American University 16 June 2010 Pdf

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This presentation, delivered at American University in Washington DC in June 2010, examined the interface between climate change and human rights.

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American University 16 June 2010 Pdf

  1. 1. From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Reconciling climate change, development and human rights American University Washington College of Law Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010 Presentation by Edward Cameron ecameron@worldbank.org
  2. 2. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  3. 3. PURPOSE of today’s lecture Assess how climate change interacts with development Examine the interface between human rights and climate change Explore the role of governance in the transition to low carbon climate-resilient development American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  4. 4. PURPOSE of today’s lecture The WHY of human rights and climate change is as important today as the WHAT! We want to understand why vulnerable populations are turning to this approach; what challenges they have faced; what the results have been; and what the implications are going forward. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  5. 5. SCOPE of today’s lecture Climate Change and Development Climate Change and Human Rights Governance HR and CC: Limits and possibilities American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  6. 6. Learning Methods Presentation Interactive Assignments Shared expertise American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  7. 7. Learning Methods READ the case studies RESPOND to the questions RELATE the to your own country / work REPORT your conclusions for an open discussion American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  8. 8. Climate Change: An assessment “Like a stranger who has just blown into town, climate change seems a presence without a past”. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  9. 9. Climate Change: An assessment Unequivocal means that climate change is real and undeniable Accelerating means that the effect is getting worse “Very Likely” Anthropogenic implies a probability of more than 90% that it is human induced and not the result of natural causes American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  10. 10. Climate Change: An assessment “Man can perceive the problematic, yet he does not understand the origins, significance, and interrelationships of its many components and thus is unable to devise an effective response”. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  11. 11. Climate Change: An assessment “Perhaps the greatest weakness of sustainable development lies in the fact that we have not yet begun to invent a politics to go with the concept”. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  12. 12. Climate Change and Development Part 1 An additional stress on an already stressed system American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  13. 13. Vulnerability Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation in which a system is EXPOSED, it's SENSITIVITY, and its ADAPTIVE CAPACITY (IPCC 2007a, p21) American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  14. 14. Exposure to Risk Exposure - the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is subjected, such as: ๏Risks to unique and threatened systems (coral) ๏Extreme weather events (storm surges and sea swells) ๏Reduced agricultural productivity ๏Increased water insecurity ๏Increased health risk ๏Large-scale singularities ๏Aggregate impacts (impacts worsen over time) American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  15. 15. Exposure in ASIA Exposure to Risk “The human drama of climate change will largely be played out in Asia, where 60% of the world’s population lives - over half near the coast - making them directly vulnerable to sea level rise” (New Economics Foundation 2007). ๏ A 1m rise in sea level would inundate coastal cities and communities throughout Asia. In 2007 almost 20 million people were displaced as devastating floods hit northern India, Bangladesh and Nepal. ๏ Freshwater availability, particularly in large river basins, is projected to decrease. This, along with population growth and increasing demand arising from higher standards of living, could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s (IPCC 2007, p13). ๏ South Asia could experience losses of up to 10 percent of many of its local staples including rice by 2030. Fears over the supply and cost of rice led to food riots and export bans in a number of South Asian countries in 2007 and 2008.
