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Policy Processes In The European Union The Case Of Environmental Governance
 

Policy Processes In The European Union The Case Of Environmental Governance

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This is a 15 hour lecture series on European Union policies and institutions, delivered at Abo Akademi University in April 2010. My students were drawn from all over Europe and were predominantly post ...

This is a 15 hour lecture series on European Union policies and institutions, delivered at Abo Akademi University in April 2010. My students were drawn from all over Europe and were predominantly post graduates.

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    Policy Processes In The European Union The Case Of Environmental Governance Policy Processes In The European Union The Case Of Environmental Governance Presentation Transcript

    • Policy Processes in the European Union The case of environmental governance Åbo Akademi University Department of Public Administration 6-8 April 2010 Lectures course by Edward Cameron ecameron@worldbank.org
    • EDWARD CAMERON Consultant at the World Bank Social Development Department Former Senior Advisor to the Maldives Specialist in governance, climate change and EU policy Guest Lecturer at four universities PhD Candidate at Åbo Akademi Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • KEY QUESTIONS (1) What is the European Union? How does the EU work? How does the EU shape public policy in Europe and beyond? Where is the EU going in the future? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • KEY QUESTIONS (2) What role does the EU play in environmental governance? Case Study: The EU and climate change Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT THE EU? It is the place where up to 80% of national policy or legislation in a given field is determined It is a policy arena that is constructed at the global, European, national and local levels It is therefore heavily dependent on co-operation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT THE EU? A unique and complicated political construct The source of a huge amount of our laws, policies and many aspects of our daily lives that we take for granted A player on the global stage Agree or disagree, love it or hate it, you must understand it, because the world you live in is shaped by it! Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT THE EU? “The European Communities constitute a polity – a venue where interested actors pursue their goals and where authoritative actors deliver policy outputs”. Rosamond (2000) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Course Schedule ๏ Tuesday, 6 April • 9am to 12pm • 4pm to 6pm ๏ Wednesday, 7 April • 9am to 12pm • 3pm to 6pm ๏ Thursday, 8 April • 9am to 12pm Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Course Aims ๏ To deepen our understanding of the EU ๏ To strengthen our knowledge of climate change Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • First Principles ๏ Subjective or objective? ๏ Look beyond the theory to get at the reality ๏ An honest and informed debate ๏ An open exchange of ideas ๏ Think about what you want to achieve from this class. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • First Principles “If we wish our civilization to survive we must break with the habit of deference to great men” Karl Popper - Austrian Philosopher Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏ Examination will be through an essay of 5000 words. You will chose one question from a list of five. ๏ The cover page must contain: STUDENT NAME; STUDENT NUMBER; TITLE OF QUESTION; WORD COUNT; ๏ REFERENCES are essential and may be included as footnotes or endnotes. A BIBLIOGRAPHY must be included at the end of the paper Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏ Your paper must contain ARGUMENT, EVIDENCE, and OPINION ๏ Please submit one hard copy to Marina Hamberg and one electronic copy to ecameron@abo.fi ๏ The deadline for submitting essays will be 12h local time on Monday, 26th April 2010. Late Essays will not be accepted. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏A good paper will combine knowledge of the subject matter with analysis and strong recommendations or conclusions at the end. ๏ Plagiarism is not acceptable! Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Reading Materials ๏ Wallace, H & W Wallace (eds.): Policy-making in the European Union (The New European Union series), Oxford University Press - April Theories History 2000. Treaties Policies ๏ Chari, Raj & Kritzinger, Sylvia: Understanding EU Policy Making: National Versus European Institutions Environment Sovereignity. Pluto Press 2006. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Reading Materials ๏ Weale, A. Pridham, G. Cini, M. Konstadakopulos, D. Porter, M. Flynn, B.: Environmental Governance in Europe. Oxford Theories History University Press 2003. Treaties Policies ๏ Jordan, A (ed): Environmental Policy in the European Union: Actors, Institutions and Institutions Environment Processes, Earthscan 2002. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Reading Materials ๏ The Lisbon Treaty http://europa.eu/lisbon_treaty/index_en.htm Theories History ๏ Cameron, E. and McMahon, H. (2010) “The EU-China Partnership: Forging a new space Treaties Policies on global climate change”. In Jing Men (ed) Prospects and Challenges for EU-China Institutions Environment Relations in the 21st Century. Peter Lang, Brussels. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The origins, progress, and impacts of the European Union Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Union is the product of unique circumstances and personalities European integration has progressed in fits and spurts over the past 60 years Remember: The European Union is not an accident of history, nor is its evolution fortuitous. It is all the product of design. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “The violent ideological engagements of a grimmer age” Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Road not taken ๏ Denazified ๏ Deindustrialized ๏ Decentralized ๏ Democratized Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “The insecure child of anxiety….a prophylactic, to keep the past at bay” ๏ Economic necessity ๏ Armed conflict (nationalist, ethnic) ๏ Threat of communism email: ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “Phoenix-like from the ashes of the murderous-suicidal-past”. ๏ Marshall Plan Finances ๏ Security Partnerships ๏ Political leaders shaped by the tragedy of conflict ๏ Political leaders mindful of the new dynamics influencing the pursuit of national interests email: ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “The government of France proposes to place the entire coal and steel production of France and Germany a single high authority open to the participation of all the countries of Europe”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1957 France Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Italy
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1973 France Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Italy UK Denmark Ireland
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1980 France Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Italy UK Denmark Ireland Greece
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1986 France Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Italy UK Denmark Ireland Greece Spain Portugal
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1995 France Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Italy UK Denmark Ireland Greece Spain Portugal Finland Sweeden Austria
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 2005 France Germany Netherlands Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Belgium Lithuania Italy Poland UK Czech R Denmark Slovakia Ireland Hungary Greece Slovenia Spain Cyprus Portugal Malta Finland Sweeden Austria
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 2007 France Germany Netherlands Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Belgium Lithuania Italy Poland UK Czech R Denmark Slovakia Ireland Hungary Greece Slovenia Spain Cyprus Portugal Malta Finland Sweeden Bulgaria Austria Romania
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Future? France Estonia Germany Latvia Netherlands Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Iceland Belgium Czech Rep Switzerland Italy Slovakia Norway UK Hungary Denmark Slovenia Turkey Ireland Cyprus Croatia Greece Malta Western Balkans Spain Bulgaria Portugal Romania Finland Sweeden Austria
