78% believe that the current Israeli measures, including the building of the separation barrier reduce the chances for the establishment of a Palestinian state. • 85% support a mutual cessation of violence. • 59% support taking measures by the Palestinian Authority to prevent attacks on Israelis if an agreement is reached on a mutual cessation of violence. • 86% of the Palestinians believe that they cannot count on Arab States to support them in regaining their rights. The 1993 Oslo Accord marked an historic turning point for Palestinians – they formally recognized, “the right of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security.” Furthermore, they reduced their claims to just 22% of the land of historic Palestine (West Bank, Gaza Strip & East Source: Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, October 2003. Oslo Accords, 1993. Jerusalem). Page 67 of 41
    48. 48. Israeli Support for Ending the Occupation n Photo: Ami Ayalon n 59% of the Jewish Israelis support a unilateral withdrawal of the army from most of the occupied territories and dismantling most of the settlements 1,371 Israeli soldiers now refuse to play a role in, “the continued oppression of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories.” n n Four former Israeli security service chiefs called on Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza Strip and dismantle most of Jewish settlements Ami Ayalon, ex-Shin Bet chief, “I favor unconditional withdrawal from the Territories – preferably in the context of agreement but not necessarily” “The Occupation of Palestinian territory is eroding Israel’s international standing. The U.S. is virtually our only friend, so we must remember that it, too, supports a Page withdrawal almost to the borders of 1967.” – Ehud Olmert Current Deputy PM of Israel71 of Sources: The Forward 8/20/04. DaHaf poll, May 6, 2002 by Peace Now. Refuseniks Watch. Yedioth Ahronoth, November 14, 2003 41
    49. 49. Current Challenges to a Two-State Solution I. The current path of the Israeli barrier in the West Bank II. The 200+ Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories III. Violence Against Civilians IV. Restarting the Peace Process Page 73 of 41
    50. 50. Challenge: The Path of the Israeli Barrier 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The barrier’s path has been projected to annex between 7% – 45% of Palestinian land. This will: Completely surround 100,000 people in 42 towns Reduce the available water supply by 1 billion gallons Confiscate hundreds of thousands of acres of land Severely restrict travel to jobs, hospitals and schools Adversely affect 4 out of 10 Palestinians The Israeli Supreme Court has ruled that the West Bank is “in belligerent [Israeli] occupation…subject to international law” And the International Court of Justice at the Hague has ruled that the path of the barrier in the West Bank is illegal and must be torn down and compensation paid to the Palestinians adversely affected by it. Sources: B’Tselem, Gush Shalom, Ha’aretz, International Court of Justice Page 74 of 41
    51. 51. Is It Too Late For Two States? Some people argue it is too late by pointing to the fact that there are literally hundreds of Israeli settlement compounds throughout the occupied Palestinian territories with more being built every day. According to Condoleeza Rice, “Settlement expansion is not consistent with our understanding under the road map.” Question: Have you tried visualizing the settlements without the settlers? Evacuating the settlements is a key ingredient for a just and final peace between Israelis and Palestinians. The Central Conference of American Rabbis in a letter to President Bush stated, “No peace can be established without…the dismantling of certain Israeli settlements.” Sources: Brit Tzedek v’Shalom Jewish Alliance for Justice & Peace, Americans for Peace Now, CCAR 6/11/03 Page 81 of 41
    52. 52. Final Goal – Peace in the Middle East The Future State of Palestine Page 87 of 41
    53. 53. Ups and downs of Jewish power King David + Babylonians - Maccabees + The Romans - 1948 +
    54. 54. Concern #2 Should we launch a preemptive strike?
    55. 55. How To React?
    56. 56. Case Study: The 35
    57. 57. Etzion Bloc
    58. 58. The Saving Private Ryan Dilemma
    59. 59. Jack Bauer
    60. 60. Saul and the Amalekites
    61. 61. Something to consider: •“Whoever becomes merciful on the cruel ends up becoming cruel to the merciful.” •Rabbi Yonah Gerondi (Spain, 13th Century)
    62. 62. Issue #2: Judaism and Preemptive War
    63. 63. Judaism and Preemptive War Three Types of War in the Bible: Obligatory Discretionary Commanded
    64. 64. Rabbi Edwin Goldberg: Swords and Plowshares
    65. 65. Obligatory War When the Eternal your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and God dislodges many nations before You – the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you – and the Eternal your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you must doom them to destruction; grant them no terms and give them no quarter. Deuteronomy 7:1-2 Remember what Amalek did to you on your journey after you left Egypt – how undeterred by fear of God, he surprised you on the march, when you were famished and weary, and cut down all the stragglers in your rear. Therefore when the Eternal God grants you safety from all your enemies around you, in the land that the Eternal your God is giving you as a hereditary portion, you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven. Do not forget! Deuteronomy 25:17-19
    66. 66. Discretionary War The king may lead forth the army to a voluntary war on the decision of a court of seventy-one. He may force a way through private property and none may oppose him. There is no limitation to the king’s way. The plunder taken by the people in war must be given to him and he receives the first choice when it is divided. Talmud Sanhedrin 20b
    67. 67. Commanded War When you are at war in your land against an aggressor who attacks you, you shall sound short blasts on the trumpets, that you may be remembered before the Eternal your God and be delivered from your enemies. Numbers 10:9
    68. 68. Preventive or Preemptive War? Rava said: Everyone agrees that the wars Joshua fought to conquer the Land of Israel were obligatory. Everyone agrees that the expansionist wars of King David had to be discretionary. They argue about a strike against gentiles in order to weaken them from a future attack. One party considers it commanded [in self defense] and one requires it be discretionary. Talmud Sotah 44b
    69. 69. What’s Next?
    70. 70. Chanukah and Maimonides
    71. 71. Which to Light?
    72. 72. The Most Important Thing
    73. 73. Further Study MYJEWISHLEARNING. COM Haaretz.com