  16. 16. Six Climate Threats: Top Twelve Countries Most at Risk Exposure to Risk Drought Flood Storm Coastal 1m Coastal 5m Agriculture Malawi Bangladesh Philippines All Low lying All Low lying Sudan Ethiopia China Bangladesh Vietnam Netherlands Senegal Zimbabwe India Madagascar Egypt Japan Zimbabwe India Cambodia Vietnam Tunisia Bangladesh Mali Mozambique Mozambique Moldova Indonesia Philippines Zambia Niger Laos Mongolia Mauritania Egypt Morocco Mauritania Pakistan Haiti China Brazil Niger Eritrea Sri Lanka Samoa Mexico Venezuela India Sudan Thailand Tonga Myanmar Senegal Malawi Chad Vietnam China Bangladesh Fiji Algeria Kenya Benin Honduras Senegal Vietnam Ethiopia Iran Rwanda Fiji Libya Denmark Pakistan Low income Middle income High income Source: World Bank 2008 American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  17. 17. Sensitivity Sensitivity - Intersecting inequalities - produce different experiences of climate change impacts: ๏ Geographic context ๏ Dependence on the environment for livelihoods, food, fuel, shelter and medicine ๏ Asset and Resource deficiency ๏ Governance / political economy issues American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  18. 18. Sensitivity Who are vulnerable? ๏ Women ๏ Indigenous Peoples ๏ The urban poor ๏ Inhabitants of small island states ๏ Vulnerability is not a uniform taxonomy American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  19. 19. Poverty, hunger and increased water scarcity ๏ Temperature rises beyond 2°C will increase the number of people at risk of poverty and hunger, leaving an additional 600 million facing acute malnutrition by the 2080s ๏ The Stern review predicted that temperature rises of 2°C will result in as many as 4 billion people experiencing growing water shortages. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  20. 20. Loss of livelihoods ๏ The livelihoods of roughly 450 million of the world’s poorest people are entirely dependent on managed ecosystem services. 2.6bn people are dependent on agriculture. ๏ Livelihood sources of the poor are usually narrow and climate-sensitive. In periods of stress they draw down on a variety of assets and resources leaving them further exposed to the next risk. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  21. 21. Health and fatalities ๏ Vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and yellow fever are expected to increase. At present, approximately 40 percent of the world’s population is at risk from malaria but this number is projected to rise to 80 percent by 2080. ๏ The number of deaths from weather-related disasters and gradual environmental degradation due to climate change is expected to jump to about 500,000 people per year. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  22. 22. Involuntary displacement and migration ๏ The IPCC and the Stern Review state that by 2050, up to 200 million people may be permanently displaced due to climate change, while UNDP estimates that global temperature increases of 3–4°C could result in 330 million people being permanently or temporarily displaced as a result of flooding. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  23. 23. Increased incidence of violent conflict ๏ Climate change acts as a “threat multiplier” that heightens the conditions for internal conflict, sows the seeds of instability in already volatile regions, and increases the likelihood of failed states. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  24. 24. Damage to infrastructure and utilities ๏ Slow and rapid climate impacts destroys assets and infrastructure ๏ Public utilities can be severely undermined with impacts on long-term development American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  25. 25. Opportunity cost of climate change responses ๏ Valuable assets are diverted from development to combat climate change impacts ๏ Climate change mitigation may alter the way we look at livelihood diversification and access to affordable energy American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  26. 26. Adaptive Capacity Adaptation - “Refers to changes in processes, practices, or structures to moderate or offset potential damages or to take advantage of opportunities associated with changes in climate (IPCC 2001). Adaptive Capacity - The capacity to mobilize resources to build resilience ๏Various types of assets ๏Technological ๏Knowledge ๏Governance American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  27. 27. Adaptive Capacity Strengthening adaptive capacity by building assets, capital and resources ๏Human ๏Social and cultural ๏Natural ๏Physical ๏Financial ๏Research and Innovation American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  28. 28. Resilience Resilience occurs where adaptive capacity is strong, inequalities are addressed, and exposure minimized. It reflects the ability to deal with change and continue to develop. American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  29. 29. Participatory Exercise read, respond, relate, report Task 1: Read (10 mins) Task 2: Prepare responses to questions (5 mins) Task 3: Open discussion (20 mins) American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  30. 30. Climate Change and Human Rights Part 2 From the margins to the mainstream American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  31. 31. Human Rights or Human Rights Law? First Principles Political and Legal Goals Legal Conceptual Frameworks Legal Broad Disciplines Narrow Lacking Rigor Intensive Core Instruments Common Sources Core Instruments Wide Rights and Obligations Narrow Wide Institutions Narrow Wide Measures / Instruments Narrow Global Jurisdictions Strictly defined The Court of Public Pressure Points The Courts Opinion To be determined Limits and Possibilities To be determined To be determined Outcomes To be determined American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  32. 32. Why have vulnerable populations turned to human rights? ๏ Frustration ๏ Urgency and ambition ๏ Public Diplomacy ๏ Improve analysis ๏ Responsibility and accountability ๏ “A game-changer” ๏ Redress, justice and compensation American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  33. 33. A series of game changers ASIL 104th Annual Meeting From the Margins to the Mainstream: International law in a time of change The possibilities and limits of climate justice Panel on International Environmental Justice Washington, DC | 26 March 2010