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What is the appeal of European Union membership? Why did your country join? What have been the successes / failures of the EU? How do Europeans see the EU? How do you see the EU? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Historical achievements of EU integration ๏ European reconstruction ๏ 60 years of peace and stability ๏ Economic growth ๏ Democratisation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Common elements of how countries’ view EU membership: ๏A reach for prosperity and economic growth ๏A vehicle for national self-interest ๏ An attempt to stabilise new democracies ๏ An expression of the end of the cold war ๏ An attempt to have influence in a bi-polar world ๏A convenient scapegoat for national politicians Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Many in Europe still perceive the EU as: ๏ Disconnected and inaccessible ๏ Bureaucratic and mysterious ๏ Sometimes ineffective and often unheralded ๏ Irrelevant ๏ Wasteful and even corrupt ๏ “A Communist plot” ๏ “A neo-liberal plot” Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION From enthusiastic to skeptical Respondents thinking EU is a good thing and tending to trust the EU (% of those polled) Netherlands Denmark Spain Poland Germany Sweden EU 27 average France Italy UK 20 40 60 80 A good thing Tend to trust Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Has the second golden age of European integration come to an end? ๏ Almost continuous treaty revisions since 1986 ๏ Significant enhancement of the EU’s role ๏ Public backlash since 2005 ๏ Growing euroscepticism ๏ No appetite for further intergovernmental conferences and treaties ๏ And yet the World is more connected and European influence is declining relative to emerging centres Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What are the dominant theories of European integration and why do they matter? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Theories of European integration have designed the EU of today and are shaping the EU of tomorrow. The major theoretical schism has been between neo-functionalism and inter- governmentalism Remember: Our vision of what “Europe” OUGHT to be shapes the reality of what “Europe” IS! Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What are the big theories of EU integration? ๏ Federalism: A definitive Constitutional settlement ๏ Functionalists: What function rather than what structure? ๏ Neo-Functionalists: Spill-over ๏ Inter-governmentalists: Co-operation between sovereign states Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Neo-functionalism Neo-functionalists believed that sectoral integration would produce unintended and unforeseen consequences of promoting further integration in additional issue areas. Narrow enough to secure consent but deep enough to open the way towards the unity that is essential for peace” (Monnet) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Inter-governmentalism Inter-governmentalists believed that the bargaining and consensus building techniques which have emerged in the EU are mere refinements of intergovernmental diplomacy. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Why do theories matter? “Theories are necessary if we are to produce ordered observations of social phenomena” (Rosamond 2000). Without theories we see that something is happening. With theories we understand what is happening. We get a sense of what is driving the big questions. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What are the big questions of EU integration? ๏ Is the EU a post-national or supranational construct? ๏ Is the EU an international organisation or a state in the making? ๏ Is the EU a top down or bottom up initiative? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What are the big questions of EU integration? ๏ What does “ever closer union” mean? ๏ Does economic integration imply political integration? ๏ Does political integration amount to the dissolution of national authority? ๏ Is integration a process or an outcome? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION In 2010 the European Union is: ๏ Multi-level ๏ Horizontally Complex ๏ Evolving and incomplete ๏ Trying to overcome an identity crisis between “input legitimacy” versus “output legitimacy” Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION What are the implications of competing theories of European integration? Which vision of “Europe” do you support? Why? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What impact have the European treaties had? What is the current constitutional / treaty settlement? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Practical implications of EU Treaties A review of the principal Treaties An overview of the current Treaty settlement Remember: Treaties are as much about what is happening behind the scenes. Personalities and context matters! Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ๏ Treaty of Paris (1951) ๏ Treaties of Rome (1957) ๏ Single European Act (1986) ๏ Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty 1992) ๏ Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) ๏ Treaty of Nice (2000) ๏ European Constitution (2004) ๏ Reform Treaty (Lisbon treaty 2007)
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The common elements of each Treaty: ๏ Competencies ๏ Movement of policy responsibility from National to European levels ๏ Primary Rules (legislation) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The common elements of each Treaty: ๏ Secondary Rules (rules to make rules) ๏ Shift in the institutional balance ๏ Clarification and consolidation ๏ Streamlining (moving with the times) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Single European Act (1986) “The internal market shall comprise an area without internal frontiers in which free movement of goods, persons, services, and capital is ensured in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty”. This means the removal of physical, technical, and fiscal barriers to trade between the Member States of the EU”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Single European Act (1986) ๏ Establishment of the Structural Funds ๏ Extension of the roles of the European Council and the European Parliament ๏ 282 measures to facilitate the creation of the single market ๏ Extension of EU competencies in health, social policy and environment Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Treaty on European Union (1992) “Economic and social progress for their peoples within the context of the accomplishment of the internal market and of reinforced cohesion and environmental protection”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Treaty on European Union (1992) ๏ European Communities ๏ Common Foreign and Security Policy ๏ Justice and Home Affairs ๏ Provided the groundwork for “Schengen” ๏ Copenhagen Criteria Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Treaty on European Union (1992) ๏ Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the EURO ๏ Citizenship (move, work and vote) ๏ Cohesion Fund ๏ Subsidiarity ๏ Extension of the European Parliament Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION European Constitution (2004) ๏A Constitution you can carry in your back pocket! ๏ Streamline decision making, ensure smooth integration of new member states, and outline competences and rights. ๏ Constitutional Convention met in February 2002. Text was agreed in June 2004. ๏ Stalled in May/June 2005 with the votes in France and Holland Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, thus ending several years of negotiation about institutional issues. The Treaty of Lisbon amends the current EU and EC treaties, without replacing them. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) ๏ More than 90% of the constitution has been carried over into the Reform Treaty. ๏ The Reform Treaty amends previous legal norms whereas the constitution would have created new ones. ๏ Symbolic gestures - anthem, flag, etc.. are removed. ๏ Charter of Fundamental Rights is relegated to an annex ๏ New opt-outs have been secured Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) ๏ European Council made a specific institution. A new post - “President of the European Council” is created. ๏ New foreign service for the EU with a “High-Representative for External Relations”. ๏ New rules for Council voting; and for the make-up of the European Parliament and Commission. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) ๏ Increase of co-decision procedure places European Parliament on an equal footing with the Council for the vast bulk of EU legislation. ๏ National parliaments may now object to EU intervention. 