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System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace


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System of Systems pose significant technical challenges in terms of information interoperability that require overcoming conceptual barriers (both syntax and semantic) and technological barriers. This …

System of Systems pose significant technical challenges in terms of information interoperability that require overcoming conceptual barriers (both syntax and semantic) and technological barriers. This paper presents an approach to System of Systems information interoperability based on the Dataspace data management abstraction and the Linked Data approach to sharing information on the web. The paper describes the fundamentals of the approach and demonstrates the concept with a System of Systems for enterprise energy management.

Curry E. System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace. In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012)

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  • 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace Edward Curry ( IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012)© Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rightsreserved. Digital Enterprise Research Institute National University of Ireland, Galway Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 2. Further ReadingDigital Enterprise Research Institute Curry E. System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace. In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012). 2012. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 3. OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Introduction to DERI n  Use Cases ¨  Smart Enterprise Energy Management ¨  Smart Cities n  SoS Interoperability Challenges n  Technology Overview ¨  Dataspace ¨  Linked Data n  Linked Dataspace for SOS Interoperability n  Related Work Enabling Networked Knowledge 3
  • 4. About DERIDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Founded June 2003 as a CSET (Centre for Science, Engineering and Technology). ¨  Link scientists and engineers / academia and industry ¨  Fundamental research ¨  Development of Irish-based technology companies ¨  Attract industry ¨  Education & outreach n  DERI Institute ¨  CSET ¨  Commercialization, DAI ¨  EU, EI, direct industry, IRCSET n  DERI strategic plan responds to priorities ¨  Local: University focus on Informatics, Physical & Computational Sciences ¨  National: SMART Economy, Program for Government ¨  International: EU Digital Agenda Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 5. About DERIDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Number one in our core space ¨  Research Publications > 1000 ¨  Participation in 17 standardisation groups (W3C, OASIS) ¨  Approx. 140 members from 30 nations ¨  57 PhDs /Masters ¨  42 completed PhDs/Masters n  Core Industrial Partners: ¨  MNC’s: Cisco, Avaya, Bel-Labs, Ericsson… ¨  SME’s: Storm, Celtrak, OpenLink…… ¨  Research: FBK n  Total Research Grants: > €60 million ¨  SFI, EU Framework, Enterprise Ireland, Industry ¨  Currently 18 EU project running ¨  Industry funded projects with Fujitsu Labs Japan, Cisco, Google, Renault, EADS, Fidelity,… Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 6. Key Industry CollaborationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute CSET  Partners   Enabling Networked Knowledge6
  • 7. The DERI HouseDigital Enterprise Research Institute DERI Applied Research Commercialisation eBusiness Green & eLearning Financial Services Sustainable IT Data Health Care Cyber eGovernment Life Sciences Security Linked Cloud Analy Data tics Information Security, Cloud Data Sensor Social Software Mining Privacy Management Middleware and Retrieval & Trust Data Natural Service Reasoning and Knowledge Visualisation Language Oriented Querying Discovery and Interaction Processing Architecture DERI is designed to provide an integrated solution Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 8. Enterprise Energy ManagementDigital Enterprise Research Institute How should an Enterprise Manage its Energy? Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 9. Holistic View of ConsumptionDigital Enterprise Research Institute Facilies   Data  Centre   Business  Travel     Office  IT   Daily  Commute     Holis1c   Energy   Management   Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 10. Cross-Domain PerspectiveDigital Enterprise Research Institute ENERGY FINANCE ERP CARBON BMS Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 11. Multi-Level AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute CIO Strategic Analysis CEO Example KPI: •  CIO needs high-level Energy used by business function power global IT department usage •  CSO real-time carbon Helpdesk emissions CSO Example KPI: PUE of the Operational Analysis Data Center in Dublin •  Technician needs equipment power usage Maintenance Personnel •  Events driven business Example KPI: processes kWhs used by server Real-time Environment •  Event cloud of primitive observations Building •  Low-level monitoring Sensors, events Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 11 of XYZ
  • 12. What is a Smart City?Digital Enterprise Research Institute n  Invests in ¨  human and social capital ¨  traditional/modern infrastructure n  that ¨  fuels sustainable economic development ¨  and high quality of life n  while ¨  managing natural resources n  through ¨  participatory governance Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 13. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieA Smart City driver of change will be Data. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute bstr acts aA Smart City removes silos movingtowards a connected digital layer. