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This presentation on Green Jobs for Green Growth in Asia and the Pacific was delivered at a meeting of UN agencies in Bangkok, Thailand in October 2009.

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One Un Training Pdf

  1. 1. “One UN” Training Green Jobs for Green Growth in Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, 27 to 30 October 2009
  2. 2. Carina Bachofen and Edward Cameron cbachofen@worldbank.org / ecameron@worldbank.org
  3. 3. The Social Dimensions of Climate (SDCC) at the World Bank ๏ Social justice as an over-arching theme ๏ Governance and social accountability in climate action ๏ Equity, rights and livelihood security in climate change mitigation and adaptation ๏ Learning Module and Micro-documentary film contest ๏ Rights, forests and climate change ๏ Local institutions, area-based development and climate change ๏ Emerging work on Indigenous Peoples, gender, conflict and the urban poor Our Goal: Socially inclusive, climate-resilient policies & operations in client countries the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  4. 4. Our starting point 1. Climate change impacts growth in Asia and the Pacific 2. Climate change policy could have long term implications for growth in Asia and the Pacific 3. Responding to the threats and opportunities of climate change alters the context for our work and our institutions the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  5. 5. Our starting point ๏ The changing nature of climate change ๏ A climate of crises ๏ “We do not intend to waste these crises” the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  6. 6. Our Goals: 1. Enhance understanding of vulnerability and resilience 2. Build the capacity of participants to work with climate change 3. Propose principles of equity and governance that can improve the practice of climate change interventions 4. Outline a number of methods and tools that can be used as operational entry points the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  7. 7. Four Part Training 1. What are the social dimensions of climate change? 2. First principles: understanding vulnerability and resilience 3. Pro-poor climate policy: from vulnerability to resilience through sustainable development 4. Methodologies and toolkits: operationalizing the social dimensions of climate change the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  8. 8. What are the social dimensions of climate change? Part 1 Why is this perspective important for Asia and the Pacific? the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  9. 9. What are the social dimensions of climate change? Reconciling socio-ecological systems The complex social responses resulting from climate change The implications of climate change architecture, policy and interventions Building new communities of practice Breaking down disciplinary path dependency Altering process, policies, and interventions Shaping substantive outcomes for vulnerable populations the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  10. 10. IPCC projected natural impacts Temperature rises, extreme weather events, changes in hydrological cycles, sea level rise, threats to unique systems and biodiversity, increase in flooding and storm surges complex social responses Loss of livelihoods; health/fatalities; food/water insecurity; migration; conflict; damage to infrastructure; decline in natural systems services; distribution of impacts equity Process and substantive outcomes for vulnerable populations human rights and other implications Adequate standard of living; minimum means of subsistence; health; food; water; self-determination; property; culture; life; education; gender, indigenous and children
  11. 11. Critical in shaping global policy architecture and responses; instruments and application at the local level; addresses inequalities; reduces vulnerabilities; builds resilience Improved outcomes, adaptive capacity and resilience Technological; knowledge; political; various types of assets (social, physical, natural, financial, human, cultural capital) Enhanced capital and resources Implementation of governance principles across governance scales leads to enhanced capital and resources Improved governance Key to authoritative advocacy for vulnerable populations; providing access to processes; influencing the nature of processes; vital for building constituencies and securing agreement Change analysis and diagnosis
  12. 12. Part 2 first principles: understanding vulnerability and resilience the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  13. 13. Vulnerability according to the IPCC: Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation in which a system is exposed, it's sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity (IPCC 2007a, p21) the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  14. 14. Exposure - the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is subjected, such as: ๏ Risks to unique and threatened systems (coral) ๏ Extreme weather events (storm surges and sea swells) ๏ Reduced agricultural productivity ๏ Increased water insecurity ๏ Increased health risk ๏ Large-scale singularities ๏ Aggregate impacts (impacts worsen over time) the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  15. 15. Exposure in ASIA “The human drama of climate change will largely be played out in Asia, where 60% of the world’s population lives - over half near the coast - making them directly vulnerable to sea level rise” (New Economics Foundation 2007). ๏ A 1m rise in sea level would inundate coastal cities and communities throughout Asia. In 2007 almost 20 million people were displaced as devastating floods hit northern India, Bangladesh and Nepal, affecting food, clean drinking water and medical supplies. Text ๏ Freshwater availability, particularly in large river basins, is projected to decrease. This, along with population growth and increasing demand arising from higher standards of living, could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s (IPCC 2007, p13). ๏ Recent studies suggest that South Asia could experience losses of up to 10 percent of many of its local staples including rice by 2030. Fears over the supply and cost of rice led to food riots and export bans in a number of South Asian countries in 2007 and 2008. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  16. 16. Six Climate Threats: Top Twelve Countries Most at Risk Drought Flood Storm Coastal 1m Coastal 5m Agriculture Malawi Bangladesh Philippines All Low lying All Low lying Sudan Ethiopia China Bangladesh Vietnam Netherlands Senegal Zimbabwe India Madagascar Egypt Japan Zimbabwe India Cambodia Vietnam Tunisia Bangladesh Mali Mozambique Mozambique Moldova Indonesia Philippines Zambia Niger Laos Mongolia Mauritania Egypt Morocco Mauritania Pakistan Haiti China Brazil Niger Eritrea Sri Lanka Samoa Mexico Venezuela India Sudan Thailand Tonga Myanmar Senegal Malawi Chad Vietnam China Bangladesh Fiji Algeria Kenya Benin Honduras Senegal Vietnam Ethiopia Iran Rwanda Fiji Libya Denmark Pakistan Low income Middle income High income Source: World Bank 2008 the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  17. 17. Sensitivity - Intersecting inequalities - produce different experiences of climate change impacts, such as: ๏ Access to information, decision making and justice ๏ Dependence on the environment for livelihoods, food, fuel, shelter and medicine ๏ Geographical context ๏ Financial / socio-economic status ๏ Governance / political economy issues ๏ Gender, age, abilities ๏ Indigenous Peoples ๏ Cultural norms the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  18. 18. Adaptation - “Refers to changes in processes, practices, or structures to moderate or offset potential damages or to take advantage of opportunities associated with changes in climate. It involves adjustments to reduce the vulnerability of communities, regions, or activities to climatic change and variability” (IPCC 2001). Adaptive Capacity - The capacity to mobilize resources to build resilience ๏ Various types of assets (social, physical, natural, financial, human, cultural capital) ๏ Technological ๏ Knowledge ๏ Governance the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  19. 19. Case Study 1: The Maldives the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  20. 20. Case Study 2: Mongolia the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  21. 21. Case Study 3: Bangladesh the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  22. 22. Each participant in the group takes ten minutes to read Country Case Studies: one case study from The Maldives, Mongolia and Bangladesh. When you have finished reading the case studies, present the case to your colleagues, explaining why your chosen country is vulnerable. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  23. 23. Resilience Resilience occurs where adaptive capacity is strong, inequalities are addressed, and exposure minimized. It reflects the ability to deal with change and continue to develop. Just as vulnerable communities are threatened with collapse from climate impacts, a resilient community can anticipate and plan for a sustainable future. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  24. 24. pro-poor climate policy: from vulnerability to resilience through Part 3 sustainable development the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  25. 25. Possible Effects of Climate Change Policy: CO-BENEFITS NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACTS EQUITY INEQUITY RESILIENCE VULNERABILITY the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  26. 26. Climate policy building blocks ๏ Mitigation ๏ Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) ๏ Adaptation ๏ Technology ๏ Finance the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  27. 27. Mitigation ๏ Sources ๏ Sinks / Reservoirs ๏ Sequestration ๏ Substitutes the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  28. 28. Renewable Energy: Co-benefits ๏ GHG Reductions ๏ Economic returns for those who innovate ๏ Employment and local development ๏ Increased security of supply ๏ Reduced emissions of other pollutants and health benefits the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  29. 29. Biofuels: Negative Social Impacts ๏ Questionable GHG reductions potential ๏ Deforestation ๏ Land acquisition and displacement ๏ Impact on food (production, access, prices) ๏ Political instability, corruption and violence the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  30. 30. REDD Agenda ISSUES / ETHICS Reducing Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation ๏ Deforestation is responsible for at least 25%-30% of anthropogenic climate change each year ๏ Forests help to slow climate change by acting as a sink / reservoir for GHG emissions ๏ Assign a price for carbon to cover environmental services and create incentives for forest conservation and management ๏ Effective forest governance is key to success but remains elusive the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  31. 31. Adaptation ๏ Planned versus autonomous adaptation ๏ First Generation ๏ Second Generation ๏ Third Generation (?) the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  32. 32. What Adaptation Strategy? Case 1: Engineering - protecting the land or the person? ๏ Protects vital infrastructure ๏ Deals with exposure but what about sensitivity? ๏ Protects vital utilities ๏ May not target the most vulnerable ๏ Coastal zone management ๏ May not address key system impacts ๏ Seawalls, flood defences, etc.. (ecological and social) the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  33. 33. Technology ๏ Research and innovation ๏ Investment and political will ๏ Development and deployment ๏ Access and supporting structures the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  34. 34. Finance ๏ How much is required? ๏ New and additional? ๏ How to generate funding? ๏ How to disburse / target funding? the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  35. 35. Potential Sources of Climate Finance: Equitable, efficient and effective? Current estimates put the cost of dealing with climate change at between $4bn and $109bn per year (low end from Stern 2006 / high end from UNDP 2007) CDM and Carbon Offset Markets Auctioning of Emissions Rights Emissions Cap and Trade Tax on Financial Transactions (Tobin Tax) GHG Levy Aviation / Shipping tax General taxes and specific funds Carbon Taxes GDP Contribution (0.5% - 1% by developed countries) Baseline ODA (up to 0.7% of GNP) Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to the Bali Brunch, April 2009 the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  36. 