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EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
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EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television

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Transcript

  • 1. EMC 2410
    Intro to Electronic Media
    Edward Bowen
    Lecture Nine
    Radio After “The Golden Age”
  • 2. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?
    News and News Talk
    Political Talk
    Religion and Religious Talk
    Sports and Sports Talk
    Classic Country
    Gospel Music
    Spanish Language
    Adult Contemporary (Easy Listening)
    Public Radio
  • 3. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?
    At 1020 KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh …
    “We broadcast news and talk programming 24 hours a day over a 50,000-watt signal that at night reaches 38 states and several Canadian provinces. In the Pittsburgh area, listen to us crystal-clear on your HD radio at 1020 AM and on the HD-3 channel of our sister station: KDKA-FM (93.7).”
  • 4. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?
    Music
    (with a little talk and public radio in assigned frequencies)
  • 5. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?
    At Sportsradio 93.7 The Fan KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh
    “…local sports programming 24 hours a day, 7 days a week … with unbiased and unfiltered opinions on Pittsburgh sports, 93-7 The Fan’s most important voice is its listeners, THE FANS.”
  • 6. KDKA Pittsburgh
    "This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.” - Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.
  • 7. KDKA Pittsburgh
    "This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.” - Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.
  • 8. KDKA Pittsburgh
    November 2, 1920 - The First broadcast by a commercially licensed radio station
    "This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.”- Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.
  • 9. KDKA Pittsburgh
    January, 1921 - First full-time radio announcer hired: Harold W. Arlin. Arlin introduced such celebrities as William Jennings Bryan, Will Rogers, Babe Ruth and Herbert Hoover over the KDKA airwaves.
  • 10. KDKA Pittsburgh
    November 2, 1921 - First broadcast of a regularly scheduled church service: Calvary Episcopal Church, Pittsburgh.
  • 11. KDKA Pittsburgh
    March 4, 1921 - First broadcast of a presidential inaugural address: Warren G. Harding, the 28th President of the United States.
  • 12. KDKA Pittsburgh
    April 11, 1921 - First broadcast of a sporting event: a 10-round, no decision fight between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee in Pittsburgh’s Motor Square Garden.
    http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-firsts/
  • 13. KDKA Pittsburgh
    September 20, 1921 - World’s first radio newsroom, with remote pick-up facilities at the Pittsburgh Post.
    December 4, 1922 - First musical group established exclusively for radio broadcast: The KDKA Little Symphony.
    http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-firsts/
  • 14. KDKA Pittsburgh
    The Golden Age – 1930s and 1940s
    NBC affiliate
    The Uncle Ed Schaughency Show
    1936 St. Patrick’s Day Flood
    Popular Big Band and Jazz
    The KDKA Farm Hour
    Buzz and Bill
  • 15. What Ended Radio’s Golden Age?
    A return to competition for profit after World War II, ending artificial wartime support for culture.
  • 16. What Ended Radio Golden Age?
    A return to competition after World War II, ending artificial wartime support for culture.
    Television leaves only recorded music to radio.
  • 17. Radio After World War II
    95% of homes had radios
    Television arrives and siphons off programming, stars, and advertisers …
    …leaving recorded music to the radio.
    Radio begins to localize.
  • 18. Radio After World War IIThe Fate of FM
    After World War II the FCC moved FM to the frequencies between 88 and 108 MHz, making all previous FM equipment obsolete.
    As late as 1947, in Detroit as an example, there were only 3,000 FM receivers in use for the new band, and 21,000 obsolete ones for the old band.
    On March 1, 1941 W47NV (later WSM) began operations in Nashville, Tennessee, becoming the first modern, post-war, new frequency band, commercial FM radio station. They shut down in 1951 due to lack of commercial viability.
  • 19. The 1950s
    Harry S. Truman and Dwight David Eisenhower are presidents.
    The Korean War
    The Cuban Revolution
    Joseph Stalin dies, is succeeded as leader of the Soviet Union by Nikita Khrushchev
    Sputnik, first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, launched by the Soviet Union
    The transistor is invented
    Movies experiment with 3-D
    Construction begins on the Interstate Highway System
    McCarthyism
    Brown vs. the Board of Education outlaws segregation in public schools and launches the civil rights movement
    The structure of DNA is discovered
    The first organ transplants are performed
    Resurgence of evangelical Christianity
    “Playboy” magazine premieres.
