EMC 2410 Lecture 15 - Content Control
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EMC 2410 Lecture 15 - Content Control EMC 2410 Lecture 15 - Content Control Presentation Transcript

  • EMC 2410 Intro to Electronic Media Edward Bowen Lecture FourteenYou Can‟t Say / Do / Hear / See That
  • GuidelinesTwitter:http://support.twitter.com/articles/18311-the-twitter-rules• Violence and Threats: You may not publish or post direct, specific threats of violence against others.• Unlawful Use: You may not use our service for any unlawful purposes or for promotion of illegal activities. International users agree to comply with all local laws regarding online conduct and acceptable content.• Pornography: You may not use obscene or pornographic images in either your profile picture or user background
  • GuidelinesSeptember 15, 2009"In the process of reporting on remarks by PresidentObama that were made during a CNBC interview, ABCNews employees prematurely tweeted a portion ofthose remarks that turned out to be from an off-the-record portion of the interview. This was done beforeour editorial process had been completed. That waswrong. We apologize to the White House and CNBCand are taking steps to ensure that it will not happenagain.” ABC spokesperson View slide
  • GuidelinesL.A. Times Twitter Guidelines:• Integrity is our most important commodity: Avoid writing or posting anything that would embarrass The Times or compromise your ability to do your job.• Assume that your professional life and your personal life will merge online regardless of your care in separating them.• Even if you use privacy tools (determining who can view your page or profile, for instance), assume that everything you write, exchange or receive on a social media site is public.• Just as political bumper stickers and lawn signs are to be avoided in the offline world, so too are partisan expressions online. View slide
  • GuidelinesWashington Post Twitter Guidelines:• When using these networks, nothing we do must call into question the impartiality of our news judgment. We never abandon the guidelines that govern the separation of news from opinion, the importance of fact and objectivity, the appropriate use of language and tone, and other hallmarks of our brand of journalism.”• Post journalists must refrain from writing, tweeting or posting anything – including photographs or video – that could be perceived as reflecting political racial, sexist, religious or other bias or favoritism that could be used to tarnish our journalistic credibility.
  • GuidelinesFacebookhttp://www.facebook.com/terms.php• You will not bully, intimidate, or harass any user.• You will not post content that: is hateful, threatening, or pornographic; incites violence; or contains nudity or graphic or gratuitous violence.• You will not use Facebook to do anything unlawful, misleading, malicious, or discriminatory.• You will not do anything that could disable, overburden, or impair the proper working of Facebook, such as a denial of service attack.• You will not facilitate or encourage any violations of this Statement.
  • GuidelinesFacebookhttp://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/06/facebookfollow/
  • GuidelinesYouTubehttp://www.youtube.com/t/termsYouTube reserves the right to decide whether Contentviolates these Terms of Service for reasons other thancopyright infringement, such as, but not limited to,pornography, obscenity, or excessive length. YouTubemay at any time, without prior notice and in its solediscretion, remove such Content and/or terminate auser‟s account for submitting such material in violationof these Terms of Service.
  • GuidelinesAnonymousDDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks onMasterCard and Visa websitesTwitter Subpoenashttp://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/
  • Television Pioneers - Rod Serling• “Patterns” (Kraft Theatre - 1955)• “Requiem for a Heavyweight” (Playhouse 90 – 1957)• “The Arena” (Studio One - 1956)• “A Town Has Turned to Dust” (Playhouse 90 -1958)• “The Twilight Zone” (Series: 1959 – 1964)• “The Loner” (Series: 1965-1966)• “Night Gallery” (Series: 1969 – 1973)
  • Television Pioneers - Rod Serling• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77SEuyeQAAg• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJSjsoE7gcg
  • Television Pioneers - Edward R. Murrow and Rod Serling
  • Television Pioneers - Edward R. Murrow and Rod Serling• Both were well-respected and critically lauded in their fields.• Both produced thought-provoking and socially relevant material.• Both fought against network and sponsor censorship of their work.• Each found their careers stalled when they fought the system.
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund• Director of Photography on over 100 films from 1911 to 1950, including …
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund • Director of Photography on over 100 films from 1911 to 1950, including … • “Metropolis” (1927)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7j8Ba9rWhUg
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund • Director of Photography on over 100 films from 1911 to 1950. • He directed the original “The Mummy” in 1933.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2645yn0Wmqk
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund • Director of Photography on over 100 films from 1911 to 1950. • He won the Academy Award for “The Good Earth” (1937).http://www.tcm.com/mediaroom/video/337833/Good-Earth-The-Movie-Clip-A-Tree-Will-Grow.htmlhttp://www.tcm.com/mediaroom/video/29291/Good-Earth-The-Movie-Clip-A-Plague-Of-Locusts.html
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund• Director of Photography on over 100 films from 1911 to 1950.• And was a lifelong technical innovator.
