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Towards Lightweight Cyber-Physical Energy Systems using Linked Data, the Web of Things, and Social Media
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Towards Lightweight Cyber-Physical Energy Systems using Linked Data, the Web of Things, and Social Media

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Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (CPES) exploit the potential of information technology to boost energy efficiency while minimising environmental impacts. CPES can help manage energy more efficiently by …

Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (CPES) exploit the potential of information technology to boost energy efficiency while minimising environmental impacts. CPES can help manage energy more efficiently by providing a functional view of the entire energy system so that energy activities can be understood, changed, and reinvented to better support sustainable practices. CPES can be applied at different scales from Smart Grids and Smart Cities to Smart Enterprises and Smart Buildings. Significant technical challenges exist in terms of information management, leveraging real-time sensor data, coordination of the various stakeholders to optimize energy usage.

In this talk I describe an approach to overcome these challenges by re-using the Web standards to quickly connect the required systems within a CPES. The resulting lightweight architecture leverages Web technologies including Linked Data, the Web of Things, and Social Media. The paper describes the fundamentals of the approach and demonstrates it within an Enterprise Energy Management scenario smart building.

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  • 1. Towards Lightweight Cyber-PhysicalEnergy Systems using Linked Data, theWeb of Things, and Social MediaEdward CurryLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UC Berkeley, April, 2013
  • 2. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgen  Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (CPES)¨ Smart Buildings (experiences with new & legacy)¨ Demand-Side Challengesn  The Evolving Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0…¨ Social Media¨ Linked Data¨ The Web of Thingsn  Lightweight CPES at DERI¨ Architecture Approach¨ Energy Management ApplicationsOverview
  • 3. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeThe Many Faces of CPESSmart  City  Smart  Grid  Smart  Building   Smart  Enterprise  
  • 4. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeNew Smart Building4  Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000      
  • 5. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeA Real-World Example5  Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday08:00-­‐09:0009:00-­‐10:00 237 237 200 23710:00-­‐11:00 237 237 237 20011:00-­‐12:00 237 180 180 145 23712:00-­‐13:00 237 200 237 200 14913:00-­‐14:00 14514:00-­‐15:00 221 237 145 14015:00-­‐16:00 221 120 160 14016:00-­‐17:00 149 250 16017:00-­‐18:00 200 160CO2  levels  ASHRAE    62.1-­‐2010  Occupancy  PaGern  AirCon  8:30-­‐11:00  &  15:00-­‐16:00  Mon  to  Fri      Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000      
  • 6. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeLegacy Buildingn  DERI Building¨  No BMS or BEMS¨  160 person Office space¨  Café¨  Data centre¨  3 Kitchens¨  80 person Conferenceroom¨  4 Meeting rooms¨  Computing museum¨  Sensor Lab6
  • 7. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEnergy Management System
  • 8. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeSensors8 of 26
  • 9. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEnergy Management Software
  • 10. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeHolis&c  Energy  Management          FaciliNes  Business  Travel  Data  Centre  Daily  Commute  Office  IT  Holistic Energy Consumption
  • 11. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeBusiness Context of EnergyConsumptionResourceAllocationEnergyFinanceAsset MgmtHumanResources
  • 12. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeExample KPI:Energy used byglobal IT departmentCIOExample KPI:PUE of theData Center in DublinHelpdeskExample KPI:kWhs used byserver 172.16.0.8Maintenance PersonnelBuildingData CenterCEOCSOOperational Analysis•  Technician needsequipment power usage•  Low-level monitoringSensors, eventsStrategic Analysis•  CIO needs high-levelbusiness function powerusage•  CSO real-time carbonemissionsTactical Analysis•  Manager needs energyusage of businessprocesses, business line orgroupMulti-Level Energy Analysis12 of XYZ
  • 13. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgen  Help users to:¨ Understand energy data¨ Support energy performance objectives &other business performance objectives– human resources (i.e. occupancy comfort)– enterprise resource planning (i.e. roomutilization)¨ Make appropriate energy saving decisionsEnergy Situational Awareness