    Frisbees, Barbies, Slinkies, Hula-Hoops and Mr. Potato Head are introduced.
  • 20. The 1950s
    Rock and Roll emerges.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OS6jrs7LE3E
  • 21. The 1950s
    Rock and Roll emerges.
    45s, inexpensive records with one song per side, become popular.
  • 22. The 1950s
    Rock and Roll emerges.
    45s, inexpensive records with one song per side, become popular.
    The Jukebox reaches the height of its popularity.
  • 23. The 1950s
    “Top 40” radio, short play lists repeated, is created at KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska by Todd Storz, inspired by the jukebox.
  • 24. The 1950s
    The format is perfected by Gordon McLendon at KLAF in Dallas, Texas, with the addition of jingles, contests, and DJ “patter.”
    Audio: sampler4.mp3
  • 25. The 1950s
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbu9zI5yuR0
  • 26. The 1950s
    http://youtu.be/dvyEI-l9PVY
  • 27. The 1950s
    The Payola Scandal
    1958 - Alan Freed, possibly the most famous disc jockey in the world at the time, having coined the phrase “Rock and Roll,” was accused of accepting payola (bribes) from record companies to play specific records, and of taking songwriting co-credits (most notably on Chuck Berry's "Maybellene"), which entitled him to receive part of a song's royalties. Freed could help increase these royalties by heavily promoting the record on his own popular radio show. Freed lost his own show on the radio station WINS; then he was fired from the station altogether. In 1960, payola was made illegal. In 1962, Freed pleaded guilty to two charges of commercial bribery, for which he received a fine and a suspended sentence.
    This leads to the creation of the position of Program Director
  • 28. The 1950s
    At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh
    Shift to local programming
    There’s a morning show with music, skits, and characters
    DJs play Rock ‘n Roll and popular vocalists - Bill Haley, the Everly Brothers, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Peggy Lee.
    There’s a call-in talk show
    And a popular award-winning news program
    More conservative sound than most Top 40 Stations.
  • 29. The 1960s
    The Vietnam War and the anti-war movement.
    The Stonewall Riots and other events spotlight gay rights
    The Cuban Missile Crisis
    Decolonization of Africa accelerates
    John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon are presidents.
    The Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act are signed into law
    Construction begins on the Berlin Wall
    Medgar Evers, John Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy are all assassinated
    The “Space Race” between the US and the Soviet Union is at full tilt, and man walks on the moon
    First trans-Atlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar satellite
    The first computer video game, Spacewar!, is invented
    Touch-Tone telephones introduced
    Hispanic - Chicano movement
    “The Sound of Music” is the highest grossing movie of the decade
    “Star Trek” debuts on NBC
  • 30. The 1960s
    Top 40 AM continues to dominate, now specifically targeted to 12-35 year olds, based on demographic research into spending habits and the influence of “baby boomers” and the new middle class.
    The format is enlivened by the “British Invasion.”
    The FCC enacts a non-duplication rule prohibiting AM stations simulcasting on FM counterparts.
  • 31. The 1960s
    Transistor radios hit the market.
    http://youtu.be/5KnxSE09EnQ
  • 32. The 1960s
    Tom Donahue at KMPX-FM in San Francisco instigates the Album-Oriented Rock (AOR), or Progressive Rock format, reflecting the popular shift from singles to albums.
    The format aids FM radio’s rapid growth, as does a demand for broadcasting quality to rival home audio systems.
    http://www.bayarearadio.org/audio/kmpx/1967/kmpx-fm-107_may-5-1967.shtml
  • 33. The 1960s
    http://youtu.be/HejiD1S-g4w
  • 34. The 1960s
    At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh
    Shift to local programming
    There’s a morning show with music, skits, and characters
    DJs play Rock ‘n Roll and popular vocalists - Bill Haley, the Everly Brothers, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Peggy Lee.
    There’s a call-in talk show
    And a popular award-winning news program
    More conservative sound than most Top 40 Stations.
  • 35. The 1970s
    The Vietnam War ends; the Cold War continues
    The Iranian Revolution
    Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter are presidents
    The Camp David Accords lead to a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
    Nixon visits China
    Oil and Energy crises lead to ecological awareness
    Microwave ovens and video tape recorders become commercially viable
    The Feminist Movement peaks
    “Star Wars” is the highest grossing film of the decade
    The World Trade Center towers are constructed
    Disco
  • 36. The 1970s
    FM overtakes AM as a format of choice.