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund• In 1951, he was asked by Lucille Ball and Desi Arnez to devise a method for producing their upcoming show “I Love Lucy,” on film.
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund • Freund set the standards by which television programs, specifically situation comedies, would be shot for decades to come.http://www.lucyfan.com/freundfilming.html http://www.lucyfan.com/filmingthe.html
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund• Freund set the standards by which television programs, specifically situation comedies, would be shot for decades to come.• Three film cameras, on dollies, shooting simultaneously.• Interconnecting sets.• A live audience.• Live music accompaniment.• Uniform, high key light.• Low contrast sets and wardrobe.
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund• Freund set the standards by which television programs, specifically situation comedies, would be shot for decades to come.• Three film cameras, on dollies, shooting simultaneously.• Interconnecting sets.• A live audience.• Live music accompaniment.• Uniform, high key light.• Low contrast sets and wardrobe.With this method they shot a half hour episode each week in one hour.
  • Television Pioneers - Karl Freund • The episodes would then be edited on three interlocked Moviola editing machines.http://www.lucyfan.com/danncahnremembers1.html https://www.editorsguild.com/FromtheGuild.cfm?FromTheGuildid=119
  • Television Pioneers - Lucille Ball• And would end up looking like this:
  • Television Pioneers - Lucille BallLove and Marriage:• In 1951, at least 16 states had laws against interracial marriage.• And at least 8 specifically prohibited marriage between a white and an Hispanic.
  • Television Pioneers - Lucille BallLove and Marriage:• In the movies and on television, married couples were only seen occupying double beds.
  • Television Pioneers - Lucille BallLove and Marriage:• And even when the storyline of the show included the birth of the couple‟s son, the word “pregnant” was not allowed.
  • Television Pioneers - Lucille Ball Love and Marriage: • And even when the storyline of the show included the birth of the couple‟s son, the word “pregnant” was not allowed.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P27oUog2BpM
  • So…• They did not want Edward R. Murrow to broadcast his McCarthy program.• They did not want Rod Serling to write about Emmett Till.• They removed references to “gas chambers” in Serling‟s “Judgment at Nuremberg,” and Coke bottles from “Noon on Doomsday.”• They did not want Lucille Ball to have an Hispanic husband.• And they would not let her use the word “pregnant.”
  • • They also …• Hid Elvis Presley‟s gyrating hips.
  • • They also …• Tried to stop Milton Berle from having the Step Brothers on The Texaco Star Theatre.
  • • They also … • Objected to the level of violence in early television.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqyojnM9tlc
  • • They also … • Had trouble with this …http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NmMRLQIPHk
  • • They also … • Had trouble with this …http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knw1CeU-HK4
  • Television Pioneers - Jack Parr• They also …• Took exception to this joke from Jack Parr, and edited it out of his program.
  • Television Pioneers - Jack Paar• Hosted “The Tonight Show” from 1957 to 1962, succeeding Steve Allen.• In doing so he invented the late night talk show format that continues to this day.• He moved to format to prime time as “The Jack Paar Program” from 1962 to 1965.
  • Television Pioneers - Jack PaarJack Paar - As I Was Saying …
  • Their objections center around four issues• Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs)• George Carlin: “Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television” (1972)
  • Their objections center around four issues• Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs)George Carlin: “Seven Words You Can Never Say onTelevision” (1972)• S**t• P**s• F**k• C**t• C********r• M**********r• and t**s
  • Their objections center around four issues• Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs)George Carlin: “Seven Words You Can Never Say onTelevision” (1972)October 30, 1973: WBAI-FM broadcast a subsequentversion of the routine.
  • Their objections center around four issues• Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs)George Carlin: “Seven Words You Can Never Say onTelevision” (1972)October 30, 1973: WBAI-FM broadcast a subsequentversion of the routine.Complaint to the FCC leads to a Supreme Court decisionsupporting the FCC‟s power to regulate indecency on theairwaves.
  • Their objections center around four issues • Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs) George Carlin: “Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television” (1972)http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/174956/june-24-2008/the-word---bleep
  • Their objections center around four issues• Language (especially expletives relating to excremental function, sex, and sexual organs)• Sex and Nudity• Violence• RaceBut the question is …WHO IS “THEY?”