30% of Parliaments acting together can force a rethink; 50% can have an issue referred to EU Parliament and Council. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) ๏ “Citizens' Initiative” means a petition from one million citizens has the possibility to call on the Commission to bring forward new policy proposals. ๏ Treaty of Lisbon explicitly recognises for the first time the possibility for a Member State to withdraw from the Union. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Reform (Lisbon) Treaty (2004) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What are our views of the Lisbon Treaty? How do we view the process of ratifying the Treaty? Was enough done to “sell” the Treaty to Europe’s voters? What implications will the Treaty have for Europe? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION An “institutional triangle” or a series of institutional spheres? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What are the European Union institutions? How do they work? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF EUROPEAN UNION TREATIES OF THE THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission ๏ The EU's executive body: responsible for implementing European legislation, the budget and programmes. ๏ It has the sole right of initiative to draft legislation. This gives the Commission the power to set the agenda. ๏ It acts as guardian of the Treaties and, together with the Court of Justice, ensures that Community law is properly applied and enforced Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission ๏ Commission President is appointed by the Member States ๏ 27 Commissioners appointed by the Member States, approved by the Parliament, and supported by a large civil service ๏ The Commission is divided into some 40 directorates-general (DGs) and services, which are subdivided in turn into directorates, and directorates into units. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission ๏ Power of the Commission varies ๏ Exclusive powers (customs union, the common trade policy, competition, agriculture) ๏ Shared powers (environment, transport) ๏ Supporting, coordinating or complementary powers (culture, education and industry Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission ๏ Work Programme for 2010 includes: ๏ Tackling the crisis and sustaining Europe's social market economy; ๏ Building a citizens' agenda; ๏ Developing an ambitious and coherent external agenda; ๏ Modernising EU instruments and ways of working. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Commission ๏ Who sits in the Commission? ๏ Who sits in the Commission civil service? ๏ How does the Commission prepare policy? ๏ How accessible is the Commission to other actors during policy preparation? ๏ How powerful is the European Commission? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Policy Processes in the European Union The case of environmental governance Åbo Akademi University Department of Public Administration 6-8 April 2010 Lectures course by Edward Cameron ecameron@worldbank.org
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ There are 736 Members of the European Parliament drawn from 27 member states. ๏ MEPs divide their time between Brussels, Strasbourg and their constituencies. ๏ In Brussels they attend meetings of committees and political groups, and additional plenary sittings. In Strasbourg they attend 12 plenary sittings. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament MEPs sit in political groups. They are not organised by nationality, but by political affiliation. There are currently seven political groups in the European Parliament. EPP Greens/EFA IND/D ALDE EUL UEN PES NA Total: 736 Members Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats) ๏ Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament ๏ Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ๏ Group of the Greens / European Free Alliance ๏ European Conservatives and Reformists Group ๏ Confederal Group of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left ๏ Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION European Parliament National allocation of seats in the The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Cyprus / Estonia 6 Ireland 12 Seats in the European Parliament are, as a general rule, shared out proportionately to the population of each Member State. Denmark / Finland 13 Spain / Poland 50 UK / Italy / France 72 Germany 99 0 Policy Processes in the European Union 25 50 Edward Cameron 75 100 The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Turnout in EP elections since 1979 (%) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Voter turnout in 2009 European Parliament elections by individual Member State Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ MEPs are divided up among a number of specialised standing committees. ๏ There are 20 committees consisting of between 25 and 78 MEPs. Each has a chair, a bureau and a secretariat. ๏ The committees meet once or twice a month in Brussels. Their debates are held in public. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament The President is elected for a renewable term of two and a half years. The President represents the EP vis-à-vis the outside world and in its relations with the other EU institutions. At the beginning of every European Council meeting the President sets out Parliament’s point of view and its concerns as regards the items on the agenda. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Change in the role and scope of the EP over time is largely due to its own lobbying ๏ Itsinvolvement in the legislative process helps to guarantee democratic legitimacy ๏ Claims to democratic legitimacy / mandate undermined by low turn out in EP elections Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ The number of MEPs will be capped at 751. ๏ Seats are distributed among countries according to “degressive proportionality”, i.e. MEPs from more populous countries will each represent more people than those from smaller countries. ๏ No country may now have less than 6 or more than 96 MEPs. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Parliament is a mixed bag in terms of skills, competencies, and powers ๏ EP’s role is evolving over time ๏ Concerns over how the EP exercises its budget remain Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ Is the EU institution that belongs to the Member governments ๏ It is the Union's legislative body ๏ It coordinates the broad economic policies of the Member States ๏ Decisions taken by simple majority, qualified majority, or unanimity Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ Council meets in different formations (transport, environment, foreign affairs, etc... ๏ Council Secretariat based in Brussels ๏ Practical Work carried out in working groups (COREPER) ๏ Votes weighted according to population Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers With QMV member states have fixed votes roughly determined by its population. To pass a vote by QMV, all three of the following conditions must apply: ๏ Must be supported by 232 out of the total of 321 votes (72.27%); ๏ Must be backed by a majority of member states; ๏ Countries supporting the proposal must represent at least 62% of the total EU population. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers In 2014, “double majority voting” will be introduced. To be passed by the Council, proposed EU laws will then require a majority not only of the EU’s member countries (55 %) but also of the EU population (65 %). Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers QMV Votes Population Total votes: 321 QMV: 232 Blocking votes: 90 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ The work programme of the Spanish, Belgian and Hungarian Presidencies runs from January 2010 to June 2011. ๏ The revision of the Lisbon Strategy ๏ Better regulation and supervision of financial markets. ๏ Implementation and possible review of the energy and climate package in the light of the results of the Copenhagen summit. ๏ Managing the rest of the EU’s agenda. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Council ๏ Supreme decision making body - “forum of last resort” ๏ Comprises heads of EU governments Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council Elected by the European Council for 2½ years, the main job of the president is to prepare the Council’s work, ensure its continuity and work to secure consensus among member countries. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council ๏ Maintains and directs the Council work ๏ Impartial arbitrator within the Council ๏ Represents the EU view to the UN and WTO Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council ๏ Dialogue with Third countries (US and Russia) ๏ Represents the Council in relations with other EU Institutions Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers and the European Council ๏ Most powerful institution? ๏ Least European? ๏ Least Transparent? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏ Ensures that Community law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied ๏ Has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏ Deals with challenges to the legality of EU law and non- compliance with EU law ๏ Assists Member States Courts in the Interpretation and Application of EU law Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏A Court of First Instance has been attached to it since 1988 ๏ CFI hears actions brought by non-state actors against the acts of the institutions Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Auditors ๏ Based in Luxembourg. Checks that all the Union's revenue has been received and all its expenditure incurred in a lawful and regular manner and that financial management of the EU budget has been sound. ๏ Members appointed by the Member States Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Central Bank ๏ Based in Frankfurt. Frames and implements European monetary policy ๏ Controls interest rates and money supply in the Eurozone area ๏ Itconducts foreign exchange operations and ensures the smooth operation of payment systems. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Central Bank ๏ Executive Board and Governing Council sets policy ๏ Sole goal to guarantee low inflation ๏ This role is coming under increasing pressure ๏ May express opinions on economic policies pursued in the Eurozone countries Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Committee of the Regions ๏ Ensures that regional and local concerns are respected. It has to be consulted on matters concerning regional policy, the environment and education. ๏ It is composed of representatives of regional and local authorities Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION European Agencies ๏ ECOSOC ๏ European Ombudsman ๏ European Environment Agency (EEA) ๏ European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ๏ European Investment Bank Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Media and Lobbyists Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Institutional Recap ๏ Commission initiates policy ๏ Council is the supreme decision-making body ๏ Parliament shares legislative authority on certain issues ๏ Court of Justice interprets and applies EU law ๏ ECB sets interest rates within the € zone Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “Who do I call if I want to call Europe?” Herman Van Rompaya - President of the European Council Jose Luis Zapatero - President in Office of the Council of Ministers Jose Manuel Barroso - President of the European Commission Jerzey Buzek MEP - President of the European Parliament
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “Who do I call if I want to call Europe?” Jean-Claude Trichet - President of the European Central Bank Vassilios Skouris - President of the Court of Justice Mercedes Bresso - President of the Committee of the Regions
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Are there parallels between the European institutions and other organizations /institutions? Do you consider the institutional system to be effective? Do you consider the institutional system to be equitable? Do you consider the institutional system to be democratic? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ There are 736 Members of the European Parliament drawn from 27 member states. ๏ MEPs divide their time between Brussels, Strasbourg and their constituencies. ๏ In Brussels they attend meetings of committees and political groups, and additional plenary sittings. In Strasbourg they attend 12 plenary sittings. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament MEPs sit in political groups. They are not organised by nationality, but by political affiliation. There are currently seven political groups in the European Parliament. EPP Greens/EFA IND/D ALDE EUL UEN PES NA Total: 736 Members Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats) ๏ Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament ๏ Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ๏ Group of the Greens / European Free Alliance ๏ European Conservatives and Reformists Group ๏ Confederal Group of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left ๏ Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION European Parliament National allocation of seats in the The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Cyprus / Estonia 6 Ireland 12 Seats in the European Parliament are, as a general rule, shared out proportionately to the population of each Member State. Denmark / Finland 13 Spain / Poland 50 UK / Italy / France 72 Germany 99 0 Policy Processes in the European Union 25 50 Edward Cameron 75 100 The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Turnout in EP elections since 1979 (%) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament Total: 736 Members Voter turnout in 2009 European Parliament elections by individual Member State Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ MEPs are divided up among a number of specialised standing committees. ๏ There are 20 committees consisting of between 25 and 78 MEPs. Each has a chair, a bureau and a secretariat. ๏ The committees meet once or twice a month in Brussels. Their debates are held in public. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament The President is elected for a renewable term of two and a half years. The President represents the EP vis-à-vis the outside world and in its relations with the other EU institutions. At the beginning of every European Council meeting the President sets out Parliament’s point of view and its concerns as regards the items on the agenda. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Change in the role and scope of the EP over time is largely due to its own lobbying ๏ Itsinvolvement in the legislative process helps to guarantee democratic legitimacy ๏ Claims to democratic legitimacy / mandate undermined by low turn out in EP elections Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ The number of MEPs will be capped at 751. ๏ Seats are distributed among countries according to “degressive proportionality”, i.e. MEPs from more populous countries will each represent more people than those from smaller countries. ๏ No country may now have less than 6 or more than 96 MEPs. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Parliament ๏ Parliament is a mixed bag in terms of skills, competencies, and powers ๏ EP’s role is evolving over time ๏ Concerns over how the EP exercises its budget remain Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ Is the EU institution that belongs to the Member governments ๏ It is the Union's legislative body ๏ It coordinates the broad economic policies of the Member States ๏ Decisions taken by simple majority, qualified majority, or unanimity Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ Council meets in different formations (transport, environment, foreign affairs, etc... ๏ Council Secretariat based in Brussels ๏ Practical Work carried out in working groups (COREPER) ๏ Votes weighted according to population Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers With QMV member states have fixed votes roughly determined by its population. To pass a vote by QMV, all three of the following conditions must apply: ๏ Must be supported by 232 out of the total of 321 votes (72.27%); ๏ Must be backed by a majority of member states; ๏ Countries supporting the proposal must represent at least 62% of the total EU population. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers In 2014, “double majority voting” will be introduced. To be passed by the Council, proposed EU laws will then require a majority not only of the EU’s member countries (55 %) but also of the EU population (65 %). Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers QMV Votes Population Total votes: 321 QMV: 232 Blocking votes: 90 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers ๏ The work programme of the Spanish, Belgian and Hungarian Presidencies runs from January 2010 to June 2011. ๏ The revision of the Lisbon Strategy ๏ Better regulation and supervision of financial markets. ๏ Implementation and possible review of the energy and climate package in the light of the results of the Copenhagen summit. ๏ Managing the rest of the EU’s agenda. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Council ๏ Supreme decision making body - “forum of last resort” ๏ Comprises heads of EU governments Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council Elected by the European Council for 2½ years, the main job of the president is to prepare the Council’s work, ensure its continuity and work to secure consensus among member countries. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council ๏ Maintains and directs the Council work ๏ Impartial arbitrator within the Council ๏ Represents the EU view to the UN and WTO Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The President of the European Council ๏ Dialogue with Third countries (US and Russia) ๏ Represents the Council in relations with other EU Institutions Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Council of Ministers and the European Council ๏ Most powerful institution? ๏ Least European? ๏ Least Transparent? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏ Ensures that Community law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied ๏ Has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏ Deals with challenges to the legality of EU law and non- compliance with EU law ๏ Assists Member States Courts in the Interpretation and Application of EU law Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Justice ๏A Court of First Instance has been attached to it since 1988 ๏ CFI hears actions brought by non-state actors against the acts of the institutions Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Court of Auditors ๏ Based in Luxembourg. Checks that all the Union's revenue has been received and all its expenditure incurred in a lawful and regular manner and that financial management of the EU budget has been sound. ๏ Members appointed by the Member States Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Central Bank ๏ Based in Frankfurt. Frames and implements European monetary policy ๏ Controls interest rates and money supply in the Eurozone area ๏ Itconducts foreign exchange operations and ensures the smooth operation of payment systems. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Central Bank ๏ Executive Board and Governing Council sets policy ๏ Sole goal to guarantee low inflation ๏ This role is coming under increasing pressure ๏ May express opinions on economic policies pursued in the Eurozone countries Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Committee of the Regions ๏ Ensures that regional and local concerns are respected. It has to be consulted on matters concerning regional policy, the environment and education. ๏ It is composed of representatives of regional and local authorities Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION European Agencies ๏ ECOSOC ๏ European Ombudsman ๏ European Environment Agency (EEA) ๏ European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ๏ European Investment Bank Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Media and Lobbyists Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Institutional Recap ๏ Commission initiates policy ๏ Council is the supreme decision-making body ๏ Parliament shares legislative authority on certain issues ๏ Court of Justice interprets and applies EU law ๏ ECB sets interest rates within the € zone Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “Who do I call if I want to call Europe?” Herman Van Rompaya - President of the European Council Jose Luis Zapatero - President in Office of the Council of Ministers Jose Manuel Barroso - President of the European Commission Jerzey Buzek MEP - President of the European Parliament
    • INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION “Who do I call if I want to call Europe?” Jean-Claude Trichet - President of the European Central Bank Vassilios Skouris - President of the Court of Justice Mercedes Bresso - President of the Committee of the Regions
    • TREATIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Are there parallels between the European institutions and other organizations /institutions? Do you consider the institutional system to be effective? Do you consider the institutional system to be equitable? Do you consider the institutional system to be democratic? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION “The result of interaction, in particular between the "institutional triangle" formed by the Parliament, the Council and the European Commission”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION What policy modes are employed by the European Union? What are the variables of decision- making? What does the policy journey look like? What are the factors that determine a successful policy process? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION “extraordinary and ever-increasing diversity of policy modes whereby the preferences of national governments, sub-national actors, and supranational organizations are changed into common policies”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Five Policy Modes ๏ The Community Method ๏ The Regulatory Mode ๏ The Distributional Mode ๏ Policy Coordination ๏ Intensive Transgovernmentalism Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Community Method ๏A strong role for the European Commission ๏ An empowering role for the Council through strategic bargaining ๏ Co-opting stakeholders into a European process ๏ National agencies as subordinate to a European regime Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Community Method ๏ Limited opportunities for parliamentarians to intervene ๏ Collective resourcing ๏ Limited role for the ECJ Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Regulatory Mode (environment) ๏ The Commission as the architect of objectives and rules ๏ The Council as a forum for agreeing minimum standards ๏ The ECJ as a means of ensuring that the rules are enforced ๏ The European Parliament in the role of co-legislator ๏ Extensive opportunities for stakeholders to get involved. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Distributional Mode (Regional Funds) ๏ Using financial incentives to influence policy developments within member states ๏ The Commission devises programmes in communication with other stakeholders Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Distributional Mode (Regional Funds) ๏ Council agrees to a redistributive budget ๏ EP applies additional pressure ๏ Local and regional authorities participate through the CoR. Other stakeholders also participate through e.g. FPRD Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Policy Coordination (transport / employment) ๏ Member States appraise and compare policies ๏A second best option? ๏ Commission develops networks of experts ๏ Council convenes high level groups ๏ Open Method of Coordination Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Intensive Transgovernmentalism (EMU / Foreign Policy) ๏ EU governments commit themselves to intensive cooperation but prefer to do so outside the boundaries of the EU institutions. ๏ Council of Ministers is preeminent here. ๏ Commission is marginalized. EP and ECJ are excluded. ๏ Conducted beyond the scrutiny of Parliament and Public ๏ Substantial outcomes Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The variables of decision-making ๏ Choices facing the European Commission ๏ Roles for the European Parliament ๏ Voting procedures in the Council of Ministers Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The choices for the European Commission ๏ Regulations ๏ Directives ๏ Green Papers ๏ White Papers ๏ Decisions ๏ Which Article of the Treaty to use? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The roles for the European Parliament ๏ Co-decision (70% - amend and veto) ๏ Consultation (original system) ๏ Assent (rare and blunt) ๏ Co-operation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Voting in the Council of Ministers ๏ Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) ๏ Unanimity Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Policy Journey ๏ Drafting inside the Commission ๏ Commission to EP (ECOSOC and CoR) ๏ EP back to Commission ๏ Commission to Council Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The Policy Journey ๏ Council to EP ๏ EP back to Council ๏ Conciliation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • DECISION-MAKING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Successful policy approaches require... ๏ Alliances ๏ This requires great skill and patience ๏ Everyone is a lobbyist in Brussels Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The EU has competency in a variety of different fields. We will look at some of those from programmatic and policy perspectives Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Budget Common Agricultural Policy The Lisbon Agenda Sustainable Development Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Budget