  • 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeKey Challengesn  Technology and Data Interoperability¨  Data scattered among different systems¨  Multiple incompatible technologies make it difficult to usen  Interpreting Dynamic and Static Data¨  Sensors, ERP, BMS, assets databases, …¨  Need to proactively identify efficiency opportunitiesn  Empowering Actions and Including Users in the Loop¨  Understanding of direct and indirect impacts of activities¨  Embedding impacts within business processes¨  Engaging Users14
  • 15. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeUniversal Mechanism to Link Everything…¨ Simple¨ Lightweight¨ Decentralized¨ Loosely Coupled¨ Scalable¨ Standardized….sounds a lots like the WebWhat is Needed?
  • 16. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgen  Motivation: Access multiple document systems at CERNn  Key Enablers¨  Leveraged existing protocols (TCP/IP/DNS/…)¨  URI: Global Document Identification¨  HTTP: Global Document Access¨  HTML: Standard Format for Documents–  But also supported many formats PDF, DOC, GIF, JPG, etc.¨  Encouraged Interlinking: Hyperlinks between documentsExposing and Linking…..…..but NOT replacing existing systemsWeb 1.0 Document Sharing
  • 17. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeThe Evolving Web 2.0, 3.0, …Linked  Data   Web  of  Things  Social  Media  
  • 18. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledge(Real-time) Social Median  User-centric platforms forinteractionn  Real-time User Interaction¨  Twitter, etc.n  Citizen Sensing¨  Users reporting issues andproblemsn  Citizen Actuation¨  Users enacting changes in theenvironment
  • 19. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeLinked Open Data CloudOver 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts,interlinked by 500 million typed links.http://lod-cloud.net/Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.MediaGovernmentGeoPublicationsUser-generatedLife sciencesCross-domainUS governmentUK governmentBBCNew York TimesLinkedGeoData19BestBuyOverstock.comFacebook
  • 20. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledge20 of 46Two Key Ingredients1.  RDF – Resource Description FrameworkGraph based Data – nodes and arcs¨  Identifies objects (URIs)¨  Interlink information (Relationships)2.  Vocabularies (Ontologies)¨  provide shared understanding of a domain¨  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way¨  give an exploitable meaning to the data
  • 21. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeWhy Graphs and Ontologies?Cities:Dublin84421km2Geo:IslandOfIrelandEU:RepublicOfIrelandGeo:locatedOnGeo:areaGeo:hasCapitalGeo:hasLargestCityWikipedia.orgGov.ieEU:RepublicOfIrelandPerson:EndaKennyGov:hasTaoiseachGov:hasDepartmentIE:DepartmentOfFinance
  • 22. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeLinked Data Principles1.  Use URIs to identify the “things” in your data2.  Use HTTP URIs so people (and machines) canlook them up on the Web3.  When a URI is looked up, return adescription of the thing in a structuredformat (RDF)4.  Include links to related things to providecontexthttp://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • 23. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeLinked Data ExampleResource Description Framework (RDF)subject - predicate – objectEdward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202eEdward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e23http://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry/http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/deri-rooms#r202ehttp://vocab.deri.ie/rooms#occupant
  • 24. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeWeb of ThingsImage Credit: http://laurent.assouad.com/2012/www2012-the-web-of-things/
  • 25. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeConstraint Application Protocol252525
  • 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeCould we deliver a lightweight Cyber-Physical EnergySystem for the DERI Building using these technologies?DERI Use Case
  • 27. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledge27    BuildingData CenterOffice ITLogisticsCorporateOrganisation-levelBusiness Process Personal-levelLinked  dataspace  for  Energy  Intelligence  Linked dataspace for EnergyIntelligence
  • 28. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeLinked dataspace for EnergyIntelligenceApplicationsEnergy AnalysisModelComplex EventsSituation AwarenessAppsEnergy andSustainability DashboardsDecision SupportSystemsLinkedDataSupportServicesEntityManagementServiceDataCatalogComplex EventProcessingEngineProvenance Search &QuerySourcesAdapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Adaptern  Interlinked Cloud of EnergyDatan  Resource DescriptionFramework (RDF)n  Semantic Sensor NetworkOntology (SSN)n  CoAP = Constrained ApplicationProtocoln  Semantic Event Processingn  Natural Language Interfacen  Collaborative Data Mgmt.n  Energy Saving Applicationsn  Energy Awareness
