Linked Building (Energy) Data

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Within the operational phase buildings are now producing more data than ever before, from energy usage, utility information, occupancy patterns, weather data, etc. In order to manage a building holistically it is important to use knowledge from across these information sources. However, many barriers exist to their interoperability and there is little interaction between these islands of information. As part of moving building data to the cloud there is a critical need to reflect on the design of cloud-based data services and how they are designed from an interoperability perspective. If new cloud data services are designed in the same manner as traditional building management systems they will suffer from the data interoperability problems. Linked data technology leverages the existing open protocols and W3C standards of the Web architecture for sharing structured data on the web. In this paper we propose the use of linked data as an enabling technology for cloud-based building data services. The objective of linking building data in the cloud is to create an integrated well-connected graph of relevant information for managing a building. This paper describes the fundamentals of the approach and demonstrates the concept within a Small Medium sized Enterprise (SME) with an owner-occupied office building.

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Linked Building (Energy) Data

  1. 1. Linked  Building  (Energy)  Data   Edward  Curry,  Souleiman  Hasan    
  2. 2. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Motivation n  Bulding Information scattered among many systems ¨  Energy usage - (BEMS, Sensors) ¨  Maintenance and operations - (BMS, BIM, Simulation) ¨  Financial Performance - (Accounting IS) ¨  Occupant Comfort – (HR IS, Social Networks) ¨  Resource Utilisation – (MIS, ERP) ¨  Carbon Emissions – (CMS) ¨  External Data, IFC, ¨  Environmental Legislation n  Each systems describes an individual domain/concern in detail n  Legacy Systems, Real-time sensor data 2
  3. 3. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Motivation n  However, effecitlvey managing a building requires a holsitc view of operations across all systems ¨  New insights are achieved when you linking between domains n  The context of the building lives in the joins between these domains: ¨  Energy linked to resource utilization ¨  Resource utilization linked to business objectives ¨  Business objectives linked to carbon emmissions
  4. 4. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Lots of Building Data…. ERP ENERGY BMS FINANCE CARBON
  5. 5. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Key Challenges n  Technology and Data Interoperability ¨  Crosscuts engineering domains and business functions (Facilities, accountancy, IT, HR, Environmental) –  Data scattered among different information systems –  Multiple incompatible technologies make it difficult to use –  Dynamic data, sensors, ERP, BMS, assets databases, … ¨  Data Silos: Cost to bring this data together is significant n  Information Granularity & Overload ¨  Multiple stakeholder information requirements ¨  Multi-level information problem (Micro- to Macro-level) –  Low-level operations, to high-level organisational KPIs –  Room-level optimistions vs. Building-level, vs. Coporate-level 5
  6. 6. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Key Challenges n  Interpreting data ¨ Need to proactively identify efficiency opportunities n  Empowering Actions ¨ Understanding of direct and indirect impacts of activities ¨ Embedding impacts within buildings and organizations business processes 6
  7. 7. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge A Web-based Approach n  Leverage the architecture of the Web to make sharing building data easier n  Linked Data is a method of exposing, sharing, and connecting data (via dereferenceable URIs) on the Web. ¨ Provides a Data (RDF) and Naming (URI) model for the Web ¨ W3C Web-based Standards ¨ Adaptive Ontologies ¨ Incremental Approach
  8. 8. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Open Data cloud - domains Over 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts, interlinked by 500 million typed links. http://lod-cloud.net/ Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Media Government Geo Publications User-generated Life sciences Cross-domain US government UK government BBC New York Times LinkedGeoData 8 BestBuy Overstock.com Facebook
  9. 9. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Open Data cloud stats triples distribution links distribution http://lod-cloud.net/state/