  34. 34. What challenges have they faced? ๏ The complexities of Climate Change ๏ The politics of Climate Change ๏ The politics of Human Rights ๏ The perceived shortcomings of Human Rights ๏ The profile of the advocates American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  35. 35. What results have they achieved? ๏ Increased visibility ๏ Breaking down of path dependency ๏ Moral and political authority ๏ Greater advocacy American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  36. 36. What are the long-term implications? ๏ Change the debate ๏ Mobilize new constituencies ๏ Analysis ๏ Risk management ๏ Process ๏ Instruments - rethinking old ones and developing new ones ๏ Monitoring and evaluation ๏ Substantive outcomes American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  37. 37. Governance and Climate Change Part 3 The road ahead American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  38. 38. The Building Blocks ๏ Mitigation ๏ Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) ๏ Adaptation ๏ Technology ๏ Finance American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  39. 39. Finance Estimates put the cost of climate change at between $4bn and $109bn per year (Stern 2006 / UNDP 2007) ๏How much is required? ๏New and additional? ๏How to generate funding? ๏How to disburse / target funding? American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  40. 40. Finance CDM and Carbon Offset Markets Auctioning of Emissions Rights Emissions Cap and Trade Tax on Financial Transactions (Tobin Tax) GHG Levy Aviation / Shipping tax General taxes and specific funds Carbon Taxes GDP Contribution (0.5% - 1%) Baseline ODA (up to 0.7% of GNP) Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to the Bali Brunch, April 2009 American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  41. 41. Scales and Principles Vulnerable communities are least responsible for the cause and least able to deal with the Global: consequences of climate change. UNFCC, Kyoto, Bali Roadmap Regional: EU and other initiatives National: Policies at the state level Local / Sub-national: Initiatives at provincial, community and household level American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  42. 42. Scales and Principles Rationalize energy, water and agricultural price, tax Incentives incentives, fiscal and expenditure policies Efficiency standards; codes, zoning, climate Regulations screening / proofing of investments Capacity of public, private and financial sector Institutions institutions to assess and act on climate risks and new business opportunities Improve investment climate; deepen financial and Markets capital markets; new markets (cap & trade, CDM, etc...) Education, raising awareness and promoting Public Outreach change in consumer behavior and preferences, public diplomacy American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  43. 43. A human rights-based approach to climate change Part 4 Limits and Possibilities American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  44. 44. A human rights-based approach to climate change Possibilities and Limits ๏ Does climate change violate human rights? ๏ Does climate change undermine the realization of rights? ๏ Does it matter? American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  45. 45. A human rights-based approach to climate change Possibilities and Limits ๏ Can Human Rights provide added value to climate responses? ๏ What role for Human Rights in climate governance? ๏ Can Human Rights improve substantive outcomes for vulnerable populations? American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  46. 46. A human rights-based approach to climate change Possibilities and Limits ๏ Climate Change and Human Rights in your country: help or hindrance? American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010
  47. 47. The Choice From the Margins to the Mainstream? The prospects and implications of this interface rest on it demonstrating instrumental added value. This involves demonstrating utility in four issue areas: analysis, governance, risk management, and integration with existing institutional incentives and priorities. Human rights can also be a powerful tool for advocacy and can be a transformative political tool. ASIL 104th Annual Meeting From the Margins to the Mainstream: International law in a time of change The possibilities and limits of climate justice Panel on International Environmental Justice Washington, DC | 26 March 2010
  48. 48. Thank you for your participation edwardcameron@yahoo.com American University From Human Impacts to Human Rights: Washington College of Law Reconciling climate change, development and human rights Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Washington, DC | 16 June 2010

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