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Budget Unspent money from previous years Customs duties and levies VAT from Member States GNI contributions from MS Who pays for the EU? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Country contributions to the EU The Budget budget Before British Rebate After British Rebate Net contributions to the EU budget per person in Euro from 2003 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Country contributions to the EU The Budget budget Members contribute to the EU budget roughly in proportion to the size of their economy. Germany is the biggest net contributor. It receives Billion Euros less from the EU budget than France and Spain, and pays in more. Net contributions to the EU budget per country in Euro from 2004 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Citizenship - €1.1bn Administration - €6.7bn Competitiveness - €7.9bn The Budget Foreign Aid - €8.3bn Cohesion - €39.8bn Natural Resources - €56.3bn In 2006 the European Union spent approximately €121bn, or 1% of its members' gross national income. “A modern budget for Europe is not one that ten years from now is still spending 40% of its money on the CAP”. Tony Blair at the European The CAP goes to 2% of the EU Parliament in July 2005 workforce. 80% of CAP goes to the richest 20% of farmers Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION National defence, veterans, and international affairs Social Security Administration of Justice The Budget Net interest Natural resources, environment and transportation Education, training and employment services Federal spending is more than Health and medicare $2.4 trillion a year and makes up Income security more than half of total Other government spending in the United States. The federal government now accounts for 20% of the total US gross domestic product (GDP), but this was not always the case. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy ๏A relic of Post-War Europe or an important feature of a self- sufficient Europe? ๏ Increasing productivity ๏ Social support for the farming community ๏ Guaranteeing security of supply Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy ๏ Price Guarantees ๏ Subsidies for production ๏ Intervention ๏ Import tariffs Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy ๏ CAP subsidies make up on average about 90% of a farmers pre- tax income ๏ Estimates suggest that between 30% and 60% of French farms would disappear if all subsidies and external tariffs were drastically altered. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy ๏ Higher environmental impact ๏ Higher costs for European consumers ๏A recipe for waste ๏A tax on the developing world ๏A club for rich farmers Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Common Agricultural Policy ๏ In light of rising food prices? ๏ In light of climate change and the growth in biofuels ๏ In light of increasing urbanization ๏ In light of other demands on the EU budget Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda “The Union has today set itself a new strategic goal for the next decade: to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge- based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda ๏ Long-term structural Unemployment ๏ Gender and Age Gaps ๏ Regional imbalances ๏ Competition with USA, India and China ๏ “not enough enterprise and too few entrepreneurs” Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda ๏ 3% annual economic growth across the Union ๏ Creation of 20 million new jobs by 2010 ๏ Raise employment rate to 70% of the population ๏ Reduce red tape to promote entrepreneurship Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda ๏ Better policies on ICT and R&D (eEurope, FP7, CIP, ERA) ๏ Structural reform leading to competitiveness and innovation ๏ Modernising the European Social Model by investing in people Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Innovation and competitiveness: The Lisbon Agenda ๏ Too focused on economic growth ๏ Too short term in scope ๏ Lacking adequate resources ๏ Few quantifiable targets ๏ Questionable premise? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Evolution ๏ 1957 – 1972: Very little Environment ๏ 1972 – 1986: Environment within the confines of the single market ๏ 1986 – 1992: Environment for its own sake Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Evolution ๏ 1986 – 1992: Environment for its own sake ๏ 1992 – 2003: Environment as a priority later becoming environment as a component of sustainable development ๏ 2003 – Present: Sustainable development as a component within the competitiveness agenda Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (1): The internal market and national self- interest ๏ Cassis de Dijon (1979) ๏ Product Standards (Danish Bottles – 1981) ๏ Process / Pollution Control (Germany – 1983) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (1): The internal market and national self- interest ๏ To avoid competitive disadvantage do we level up or level down? ๏ Environment and competitiveness: “first-mover-advantage” or merely higher costs? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (2): Rising public concern and impact ๏ Fear of a degrading environment ๏ Growing concerns on issues of public health and safety ๏ Looking to Europe to solve issues that domestic governments don’t address Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (3): Institutional Dynamics ๏ Commission actively pursues new domains ๏ Role of the Parliament in “greening” policy ๏ Ministers go above the national and straight to Europe ๏ EEA gathers better information ๏ ECJ creates precedents Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (4): Internal Coherence ๏ Environment naturally becomes SD as linkages become clearer ๏ All other drivers ultimately demand a joined-up approach ๏ Internaldynamics as well as responses to external international agreements Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Drivers (5): Scientific Knowledge ๏ Unerstanding of environmental threats has increased ๏ Understanding of socio-ecological interface has increased Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies The Sustainable Development Strategies Principally concerned with engineering a de-coupling of environmental degradation and resource consumption from economic and social development. Designed to change the ways policies are conceived, communicated and implemented. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Policy Processes in the European Union The case of environmental governance Åbo Akademi University Department of Public Administration 6-8 April 2010 Lectures course by Edward Cameron ecameron@worldbank.org
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies The Sustainable Development Strategies ๏A holistic strategy for 2001-2005 ๏ Limit climate change and increase clean energy (ETS); ๏ Address threats to public health (REACH); Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies The Sustainable Development Strategies ๏ Combat poverty; ๏ Address problems of the ageing population; ๏ Manage natural resources more responsibly; ๏ Improve transport system, land-use and pollution Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies ๏ Too environmental; ๏ Too abstract, vague and non-committal; ๏ No integration or coherence; ๏ Poor communication and stakeholder dialogue; ๏ “Intentions on the political level are good. Implementation of policies is not”. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Has EU progress on Sustainable Is the current system of Has the EU made satisfactory Development been satisfactory since communicating with stakeholders progress meeting its climate change 2001? satisfactory? objectives? Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Revised Sustainable Development Strategies ๏ Climate Change and Clean Energy ๏ Sustainable Transport ๏ Sustainable Consumption and Production Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Revised Sustainable Development Strategies ๏ Consumption and Production ๏ Conservation and Management of natural resources ๏ Public Health ๏ Social inclusion, demography and migration ๏ Global Poverty and Sustainable Development challenges Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Instruments ๏ Education and Training ๏ Research and Development ๏ Financial and Economic Instruments ๏ Communication and Monitoring ๏ Legislation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Sustainable Development Strategies Two strategies - what happened to the first one? ๏ What happened to the targets? ๏ The policy coherence and integration? ๏ The implementation? ๏ The transparent decision making? ๏ The specific policies (ETS and REACH)? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE The immediate and far reaching implications and the EU’s response Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What is climate change? How does it change the context for development? Vulnerability Climate Change building blocks Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Changing the context for sustainable development Climate change alters the context for development WBG staff need to develop new skills and hone existing ones Understanding climate change as a socio-ecological phenomenon is a vital starting point Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • What are the Social Dimensions of Climate Change? ๏ Complex social responses ๏ Impacts of climate change interventions ๏ Reconciling socio-ecological systems Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Climate change is unequivocal, accelerating and human induced Temperature rises, extreme weather events, changes in hydrological cycles, sea level rise, threats to unique systems and biodiversity, increase in flooding and storm surges Climate change impacts natural systems Species decimation and extinction; habitat loss and fragmentation; undermines eco-system services (provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting). Climate change leads to complex social responses Loss of livelihoods; health/fatalities; food/water insecurity; migration; conflict; damage to infrastructure; decline in natural systems services; distribution of impacts Climate change undermines development and exacerbates inequality Poor are hardest hit; infrastructure is destroyed; educational attainment is affected; vital resources are diverted; asset creation and accumulation becomes more difficult
    • Critical in shaping climate change instruments and interventions leading to reduced vulnerability and greater resilience Improved analytical underpinnings, risk management and development policy effectiveness Technological; knowledge; political; various types of assets (social, physical, natural, financial, human, cultural capital) Enhanced capital and resources Implementation of governance principles across governance scales leads to enhanced capital and resources Improved governance Key to authoritative advocacy for vulnerable populations; providing access to processes; influencing the nature of processes; vital for building constituencies and securing agreement Change analysis and diagnosis
    • Reconciling Socio-ecological systems ๏ Building new communities of practice ๏ Breaking down disciplinary path dependency ๏ Mainstream low carbon climate-resilient growth Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Tools for climate-smart decisions ๏ Analytics and diagnostics ๏ Process ๏ Instrument design ๏ Substantive outcomes for vulnerable populations Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Frameworks and Tools for the social dimensions of climate change ๏ Vulnerability context influences availability of assets ๏ Access to assets determines level of resilience and adaptive capacity ๏ Institutions determine access to and returns from assets Frameworks 101 Vulnerability Fi Scales na • Exposure to ial nc Soc ial Risk Institutions • Sensitivity to ASSETS Inclusive Governance Livelihood Phy an Risk protection Stakeholders Hum sica and poverty • Adaptive l reduction Capacity Natural Processes Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron 214 The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Vulnerability Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation in which a system is EXPOSED, it's SENSITIVITY, and its ADAPTIVE CAPACITY (IPCC 2007a, p21) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Exposure to Risk Exposure - the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is subjected, such as: ๏ Risks to unique and threatened systems (coral) ๏ Extreme weather events (storm surges and sea swells) ๏ Reduced agricultural productivity ๏ Increased water insecurity ๏ Increased health risk ๏ Large-scale singularities ๏ Aggregate impacts (impacts worsen over time) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Sensitivity Sensitivity - Intersecting inequalities - produce different experiences of climate change impacts: ๏ Geographic context ๏ Dependence on the environment for livelihoods, food, fuel, shelter and medicine ๏ Asset and Resource deficiency ๏ Governance / political economy issues Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Sensitivity Who are vulnerable? ๏ Women ๏ Indigenous Peoples ๏ The urban poor ๏ Inhabitants of small island states ๏ Vulnerability is not a uniform taxonomy Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Adaptive Capacity Adaptation - “Refers to changes in processes, practices, or structures to moderate or offset potential damages or to take advantage of opportunities associated with changes in climate (IPCC 2001). Adaptive Capacity - The capacity to mobilize resources to build resilience ๏ Various types of assets ๏ Technological ๏ Knowledge ๏ Governance Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Adaptive Capacity Strengthening adaptive capacity by building assets, capital and resources ๏ Human ๏ Social and cultural ๏ Natural ๏ Physical ๏ Financial ๏ Research and Innovation Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Resilience Resilience occurs where adaptive capacity is strong, inequalities are addressed, and exposure minimized. It reflects the ability to deal with change and continue to develop. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Climate change and development operations ๏ Mitigation ๏ Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) ๏ Adaptation ๏ Technology ๏ Finance Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Mitigation ๏ Sources ๏ Sinks / Reservoirs ๏ Sequestration ๏ Substitutes Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Equity: Unequal Responsibilities % GHG Emissions in 2000 Only 17 countries account for 1% or more of global greenhouse gas emissions Together, these 17 countries are responsible for more than 85% of global emissions And yet few of these are amongst those most vulnerable to climate change Source: Data taken from the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) by the World Resources Institute (WRI). Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Equity: Unequal Responsibilities Power Transport Industry Buildings Land use Agriculture Waste Other energy related Source: Data taken from the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) by the World Resources Institute (WRI). Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Fossil Fuels ๏ Relatively cheap ๏ Large supply of raw materials ๏ Large amounts of energy ๏ Highly Polluting Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Nuclear Power ๏ No Greenhouse Gas Emissions ๏ More energy ๏ Weather Neutral ๏ Radioactivity ๏ Expensive ๏ Uranium and other toxic wastes ๏ Security Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Hydro Power ๏ No Pollution ๏ Renewable ๏ Weather Neutral ๏ Topography / climate ๏ Displacement and Dams ๏ Flooding / wildlife Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Solar Power ๏ Free ๏ Renewable ๏ Landscape neutral ๏ Need for sun ๏ Not efficient (15%) ๏ Side issues Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Wind Power ๏ Safe ๏ Inexaustable ๏ Free ๏ Unreliable ๏ Eye-sores ๏ Expensive Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Renewable Energies: Mitigation options with co-benefits ๏ GHG Reductions ๏ Economic returns for those who innovate ๏ Employment and local development ๏ Increased security of supply ๏ Reduced emissions of pollutants and health benefits Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Biofuels: Mitigation options with negative social implications ๏ Questionable GHG reductions potential ๏ Deforestation ๏ Land acquisition and displacement ๏ Impact on food (production, access, prices) ๏ Political instability, corruption and violence Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • REDD: Emissions reductions while safeguarding livelihoods? ๏ Deforestation accounts for 30% of annual GHG emissions ๏ Forests act as a sink for GHG emissions ๏ Millions of people are dependent on forest services ๏ How to assign a price for carbon to cover services and create incentives ๏ Effective forest governance is key but elusive Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Adaptation ๏ Planned versus autonomous adaptation ๏ First Generation ๏ Second Generation ๏ Third Generation (?) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Adaptation options: “Hard” or “Soft”? ๏ Protects vital infrastructure ๏ Deals with exposure but what about sensitivity? ๏ Protects vital utilities ๏ May not target the most vulnerable ๏ Coastal zone management ๏ May not address key system impacts ๏ Seawalls, flood defences, etc.. (ecological and social) Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Technology ๏ Research and innovation ๏ Investment and political will ๏ Development and deployment ๏ Access and supporting structures Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Finance ๏ How much is required? ๏ New and additional? ๏ How to generate funding? ๏ How to disburse / target funding? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Finance: Equitable, efficient and effective? Estimates put the cost of climate change at between $4bn and $109bn per year (low end from Stern 2006 / high end from UNDP 2007) CDM and Carbon Offset Markets Auctioning of Emissions Rights Emissions Cap and Trade Tax on Financial Transactions (Tobin Tax) GHG Levy Aviation / Shipping tax General taxes and specific funds Carbon Taxes GDP Contribution (0.5% - 1% by developed countries) Baseline ODA (up to 0.7% of GNP) Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to the Bali Brunch, April 2009 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Equity: Unequal Consequences Climate related disasters Some 262 million people were affected by climate disasters annually from 2000 to 2004. In the OECD, one person in every fifteen hundred was affected by climate disaster (1:1500) % of people affected by In the developing world the number climate disasters 2000 - 2004 was one in nineteen (1:19) Developing World A risk differential of 79! OECD Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2007 / 2008 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION ๏ Green diplomacy - the UNFCCC and Kyoto ๏ The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) consists of more than forty European- level policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ๏ Emissions Trading System ๏ 20-20-20 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION PLAN - ECCP ๏ Five strategic objectives: ๏ Raising the policy profile of climate change; ๏ Promoting exchange programmes between the EU and partner countries ๏ Supporting adaptation; ๏ Developing guidelines for integrating climate change into development programmes; ๏ Supporting capacity-building in developing country institutions; ๏ Supporting mitigation and low GHG development paths. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION ๏ Renewable energy technologies already account for a turnover of €20bn and have created 300,000 jobs. ๏A 20% share for renewables is estimated to represent almost a million jobs in the industry by 2020 ๏ Commission has calculated savings in the region of €50bn and the creation of approximately one million new jobs by 2020 Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION - ETS ๏ Launched in January 2005, the Emissions Trading System covered around 13,000 factories and power stations across Europe. ๏ Under the scheme, these installations are allowed to emit carbon dioxide only if they possess a permit. ๏ Companies exceeding individual CO2 emissions targets are able to buy allowances from 'greener' ones. ๏ Carbon permits are intended to be a financial incentive to invest in clean technology and cut emissions Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION - “20 20 BY 2020” ๏ The “20 20 by 2020” plan commits the EU to reducing overall emissions by at least 20% below 1990 levels and increasing the share of renewable energy use by 20% by year 2020. ๏ In addition to its own targets, the EU hopes to persuade other developed countries to join a joint target of reducing emissions by 30% from 1990 levels by 2020. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • CLIMATE ACTION - IS IT WORKING? ๏ EU does not meet its own targets ๏ Policy has not been forthcoming ๏ Commitments seem distant and unattainable ๏ Governance flaws in ETS Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Governance Vulnerable communities are least responsible for the cause and least able to deal with the Global: consequences of climate change. UNFCC, Kyoto, Bali Roadmap Regional: EU and other initiatives National: Policies at the state level Local / Sub-national: Initiatives at provincial, community and household level Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Governance Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to the Bali Brunch, April 2009 Rationalize energy, water and agricultural price, tax Incentives incentives, fiscal and expenditure policies Efficiency standards; codes, zoning, climate Regulations screening / proofing of investments Capacity of public, private and financial sector Institutions institutions to assess and act on climate risks and new business opportunities Improve investment climate; deepen financial and Markets capital markets; new markets (cap & trade, CDM, etc...) Education, raising awareness and promoting Public Outreach change in consumer behavior and preferences, public diplomacy Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Where does the EU go from here? How does the EU really work? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Consistent and coherent – The Sustainable Development Strategy and the Lisbon Agenda The Budget The implementation deficit Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION What social model for Europe? Economic Credibility – The Growth and Stability Pact Domestically – integration, multiculturalism or …? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Transatlantic relations – partners or rivals? Europe and Islam WTO and UN reform Internationally – Foreign Policy Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Outdated institutions? Day to day management replacing vision? Expectations matched by capacity to deliver? An increasingly sceptical public? All things to all people? Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • HOW DOES THE EU REALLY WORK? Institutional triangle Institutional self interest Driven by personalities National self interest Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • HOW DOES THE EU REALLY WORK? Resulting from hard compromises Often the product of external shocks Expert driven / powerful lobby groups Decision-making pathologies Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏ “Decision making in the EU is the result of interaction between the institutional triangle formed by the Parliament, Commission and Council”. Discuss. ๏ A British Member of Parliament has described the relationship between the aborted Constitution and the Treaty of Lisbon as akin to the relationship between the DNA of a human and a mouse. “90% is the same, but its the remaining 10% that makes all the difference”. Discuss. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏ The climate change package is designed to establish the EU as a global leader in tackling climate change. Discuss the EU’s work in this field and assess the origins, progress, and long- term implications of this policy area. ๏ Select a policy area of your choice. This can be at the strategic level (i.e. environmental policy) or at the level of a specific instrument (i.e. Water Directive) or programme (Erasmus). Discuss the origins, progress, successes / failures, and long- term implications of this policy. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Examination ๏ Your paper must contain ARGUMENT, EVIDENCE, and OPINION ๏ Please submit one hard copy to Marina Hamberg and one electronic copy to ecameron@abo.fi ๏ The deadline for submitting essays will be 12h local time on Monday, 26th April 2010. Late Essays will not be accepted. Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Links www.europa.eu www.europarl.eu.int www.eu2008.si www.euractiv.com Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Links www.europa.eu.int/comm/stages/index_en.htm www.blbe.irisnet.be/index_en.htm www.eurobrussels.com/internships.php Policy Processes in the European Union Edward Cameron The case of environmental governance ecameron@abo.fi
    • Thank you For your attention Lectures course by Edward Cameron ecameron@worldbank.org