36. Equity Vulnerable and marginalized communities are typically least responsible for the cause and least able to deal with the consequences of climate change. “These groups, by lacking a voice and influence in climate change policy making, are unlikely to account for their particular experience. This is likely to exacerbate their position of marginalization or vulnerability further” (Pollack, 2008, p17). the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  37. 37. Unequal responsibilities % GHG Emissions in 2000 Only 17 countries account for 1% or more of global greenhouse gas emissions Together, these 17 countries are responsible for more than 85% of global emissions And yet few of these are amongst those most vulnerable to climate change Source: Data taken from the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI). Aggregates from IEA and others. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  38. 38. Unequal consequences Climate related disasters Some 262 million people were affected by climate disasters annually from 2000 to 2004. In the OECD, one person in every fifteen hundred was affected by climate disaster (1:1500) % of people affected by In the developing world the number climate disasters 2000 - 2004 was one in nineteen (1:19) Developing World OECD A risk differential of 79! Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2007 / 2008 the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  39. 39. Equity The practical application of equity may help to resolve a number of long-standing climate change issues including: ๏ Power and participation ๏ Determining entitlements and access: ๏ Allocating and meeting responsibilities ๏ Mobilizing and building capacities ๏ Prioritizing needs ๏ Striking a balance across space and time the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  40. 40. Global: UNFCC, Kyoto, Bali Roadmap Regional: EU and other initiatives National: Policies at the state level Local / Sub-national: Initiatives at provincial, community and household level the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  41. 41. Rationalize energy, water and agricultural price, tax Incentives incentives, fiscal and expenditure policies Efficiency standards; codes, zoning, climate Regulations screening / proofing of investments Capacity of public, private and financial sector Institutions institutions to assess and act on climate risks and new business opportunities Improve investment climate; deepen financial and Markets capital markets; new markets (cap & trade, CDM, etc...) Education, raising awareness and promoting Public Outreach change in consumer behavior and preferences, public diplomacy Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to the Bali Brunch, April 2009 the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  42. 42. Each participant in the group takes ten minutes to read Thematic Case Studies: one case study on Equity and Governance. How do the principles of equity and governance influence your work? What can we do as a UN family to mainstream these principles in climate change interventions? the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  43. 43. Methods and tools: operationalizing the social dimensions of Part 4 climate change. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  44. 44. What methodologies enhance our understanding of vulnerability and shape our responses to it? Analytical Frameworks A range of analytical frameworks can enhance our understanding of vulnerability. Most emphasize the role of assets as a buffer against vulnerability and the mediating role of institutions. They include: ๏ Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) ๏ Social Risk Management Framework (SRM) ๏ Territorial Development (TD) and Local Institutions the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  45. 45. Frameworks 101 ๏ Vulnerability context influences availability of assets ๏ Access to assets determines level of resilience and adaptive capacity ๏ Institutions determine access to and returns from assets Vulnerability Fi Scales na • Exposure to ial nc S oc ial Risk Institutions • Sensitivity to ASSETS Inclusive Governance Livelihood Phy an Risk protection Stakeholders Hum sica and poverty • Adaptive l reduction Capacity Natural Processes the social dimensions of climate change learning module 46 green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  46. 46. Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) ๏ Vulnerability Context ๏ Livelihood Assets ๏ Transforming Structures and Processes ๏ Livelihood Strategies ๏ Livelihood Outcomes the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  47. 47. Social Risk Management Framework (SRM) ๏ Aims to increase capacity of society to manage climate risks and increase opportunities for sustainable development ๏ Framework applied to identify no-regrets options ๏ Policy menu should balance ex-ante risk prevention, exposure reduction and support for ex-post coping ๏ Interventions can take place at different stages, levels of governance and levels of formality the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  48. 48. Territorial Development ๏ Territorial vision: socio-political area with shared identity ๏ Focus on micro- and meso-linkages across sectors and spatial dimensions of different assets and endowments ๏ Considers endogenous territorial assets to identify a territory’s comparative advantages and relevant development strategy ๏ Holistic - integrates sectoral policies at territorial scale, promotes economic and institutional transformation, and strengthened linkages within a territory the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  49. 