  • • Are they …• The Government?• The Networks?• The Sponsors?• The Advertising Agencies?• The Viewers?
  • • Are they …• The Government?• The Networks?• The Sponsors?• The Advertising Agencies?• The Viewers?YES
  • censor• Verb• transitive verb: to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable <censor the news>; also: to suppress or delete as objectionable <censor out indecent passages>
  • Congress shall make no lawrespecting an establishment ofreligion, or prohibiting the freeexercise thereof; or abridging thefreedom of speech, or of the press;or the right of the people peaceablyto assemble, and to petition theGovernment for a redress ofgrievances.
  • Congress shall make no lawrespecting an establishment ofreligion, or prohibiting the freeexercise thereof; or abridging thefreedom of speech, or of the press;or the right of the people peaceablyto assemble, and to petition theGovernment for a redress ofgrievances.
  • Except …Obscenity, child pornography, or speech thatconstitutes “advocacy of the use of force or of lawviolation ... where such advocacy is directed to incitingor producing imminent lawless action and is likely toincite or produce such action.” (No protection)
  • Except …Obscenity, child pornography, or speech thatconstitutes “advocacy of the use of force or of lawviolation ... where such advocacy is directed to incitingor producing imminent lawless action and is likely toincite or produce such action.” (No protection)andCommercial speech, defamation (libel and slander),speech that may be harmful to children, speechbroadcast on radio and television, and publicemployees‟ speech. (Limited protection).
  • Radio Act of 1927Created the Federal Radio Commission, precursor tothe Federal Communications Commission, with thepower to grant and deny licenses, and to assignfrequencies and power levels for each licensee.Prohibited "obscene, indecent, or profane language.”Allowed programming to be considered whenrenewing licenses.Established principal that the radio spectrum belongsto “the people” and can therefore be regulated …… and that broadcasting is protected by the FirstAmendment, but a unique medium requiring specialtreatment.
  • Communications Act of 1934• Establishes the Federal Communications Commission.• Title I (Structure): Seven member commission (reduced to five in 1983) appointed by the president and approved by Congress. Chairman selected by president• Title II: Common carriers (telephone and microwave providers), interstate and international commerce.• Title III: Broadcast station requirements• Section 326 prohibits commission censorship of broadcast stations.• Section 315 - Equal Time Rule, Fairness Doctrine• Federal law makes obscene or indecent language over a broadcast station illegal.• Title VI extends regulatory power to cable television.
  • Federal Communication Commission• Provides broadcast licenses• The powers to license, short- license, withhold, fine, revoke or renew broadcast licenses and construction permits, based on "public interest, convenience and necessity"• Classifies stations and prescribes services• Assigns frequencies and power• Approves equipment and mandates standards for levels of interference• Makes regulations for stations with network affiliations• Prescribes qualifications for station owners and operators• Levies fines and forfeitures• Issues cease and desist orders.
  • Federal Communication CommissionBroadcasting• The Scarcity Rationale• Conflict in Licensing• Intrusiveness• PICON Standard (Public Interest, Convenience, or Necessity)
  • Federal Communication CommissionCable• The Scarcity Rationale• Conflict in Licensing• Intrusiveness• PICON Standard (Public Interest, Convenience, or Necessity)
  • Federal Communication CommissionIt is a violation of federal law to air obscene programming at any time. It is also a violation offederal law to broadcast indecent or profane programming during certain hours. Congresshas given the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) the responsibility foradministratively enforcing the law that governs these types of broadcasts.The FCC has authority to issue civil monetary penalties, revoke a license or deny a renewalapplication. In addition, violators of the law, if convicted in a federal district court, are subjectto criminal fines and/or imprisonment for not more than two years. The FCC vigorouslyenforces this law where we find violations. In 2004 alone, the FCC took action in 12 cases,involving hundreds of thousands of complaints, assessing penalties and voluntary paymentstotaling approximately $8,000,000. The Commission has also toughened its enforcementpenalties by proposing monetary penalties based on each indecent utterance in a broadcast,rather than proposing a single monetary penalty for the entire broadcast.At the same time, however, the Commission is careful of First Amendment protections andthe prohibitions on censorship and interference with broadcasters freedom of speech. TheFCC has denied complaints in cases in which we determined the broadcast was not indecentbased on the overall context of the programming. Regardless of the outcome, the FCCstrives to address every complaint within 9 months of its receipt.From the FCC website
  • Federal Communication Commission WLBThttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oEfMVzeGd8Qhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WLBT
  • Federal Communication CommissionApril 22, 2004: "I believe that Muslims in this country are afifth column.... The vast majority of Muslims in this countryare very obviously loyal, not to the United States, but to theirreligion. And Im worried that when the time comes for themto stand up and be counted, the reason they are here is totake over our culture and eventually take over our country …You think we should befriend them; I think we should killthem. Jay Severin, WTKK, Boston http://youtu.be/SvzfQD5OYA0 http://youtu.be/oe3LRp9pQP8
  • Federal Communication CommissionAfter over 80 complaints to the FCC:No “clear and present danger of serious substantive evil.”
