History•The oldest human fossilfound in the Philippines isthe skull cap of a "Stone-Age Filipino", about 22,000years old.•Discovered by Dr. RobertB. Fox, Americananthropologist of theNational Museum, insideTabon Cave Palawan, on Tabon ManMay 28, 1962.
They cameThe Coming of the Negritos during the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) walking dry-shod through Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and the land bridges and were the first inhabitants .
The Indonesians•First Sea-Immigrants•They were themaritime Indonesians,who belonged to theMongoloid race withCaucasian affinities.• They belonged to theNew Stone Age(Neolithic).
The Malays *They belong to the Iron Age culture. *Daring and liberty- loving, the Malays belonged to the brown race. *Prominent contribution: * Ati-atihan festivals * Maragtas chronicle * the Code of Kalantiaw
The Malays•Maragtas chronicle -The Maragtas Chronicles of Panay is a history ofrulers of the island from the time of the Ten Malay Datus(rulers) that settled from Borneo.•The Code of Kalantiaw - The Code of Kalantiaw was a legendary legalcode in the epic story Maragtas. It is said to have been writtenin 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief on the island of Negros.
Mus ic»The ancient Filipinoshad music practically forall occasions, for everyphase of life, from birthto death.
SCULPTURE» The ancient Filipinos had attained a high artistic level through pottery, jewelry, and wood carving.
Potter yAmong our most ancient arts is pottery,which combines design and function. TheManunggul Jar excavated in Palawan isevidence of the high artistic level whichthe art attained in an ancient times. Thislarge burial jar has a cover which featurestow men rowing a boat, suggesting thebelief of the early Filipinos in an afterlifethat one reaches after crossing a mythicalbody of water. Around its body is anincised geometric pattern of lines and dots.Extant examples of early Philippinepottery show a wide variety of shapes anddecorative techniques, such an incision,stippling, openwork and impression byrope and mat. Their designs were usuallygeometric with stylized nature motifs.
Later, pottery became more and more functional, principal examplesof which are the palayok for cooking, the banga andthe tapayan for storing liquids. In the Ilocos, the makingof burnay pottery continues as a lively tradition. Palayok Banga & Tapayan Burnay
JewelrJewelry, another ancient art, beganas amulets and charms to ward offevil spirits or to give supernatural ypowers to the wearer. It was onlylater that is assumed a purelyornamental character.The T’boli wear some of the mostsplendid body ornaments in brass chainsand bells, strings and nets of multi-colored beads, and fine chains ofhorsehair forming neckpieces, earringsand rings, bracelets and anklets.
• Many parts of the country have lively woodcarving traditions. The Cordillera groups carve anito figures called bulol which double as ancestral spirits and granary gods. They are often found in pairs to signify the value of fertility. Human and animal motifs are also integrated into parts of houses such as door posts, as well as household objects such as bowls, forks and spoons.
In Southern Philippines, the Maranao and the Tausog of Mindanaoare known for their okir-a-datu, ornate curvilinear designs andmotifs applied to woodcarving. The principal okir designs arethe sarimanok, the naga and the pako rabong.• The sarimanok carved in wood, simply varnished or painted in many colors (it is also executed in brass), is the stylized design of a bird holding a fish in its beak or standing on a base in the shape of fish. While its meaning derives from epics and myths, it also alludes to Lake Lanao with its fertile waters.
• The naga has the form of an elaborate mythical serpent with a vigorous S- curve and numerous curvilinear motifs to suggest its scales.• The pako rabong is a stylized growing fern with a broad base gracefully tapering upwards.
BASKETRY• Other arts that use weaving techniques are basketry, as well as the making of hats and fans. The Cordilleras are rich in baskets for all purposes, reflecting occupational needs related to rice planting on the mountain terraces, hunting in the forests and fishing in the streams.
Their backpack or pasiking forinstance, is not only an exampleof good design but is alsostructured to support the humanframe. Aside from baskets andcontainers related to hunting andagricultural activities, there arealso many kinds of bamboo fishtraps with shapes and sizes tosuit the different species of fishfound in the rivers.
PAINTINGS» The ancient Filipinos had expressed paintings through tattoos and cave carvings.
TattoosThe pintados (paintedones), inhabitants ofthe Visayan islands asdescribed by the firstSpaniards to set eyesupon them, would usesharp metalinstrumentspreviously heated overfire.
Silup •The tattooing imitated the upper garment worn by the men of north Kalinga. • The women of south Kalinga painted their faces a bright red.
Petroglyphs•The AngonoPetroglyphs isthe oldest knownwork of art inthe Philippines.• There are 127human andanimal figuresengraved on therock wall datingback to 3000B.C.
WEAVING» Weaving also originatedin precolonial times and isone of our most preciousliving traditions.
The Cordillera groups of the North arewell-known for their art of weaving. Theblankets and articles of clothing thatthey produce by means of the backstraploom not only fulfill a practical functionbut also play a part in religion andritual. This tradition spills over into theadjacent Ilocos provinces which takepride in their sturdy abel weave.
In Mindanao, theT’boli of Cotabatoweave abaca clothcalled t’nalak ina difficult tie-dyeprocess. Thiscloth has a largerepertoire ofmotifs, such asthe g’mayaw bird, whose rhythmscreate the feelingof flapping wings;the frog whichsignifies fertility;and the dancingman which callsfor rain. Thesemotifs attest tothe T’boli’s deep-seated sense ofthe harmony ofman and nature.
Weaving techniques are also used in the exquisite mats with vivid colorsand intricate geometric designs woven by the women of Sulu, particularlyfrom the islands of Laminusa and Siasi. In the Visayas, Samar and Leyteare known for their colorful mats with bird and flower designs. The largemats meant for family use imply strong familial values.
Filipinos before the arrival of Spaniards had a syllabary which wasprobably of Sanskrit or Arabic provenance. Syllabary consisted ofseventeen symbols. Three were vowels and fourteen were consonants.They wrote on bark of trees, on leaves, bamboo tubes using theirknives and daggers, pointed sticks as their pens and their coloredsaps as ink.
References:http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/arts/visual-arts/pre-colonial-period.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_achievements_of_pre-colonial_Philippineshttp://www.philippine-history.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines_(90)Leader:Edward SibungaMembers:Jarrel Soliman Marc PalarcaAaron Mangaser Raphael SolisMateo Miranda Andrew FuentesEthan Muriel