  10. 10. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 10 of 46 Two Key Ingredients 1.  RDF – Resource Description Framework Graph based Data – nodes and arcs ¨  Identifies objects (URIs) ¨  Interlink information (Relationships) 2.  Vocabularies (Ontologies) ¨  provide shared understanding of a domain ¨  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way ¨  give an exploitable meaning to the data
  11. 11. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Data Principles n  Best practices for sharing data on the web ¨  1) Use URIs as names for things –  Buildings, floors, rooms, devices, people, sensors, equipment ¨  2) Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names –  Simple mechanism to access the data (dereferencability) ¨  3) When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using open standards (RDF, CSV, XML) –  Room: location, dimensions, features, etc ¨  4) Include links to other URIs, so they can discover related information –  Occupant, contains (desk, sensor, equipment,…), rentCost, etc (Tim Berners-Lee, 2006) 11
  12. 12. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Building Data n  Linked Building Data ¨  Improves Discoverability ¨  Improves Accessibility ¨  Improves Shareability n  Linking building data builds context between systems ¨  Relevant information can linked together to build holistic views of the building ¨  Broader context can be used in decision making n  Maintains loose coupling between systems ¨  Allows domain systems to focus on their expertise ¨  Allows systems to develop independently 12
  13. 13. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Building Data Resource Description Framework (RDF) subject - predicate – object Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e 13 http://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry/ http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/deri-rooms#r202e http://vocab.deri.ie/rooms#occupant
  14. 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Case Study: DERI Building n  DERI Building ¨  No BMS or BEMS ¨  160 person Office space ¨  Café ¨  Data centre ¨  3 Kitchens ¨  80 person Conference room ¨  4 Meeting rooms ¨  Computing museum ¨  Sensor Lab 14
  15. 15. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Case Study: DERI Building 15 of 26
  16. 16. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Case Study: DERI Building n  System of Systems Approach ¨ Linking of 14 existing operational legacy sources ¨ Together with 30+ power real-time power sensors n  Energy Situational Awareness ¨ Semantic Energy Management ¨ Semantic Complex Event Processing 16
  17. 17. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Vocabulary 17 RoomDesk Person occupant contains Building Floor contains contains n  Buildings and Rooms ¨  Simple vocabulary for describing the rooms in a building ¨  http://vocab.deri.ie/rooms n  Queries ¨  How many floors are in the Building? ¨  How many desk on are the first floor? ¨  Who is the occupant of room 202e? ¨  Where does Edward Curry sit?
  18. 18. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Vocabulary 18 n  People, Groups and Devices ¨  FOAF: Simple vocabulary for describing peoples and groups. ¨  DERI Energy: Devices and Laptops n  Queries ¨  Who are the members of the Green IT group? ¨  What laptop does Edward have? ¨  What laptops are used by the Green IT group?? ¨  Who is using a MacBook Pro? Person Laptop has_a Group memberOf
  19. 19. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Vocabulary 19 n  Energy Sensor Network ¨  Semantic Senor Network vocab for describing sensors and observations ¨  http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn n  Queries ¨  What is the energy consumption of a laptop? ¨  What is the energy consumption of the lights in room 202e? ¨  What is the total energy consumption of room 202e?
  20. 20. ssn:Sensor rm:Room en:hasLocation en:Laptop en:Heater en:Light en:Socket ssn:observes en:Power Consumption ssn:observedBy foaf:Person en:Laptop en:has_a foar:Group foaf:memberOf rm:Roomrm:Desk foaf:Person rm:occupant rm:contains rm:Building rm:Floor rm:contains rm:contains owl:sameAs owl:sameAs owl:sameAs
  21. 21. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Building Data 21 RoomDesk Person occupant contains Laptop has_a Heater Light Socket hasLocation Sensor observes Power Consumption observedBy Building Floor contains contains Group memberOf
  22. 22. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Querying Linked Building Data 22 n  Queries over merged graph ¨  What is the total energy consumption of rooms on the first floor? ¨  What is Edward’s total energy consumption? (laptop, lights, heats, etc) ¨  What is the energy consumption of the laptops for the Green IT group? ¨  What is the total consumption of members of the green IT units on the first floor?