  • Federal Communication Commission • Cher (2002 Billboard Music Awards): F*** „em.” • Bono (2003 Golden Globe Awards): “This is really, really f***ing brilliant.” • Nicole Richie (2003 Billboard Music Awards): “Have you ever tried to get cow**** out of a Prada purse. It‟s not so f***ing simple.” • Libra (2008 Big Brother episode): “Memphis was in the f***ing room.” • Jenny Slate (2009 Saturday Night Live) “I f***ing love you for that.” • Joe Biden (2010 Press Conference): “This is a f***ing big deal.”https://www.parentstv.org/ptc/action/bigbrother10/main.asp
  • Federal Communication Commission The final straw … Super Bowl XXXVIII (2004) Halftime Wardrobe Malfunctionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOLbERWVR30
  • Federal Communication CommissionThe Fallout:• Crackdown on indecency in broadcasting, including daytime television• Record $550,000 fine against CBS• Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005• Increase of the FCC fine per indecency violation from $27,500 to $325,000• Clear Channel removes Howard Stern from several markets.• Annual Victoria‟s Secret Fashion Show cancelled• George W. Bush reelected president
  • “Superbowl XXXVIII”• 2004: Wardrobe Malfunction• Amount of time the nipple spent on-air: 1.01 seconds• Cost to NFL (in sponsor refunds): $10 million• Ranking among 2004 Internet searchers: 1• Ranking in TiVoís "most rewound moments": 1• Number of American complaints to the network: more than 500,000• Number of Canadian complaints: about 50
  • Federal Communication CommissionThe Fallout:• After cases ping-pong from circuit to Supreme court and back again …• 2008: In Federal Communications Commission v. Fox, the Supreme Court upheld the fleeting expletive rule, but failed to rule on the first amendment implications.
  • Federal Communication CommissionJuly 2010• A Federal Appeals Court strikes down FCC‟s fleeting expletive policy.• Cited several examples of chilled speech, including:• a Vermont stations refusal to air a political debate because one local politician previously had used expletives on the air, and• a Moosic, Pa., stations decision to no longer provide live coverage of news events unless they affect matters of public safety or convenience.
  • Federal Communication CommissionEnforcement Actionshttp://www.fcc.gov/eb/Welcome.html
  • The Networks - Standards and PracticesSelf-RegulationNational Association of Broadcasters Code (1950)• “Advancement of education and culture”• Community responsibility• Responsibility toward children• General program standards• Suspended in 1976 when Family Hour ruled unconstitutional• Advertising standards limiting number and length commercials (largely abolished in 1982)
  • The Networks - Standards and PracticesSelf-Regulation and Self-Censorship• Societal responsibility• To counter potential governmental censorship• To preserve the network brand• To maintain the desired audience• To keep advertisers and sponsors• To avoid issues of liability
  • The Networks - Standards and PracticesContent Rating
  • The Networks - Standards and Practices “M*A*S*H””http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlpvonVbH-c
  • The Networks - Standards and Practices “Bones”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EnkO2XKEncw
  • The Networks - Standards and Practiceshttp://www.thedailybeast.com/video/item/conan-obrien-versus-standards-and-practices
  • Television Pioneers - Sylvester “Pat” Weaver• President of NBC, 1953 - 1955; Chairman 1955 -1956• Introduced the practice of networks producing their own television programming, then selling advertising time during the broadcasts, reducing the influence of individual sponsors.• Created “Today” and “The Tonight Show”• 1994: Its very disappointing, he said. Theres occasional good things on, but theres no consistent arts programming.