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 15. Silos’ Value Untapped ValueDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 16. Digital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 17. InteroperabilityDigital Enterprise Research Institute ! D. Chen, et al. “Architectures for enterprise integration and interoperability: Past, present and future,” Computers in Industry 59(7) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 18. BarriersDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ien  Conceptual barriers ¨  Syntactic differences (format) ¨  Semantic (interpretation of meaning)n  Technological barriers ¨  Incompatibility of protocols, encoding, platforms, infrastructures, etc.n  Organizational barriers ¨  Incompatibility of definitions of responsibility, authority, and organizational structures Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 19. Integration ApproachesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ien  Integrated approaches ¨  Common format for all models existsn  Unified approaches ¨  Uppermodel exists to facilitate mapping between modelsn  Federated approaches ¨  No common format exists but rather is done on the fly Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 20. Types of SoS (Maier ‘98)Digital Enterprise Research Institute n  Directed SoS ¨  Centrally managed, specific purpose, components operate independently but subordinate to SoS n  Acknowledged SoS ¨  Defined objectives, dedicated resources, components independent, SOS based on collaboration n  Collaborative SoS ¨  Component interact voluntarily, agreed central purpose, collectively enforce and maintain standards n  Virtual SoS ¨  No central management authority, no agreed upon purpose, SOS based on invisible mechanisms Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 21. SoS Interoperability ChallengesDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  SoS types have varying interoperability requirements n  Directed SoS ¨  Integrated or Unified approach (i.e. Many-to-One) n  Virtual SoS ¨  Federated approach (i.e. Many-to-Many) –  Constitute system may not be aware of SoS n  Current system design mind-set views interoperability as an external responsibility ¨  Outsources interoperability to external systems Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 22. Open SoS Information Interoperability ApproachDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  To support flexible and dynamic SoS ¨  (i.e. Virtual SoS) n  A common SoS information interoperability infrastructure is needed ¨  Open Standards-based ¨  Lightweight approach ¨  Minimize complexity, hierarchy, control, and acquisition cost ¨  Minimize re-engineered as systems are added, removed, modified, or replaced Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 23. Proposed ApproachDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Leverage two key trends in information management ¨  Dataspace approach to information management ¨  Linked data approach to sharing information on the web –  W3C Standards based n  Information Interoperability ¨  Overcome technical and conceptual barriers ¨  Supports overcoming organizational barriers ! Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 24. What is a Dataspace?Digital Enterprise Research Institute n  Emerging data management architecture n  Recognizes expense obtaining upfront unifying schema across all sources ¨  Co-existence of data without unifying schema ¨  Loosely integrated set of data sources n  Data integrated on “as needed” basis ¨  Tighter integration achieved in an incremental "pay-as-you-go" fashion Franklin, A. Halevy, and D. Maier From databases to dataspaces: a new abstraction for information management,” Sigmod Record, 34(4) 2005. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 25. DBMS vs DataspaceDigital Enterprise Research Institute DBMS Dataspace Model Relational All Formats Homogenous Heterogeneous Control Complete Partial Query Precise Approximate Integration Explicit Implicit/ Incremental Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 26. What is Linked Data?Digital Enterprise Research Institute 26 Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 27. The Linked Open Data cloudDigital Enterprise Research Institute 2008 2007 2008 2010 2009 2008 2009 2008 Enabling Networked Knowledge 27 27
  • 28. Linked Open Data cloud - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute BestBuy Facebook US government UK government Media User-generated Government Publications BBC New York Times Cross-domain Geo Life sciences LinkedGeoData Over 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts, interlinked by 500 million typed links. Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Enabling Networked Knowledge 28
  • 29. Two Key IngredientsDigital Enterprise Research Institute 1.  RDF – Resource Description Framework Graph based Data – nodes and arcs ¨  Identifies objects (URIs) ¨  Interlink information (Relationships) 2.  Vocabularies (Ontologies) ¨  provide shared understanding of a domain ¨  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way ¨  give an exploitable meaning to the data Enabling Networked Knowledge 29 of 46
  • 30. Why Graphs and Ontologies?Digital Enterprise Research Institute Cities:Dublin Geo:hasLargestCity 84421km2 Geo:IslandOfIreland Geo:hasCapital Geo:area Geo:locatedOn EU:RepublicOfIreland EU:RepublicOfIreland Gov:hasDepartment Gov:hasTaoiseach Person:EndaKenny IE:DepartmentOfFinance Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 31. Linked Data PrinciplesDigital Enterprise Research Institute 1.  Use URIs to identify the “things” in your data 2.  Use HTTP URIs so people (and machines) can look them up on the Web 3.  When a URI is looked up, return a description of the thing in a structured format (RDF) 4.  Include links to related things to provide context Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 32. Linked Data ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute Resource Description Framework (RDF) subject - predicate – object Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e Enabling Networked Knowledge 32