49. Which toolkits enhance our understanding of vulnerability and shape our responses to it? Rethinking existing instruments - developing new tools With climate change altering the context for development, the need for new and innovative methodologies and tools is becoming increasingly apparent. The World Bank is adapting existing instruments, developing new toolkits, and monitoring emerging approaches for operationalizing the social dimensions of climate change. These include: ๏ Participatory Scenario Development (PSD) ๏ Preventative Resettlement Toolkit ๏ Human Rights Based Approach ๏ Gender-Based Toolkit the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  50. 50. Each participant in the group takes ten minutes to read Thematic Case Studies: one the case study on Methodologies. Which of these methodologies would be most useful in your work? Are there alternatives? the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  51. 51. The Social Dimensions of Climate Change Concluding thoughts and further resources Climate change impacts are already altering the context for development. Policy responses across scales of governance further alter the context for development. Are we ready for those changes? the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  52. 52. MOVING FROM PRINCIPLES TO PRACTICE (1) ๏ Change the diagnosis ๏ Mobilize new constituencies and communities of practice ๏ Enhance understanding of vulnerability ๏ Recognize the importance of building equity into policy the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  53. 53. MOVING FROM PRINCIPLES TO PRACTICE (2) ๏ Increase resilience and co-benefits with sustainable development through climate interventions ๏ Improve governance and better policy will follow ๏ A variety of new and existing tools can aid this process ๏ Learn the lessons from case studies drawn from different experiences across the globe the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  54. 54. END Further information and learning resources equity the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  55. 55. Climate Change at the World Bank Strategic Framework For Development and Climate Change and Development ๏ Support to climate actions in country-led development processes; ๏ Mobilization of concessional and innovative finance; ๏ The development of innovative market mechanisms to leverage private sector resources; ๏ Acceleration of the development and deployment of new technologies; ๏ Enhanced policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. equity the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  56. 56. Climate Change at the World Bank (2/3) The new Climate Investments Funds (CIF), with donor pledges of more than US$ 6 billion includes: ๏ A Clean Technology Fund to facilitate demonstration, deployment, and transfer of low-carbon technologies ๏ A Strategic Climate Fund, which focuses on vulnerable nations, tries to maximize co-benefits of sustainable development, and features a pilot program for enhancing climate resilience. equity the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  57. 57. Social Development at the World Bank The Social Development Department aims to empower poor and marginalized women and men through a process of transforming institutions for greater inclusion, cohesion and accountability. Thematic focus includes: ๏ Social Policy Analysis ๏ Local Governance and Community Driven Development ๏ Conflict, Crime and Violence ๏ Indigenous Peoples and Involuntary Resettlement ๏ The Social Dimensions of Climate Change the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  58. 58. visit our website: www.worldbank.org/sdcc the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  59. 59. “I am confident that the innovative global agenda that this workshop has launched will lead to a holistic analysis of climate change impacts on human and social systems, increase our understanding of vulnerability, and strengthen our capacity to build social justice, accountability and equity into climate policy”. Katherine Sierra Vice President, Sustainable Development Network The World Bank Further Reading: SDCC Workshop Summary Report (World Bank, 2009) the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  60. 60. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report, 2007 The Economics of Climate Change (Stern Review), 2006 United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Human Development Report (HDR), 2007 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), 2005 World Bank Group Strategic Framework For Development and Climate Change (SFDCC), 2008 the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  61. 61. Adger, N (2006) Vulnerability The challenges for vulnerability research are to incorporate diverse methods that include perceptions of risk and vulnerability, and to incorporate governance research on the mechanisms that mediate vulnerability and promote adaptive action and resilience. Burton, I et al (2002) From Impacts Assessment to Adaptation Priorities: the Shaping of Adaptation Policy The emphasis shifts from the question of gross and net impacts to questions of vulnerability, and how and where to deploy adaptation responses. Brooks, N (2003) Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: A conceptual framework Adaptation by a system may be inhibited by process originating outside the system; it is therefore important to consider “external” obstacles to adaptation, and links across scales, when assessing adaptive capacity. Turner, B et al (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science Changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? McGray, H et al (2007) Weathering the Storm: Options for framing adaptation and development Any effective development planning process will need to take climate change into account— and, more particularly, will need to facilitate adaptation to the effects of climate change. O’Brien, K et al (2004) What’s in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research Different interpretations of vulnerability have major implications for how the issue of climate change is addressed by policy makers, leads to different diagnoses of the climate change problem, and also to different kinds of cures. the social dimensions of climate change learning module green jobs for green growth in Asia and the Pacific
  62. 62. Thank you for your attention! www.worldbank.org/sdcc

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