  • The Sponsors and Agencies• 1950‟s: Sponsors demand that those with purported Communist affiliations be blacklisted.• Westinghouse Electric once tried to change the title of Rudyard Kiplings “The Light that Failed.”• 1959: "Playhouse 90 - Judgment at Nuremberg” All references to gas chambers eliminated from its re-enactment of the Nazi trials at the behest of the shows sponsor, the American Gas Association.• 1964: General Motors threatened to withdrawal from Bonanza should an episode starring black actors William Marshall, Fria Hartman, and Ken Renard be aired. After confrontations with NBC and the NAACP, as well as considerable negative publicity, General Motors reversed its position. The episode, "Enter Thomas Bowers," was telecast on April 26 as scheduled.
  • The Sponsors and Agencies• Product placement:• Cisco technology has featured in a number of TV shows and movies, and if youre a fan of the blockbuster series 24 you will be well aware of how Cisco technology has helped Jack Bauer save the world!• When you see Cisco solutions in action on TV or in the movies you can better understand how our network technology is transforming the way we communicate and collaborate.• Watch the clips, find out more about the technology behind the scenes, or check out other TV shows and movies that feature Cisco technology.Look out for these shows on DVD!http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/UK/about/tvmovies.html#~CSI:%20NY
  • The Sponsors and AgenciesProduct placement:2004http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-may-4-2004/back-in-black---product-placement
  • The Sponsors and AgenciesProduct placement:2007http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid271557392?bctid=1333281767
  • The Sponsors and Agencies Product placement: “30 Rock”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jGx3PBdb4f8
  • The Sponsors and Agencies Product placement: “30 Rock”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jGx3PBdb4f8
  • The Sponsors and AgenciesProduct placement:2008http://www.charlierose.com/view/clip/9608
  • The Viewers (Special Interest Groups)November 2010PTC Report Notes “Sharp Rise” in Primetime BroadcastProfanityParents Television Council says its new report documents a "sharprise" in profanity in prime time broadcast TV, both in frequency and"harshness." In a study of the first two weeks of prime time in 2010compared to the same period in 2005, PTC says there has been a69.3% increase in the past five years, with the greatest increasecoming in the 8-9 p.m. time period that was once the so-called familyhour. PTC President Tim Winter attributes the rise to the courtchallenges to the FCCs authority to regulate indecency. PTC says 111f-words have been used in the family hour in 2010, vs. 10 in 2005,and a total of 276 vs. 11 in all prime time periods of 2005.(John Eggerton, Broadcasting & Cable Online, Nov. 9, 2010)
  • The Viewers (Special Interest Groups) September 2010 Sesame Street Pulls Perry Segment Sesame Workshop has decided not to air a parody featuring Katy Perry after complaints that her costume was too revealing, following the segments preview on YouTube. "Sesame Street has a long history of working with celebrities across all genres, including athletes, actors, musicians and artists," said Sesame Workshop in a statement. "Sesame Street has always been written on two levels, for the child and adult. In light of the feedback weve received on the Katy Perry music video, which was released on YouTube only, we have decided we will not air the segment on the television broadcast of Sesame Street, which is aimed at preschoolers.” But it added that "Katy Perry fans will still be able to view the video on www.katyperry.com."http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHROHJlU_Ng
  • The Viewers (Special Interest Groups) September 2010 Sesame Street Pulls Perry Segmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHROHJlU_Ng
  • The Viewers (Special Interest Groups) September 2010 Sesame Street Pulls Perry Segmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHROHJlU_Ng
  • The Viewers (Special Interest Groups)September 2010PTC Shifts $#*! My Dad Says Campaign to Local StationsThe Parents Television Council is taking its campaign against CBSsnew show, “$#*! My Dad Says,” to the local level. It had beentargeting national advertisers - a spokesperson said it has contactedover 300 advertisers - but said Sept. 21 that it would shift thecampaign to "grassroots activists" who will " take their concernsdirectly to their hometown CBS affiliates and each affiliates localadvertisers." PTC President Tim winter says that PTC members willkeep track of the local advertisers in the show and get in their facesover that decision. CBS has said that the show "will in no way beindecent and will adhere to all CBS standards," adding that: "Parentswho choose to do so will find the show can easily be blocked usingtheir V-Chip.”(John Eggerton, Broadcasting & Cable Online, Sept. 21, 2010)
  • Pearl Jam and President Bushhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQH1tp8_zAA
  • Pearl Jam and President Bushhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybc9mcBIcWY
  • “South Park” • 2006: Mohammedhttp://www.southparkstudios.com/clips/103667/a-crap-cartoon
  • "It is neither realistic nor constitutionally sound toread the First Amendment as requiring thatpeople of Maine or Mississippi accept publicdepiction of conduct found tolerable in LasVegas or New York City.”Supreme Court Ruling, 1973