  • 33. Dereferenceable URIDigital Enterprise Research Institute @prefix rdf: <> . @prefix rdfs: <> . @prefix owl: <> . @prefix rooms: <> . @prefix foaf: <> . @prefix deri-energy-ont: <> . @prefix deri-energy: <> . @prefix ssn: <> . @prefix deri-rooms: <> . deri-rooms:building rdf:type rooms:Building; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor. deri-rooms:1st-floor rdf:type rooms:Floor; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing. deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing rdf:type rooms:Wing; rooms:contains deri-rooms:r202e. deri-rooms:r202e rdf:type rooms:Desk; rooms:occupant <>. <> rdf:type foaf:Person; deri-energy-ont:has_a deri-energy:macbook15698; deri-energy:macbook15698 rdf:type deri-energy-ont:Laptop; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:sensor123 rdf:type ssn:Sensor; ssn:observes deri-energy-ont:PowerConsumption. deri-energy:observation1236 rdf:type ssn:Observation; ssn:observationResult deri-energy:observationResult1236; ssn:featureOfInterest deri-energy:macbook15698; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:observationResult1236 rdf:type ssn:SensorOutput; ssn:hasValue deri-energy:vale1236. deri-energy:vale1236 deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityValue 31.5; deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityUnitOfMeasurement deri-energy-ont:kWh. Enabling Networked Knowledge 33
  • 34. Linked DataspaceDigital Enterprise Research Institute Dataspace + Linked Data = Linked Dataspace How can a Linked Dataspace help with SoS information interoperability? Enabling Networked Knowledge 34
  • 35. Linked Dataspace for SoSDigital Enterprise Research Institute System  of   Systems   SoS  (A+B)   SoS  (A  +  B  +  C)   SoS  (A  +  B  +  C  +  D)   SPARQL   RDF  API,  SPARQL   HTTP  REST,  RDF  API,  SPARQL   Linked  Dataspace   Support  Services   -­‐  Search  &  Query   -­‐  Enty  Mgmt.   -­‐  Data  Catalog   -­‐  Provenance   -­‐  Event  Processing   Single   HTTP/RDF   HTTP/RDF   HTTP/RDF   HTTP/RDF   Systems   LD  Wrapper   LD  Wrapper   LD  Wrapper   LD  Wrapper   System  A   System  B   System  C   System  D   Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 36. Entity Graph in CloudDigital Enterprise Research Institute Linked Dataspace Corporate System “Edward Curry” “DGSIT” Corporate foaf:name   en:memberOf   Building h>p:// member/edward_curry#me   Office IT owl:sameAs owl:sameAs h>p:// h>p:// member/edward_curry#me   member/edward_curry#me   rm:occupant   en:has_a   h>p:// h>p://   2010/deri-­‐rooms#r202e   foaf:name   en:consumption   foaf:name   en:consumption   “MacBook Pro” 10kWh “202e” 50kWh Office IT System Building Management System Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 37. Linked DataspacesDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Complimentary technology for data sharing ¨  Minimal disruption to existing infrastructure ¨  Maintains loose coupling between systems n  Pay-as-you-go data integration ¨  Incremental enrichment of entity profiles (i.e. SameAs) ¨  Links relevant knowledge and contextual information from across all systems Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 38. DERI Energy ObservatoryDigital Enterprise Research Institute Organisation-level Business Process Personal-level Linked  dataspace  for   Energy  Intelligence   Office IT Corporate Building Logistics Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 38    
  • 39. DERI Energy OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 40. Other Use CasesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Utilised within a range of energy management use cases, some non-SoS Smart Buildings IT Energy Mgmt. Cloud Computing/ (DERI-Internal) Data Centre Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 41. Related SoS WorkDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Two large-scale SoS with different architectures n  Global Information Grid (GIG) ¨  Globally interconnected, end-to-end set of capabilities for collecting, processing, and managing information ¨  “many-to-one” interoperability approach ¨  Net-Centric Adapter for Legacy Systems (NCALS) n  Global Earth Observation System of Systems ¨  Global public infrastructure with comprehensive environmental data, information, and analyses ¨  GEOPortal disseminates information ¨  EuroGEOSS investigating RDF for semantic interoperability Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 42. SummaryDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  SoS information interoperability using: ¨  Dataspace approach to information management ¨  Linked data approach to sharing information on the web n  Linked Dataspace ¨  Supports co-existence of heterogeneous data with incremental approach to interoperability ¨  Particularly suited where the web architecture is already a part of the SoS n  Future work ¨  Investigate appropriate support services for linked dataspaces using approximation techniques ¨  Interoperability of system services as RESTful services. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 43. Selected ReferencesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Sustainability Use Cases n  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green Information Systems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011). n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In, Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons n  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers, 2012. n  Curry, E. et al, Building Optimisation using Scenario Modeling and Linked Data, in 1st Workshop Linked Data in Architecture and Construction 2012 n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 44. Selected ReferencesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Information Management n  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the Semantic Sensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked Data Enrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks n  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events, in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems n  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012). IT Management n  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012. n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for Sustainable Information and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1). n  Curry E, et al, (2012) A Maturity Model For Energy Efficiency in Mature Data Centres, 1st International Conference on Smart Grids and Green IT Systems Enabling Networked Knowledge