  23. 23. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Dereferenced URI 23 @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . @prefix rooms: <http://vocab.deri.ie/rooms#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1#> . @prefix deri-energy-ont: <http://energy.deri.ie/ontology#> . @prefix deri-energy: <http://energy.deri.ie#> . @prefix ssn: <http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn> . @prefix deri-rooms: <http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/deri-rooms#> . deri-rooms:building rdf:type rooms:Building; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor. deri-rooms:1st-floor rdf:type rooms:Floor; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing. deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing rdf:type rooms:Wing; rooms:contains deri-rooms:r202e. deri-rooms:r202e rdf:type rooms:Desk; rooms:occupant <http://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry#me>. <http://www.deri.ie/about/team/member/edward_curry#me> rdf:type foaf:Person; deri-energy-ont:has_a deri-energy:macbook15698; deri-energy:macbook15698 rdf:type deri-energy-ont:Laptop; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:sensor123 rdf:type ssn:Sensor; ssn:observes deri-energy-ont:PowerConsumption. deri-energy:observation1236 rdf:type ssn:Observation; ssn:observationResult deri-energy:observationResult1236; ssn:featureOfInterest deri-energy:macbook15698; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:observationResult1236 rdf:type ssn:SensorOutput; ssn:hasValue deri-energy:vale1236. deri-energy:vale1236 deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityValue 31.5; deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityUnitOfMeasurement deri-energy-ont:kWh.
  24. 24. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Case Study: DERI Building 24 of 26 1.  Reference data from the enterprise linked data cloud 2.  Instant measures by the sensors 3.  Situation awareness is used to detect high usage situations
  25. 25. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence Applications Energy Analysis Model Complex Events Situation Awareness Apps Energy and Sustainability Dashboards Decision Support Systems LinkedData Support Services Entity Management Service Data Catalog Complex Event Processing Engine Provenance Search & Query Sources Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter n  Interlinked Cloud of Energy Data n  Resource Description Framework (RDF) n  Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN) n  CoAP = Constrained Application Protocol n  Semantic Event Processing n  Natural Language Interface n  Collaborative Data Mgmt. n  Energy Saving Applications n  Energy Awareness
  26. 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked building data can create an integrated well-connected graph of information for managing a building Summary
  27. 27. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Edward is a research scientist at the Digital Enterprise Research Institute. His areas of research include green IT/IS, energy informatics, linked data, integrated reporting, and cloud computing. He has worked extensively with industry and government advising on the adoption patterns, practicalities and benefits of new technologies. He has published in leading journals and books, and has spoken at international conferences including the MIT CIO Symposium. About the Presenter URL: www.edwardcurry.org Email: edcurry@acm.org Twitter: @EdwardACurry Slides: slideshare.net/edwardcurry
  28. 28. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Further Reading Curry, E., O’Donnell, J., Corry, E., Hasan, S., Keane, M., and O’Riain, S. 2013. “Linking building data in the cloud: Integrating cross-domain building data using linked data,” Advanced Engineering Informatics (27:2), pp. 206–219. http://www.edwardcurry.org/publications/Curry_AEI_2013.pdf
  29. 29. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Selected References Sustainability Use Cases n  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green Information Systems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011). n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In, Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons n  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers, 2012. n  Curry, E. et al, Linking building data in the cloud: Integrating cross-domain building data using linked data, Advanced Engineering Informatics (27:2), pp. 206–219. 2013 n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012. n  O’Donnell, J. et al, Building Performance Optimization Using Cross-Domain Scenario Modeling, Linked Data, and Complex Event Processing, Building and Environment (62), pp. 102–111, 2013.
  30. 30. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Selected References Information Management n  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the Semantic Sensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked Data Enrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks n  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events, in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems n  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012). IT Management n  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012. n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for Sustainable Information and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1). n  Curry E, et al, (2012) Sustainable IT: Challenges, Postures, and Outcomes, IEEE Computer 15(11)

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