  • 29. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeCorporate SystemBuilding Management SystemOffice IT SystemMerging Entity Graphsfoaf:name   en:memberOf  “Edward Curry” “DGSIT”h:p://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry#me   Office ITBuildingCorporateen:has_a  en:consumption  foaf:name  10kWh“MacBook Pro”h:p://energy.deri.ie#macbook15698  h:p://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry#me  en:consumption  foaf:name  rm:occupant  50kWh“202e”h:p://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/deri-­‐rooms#r202e  h:p://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry#me  owl:sameAs owl:sameAs
  • 30. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEnterprise EnergyObservatorySmart Buildings Green CloudComputingOffice IT Energy Mgmt. Personal Energy Mgmt.Energy Saving Applications
  • 31. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeBuilding Energy Explorer31 of 261.  Data fromEnterpriseLinked DataCloud2.  Sensor Data3.  BuildingEnergySituationAwareness
  • 32. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEnergy Analysis by Group
  • 33. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeiEnergy – Personal
  • 34. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeStep 1: Detect patterns of high or unusual energyusage¨  Light turned on in rooms at night¨  High energy use in meeting rooms without bookingStep 2: Tweet building occupants to check situationand take action¨  Turn off lights, heat, devices, etc.Energy Action Management withSocial Media
  • 35. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEnergy Action Management withSocial Media23.86%EnergySavings
  • 36. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgen  Emerging Web trends (linked data, web of thingsand social media) may provide the foundations fora lightweight approach to Cyber-Physical EnergySystemn  Research Challenges¨  Investigating approach to complement existing CPES¨  Applicability on critical infrastructure¨  Human Task Management for Energy Action¨  Privacy!!!¨  …Summary & Future Directions
  • 37. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeEdward is a research scientist at the Digital Enterprise ResearchInstitute. His areas of research include green IT/IS, energy informatics,linked data, integrated reporting, and cloud computing.He has worked extensively with industry and government advising onthe adoption patterns, practicalities and benefits of new technologies.He has published in leading journals and books, and has spoken atinternational conferences including the MIT CIO Symposium.About the PresenterURL: www.edwardcurry.orgEmail: edcurry@acm.orgTwitter: @EdwardACurrySlides: slideshare.net/edwardcurry
  • 38. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeSelected ReferencesSustainability Use Casesn  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green InformationSystems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011).n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In,Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sonsn  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and CloudComputing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-EfficientData Centers, 2012.n  Curry, E. et al, Building Optimisation using Scenario Modeling and LinkedData, in 1st Workshop Linked Data in Architecture and Construction 2012n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace forEnergy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internetand ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012.n  O’Donnell, J., Corry, E., Hasan, S., Keane, M., and Curry, E. 2013. “BuildingPerformance Optimization Using Cross-Domain Scenario Modeling, LinkedData, and Complex Event Processing,” Building and Environment (62), pp.102–111.
  • 39. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeSelected ReferencesInformation Managementn  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the SemanticSensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked DataEnrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networksn  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events,in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systemsn  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using aLinked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System ofSystems Engineering (SOSE 2012).IT Managementn  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons FromIntel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012.n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for SustainableInformation and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1).n  Curry E, et al, (2012) Sustainable IT: Challenges, Postures, and Outcomes,IEEE Computer 15(11)
  • 40. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling networked knowledgeCreditsPartnersn  Collaborators¨  Souleiman Hasan (DERI)¨  Sean O’Riain (DERI)¨  Umair ul Hassan (DERI)¨  David Crowley (DERI)¨  John Breslin (DERI)¨  James O’Donnell (LBNL)¨  Edward Corry (IRUSE)¨  Marcus Keane (IRUSE)

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