    Advertising revenues are high.
    New more precisely targeted formats emerge - Soft Hits, Classic Rock, Disco, Soul, Latino.
  • 37. The 1970s
    There are still stations finding their way in the new marketplace.
    http://www.hulu.com/watch/308/wkrp-in-cincinnati-pilot-part-1
  • 38. The 1970s
    At KDKA –AM Pittsburgh
    They’re playing Adult Contemporary - America, The Carpenters, Doobie Brothers, Paul Simon, Dawn, and Neil Diamond
    Their morning show adds more news and commercial content
  • 39. The 1980s
    Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush are presidents
    American and French military barracks are targeted by suicide bombers in Beirut
    The Tiananmen Square protests in China
    Mikhail Gorbachev initiates détente
    The Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrates after launch
    The Exxon Valdese oil spill off the coast of Alaska
    Graphical user interface and mouse interface become accepted features in computers
    Nintendo begins to dominate the computer game market
    The AIDS pandemic begins
    “E.T. - The Extraterrestrial” is the highest grossing movie of the decade.
  • 40. The 1980s
    De-Regulation gives stations more freedom. Requirements that stations broadcast news as part of their daily programming are removed.
    Emphasis on profits leads to cutbacks, more automation, less news and public affairs.
    Almost half of the radio stations in the U.S. change ownership during the 1980s.
    Number of stations swells to 12,000, leading to niche programming and the fragmentation of the listening audience.
    AM tries a comeback, with the help of the FCC
    Satellite technology leads to live syndication.
  • 41. The 1980s
    The Sony Walkman hits the market.
    http://youtu.be/TpAdsf4Cn18
  • 42. The 1980s
    An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.
    http://youtu.be/m2EtfXPI7i0
  • 43. The 1980s
    An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.
    http://youtu.be/AJkxBLgd5Hs
  • 44. The 1980s
    An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.
    http://www.filmhouse.com/flv_viewer/viewer.php?vid=WSIX_SPK_106-16.flv
  • 45. The 1980s
    Migration of listenership to the FM bands leads AM stations to experiment with the highly-charged talk radio format.
    The FCC repeals “The Fairness Doctrine” (adequate coverage to public issues and that coverage must be fair in reflecting opposing views, 1949) in 1987, opening the door for politically partisan programming.
  • 46. The 1980s
    At KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh
    They commit to news and information
    They reduce their music to four to six songs per hour at drive time and 10-12 songs per hour middays and weekends
    At night – it’s all talk
  • 47. The 1990s
    The first Gulf War, as well as war in Yugoslavia and Kosovo
    Genocide in Rwanda
    Oklahoma City and World Trade Center bombings
    The end of Apartheid in South Africa
    German reunification
    First Mp3 player released
    Popularity of e-mail, internet, instant messaging, web-based commerce
    Digital cameras become commercially available
    The Columbine High School massacre
    The O.J. Simpson trial
    “Titanic” is the highest grossing movie of the decade.
    Sony's PlayStation becomes the top selling game console
  • 48. The 1990s
    Talk Radio, Shock Talk, and Hot Talk become thriving formats.
    Howard Stern
    Rush Limbaugh
    FCC cracks down on over-the-air hoaxes.
    Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) was established by the FCC in 1992 by establishing certain segments of radio frequency for satellite broadcast on radio.
    Classic-Howard-Stern--Amazing-Radio-Breakthrough.mp3
  • 49. The 1990s
    At KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh
    They switch to an all news/talk format
    In 1992, they play their last song on the air - American Pie
    Rush Limbaugh added at noon
    Infinity Broadcasting is acquired by Westinghouse. Westinghouse merges with CBS.
  • 50. The 2000s
    I-Pod’s hit the market.
    http://youtu.be/Y3GbHVhD6P0
  • 51. The 2000s
    XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.
    http://youtu.be/gpSjfVleYKo
  • 52. The 2000s
    XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.
    http://youtu.be/WcosTyZD6ls
  • 53. The 2000s
    XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.
    2004 - Howard Stern signed exclusively to Sirius radio.
    2008 - Sirius acquires XM.
    http://youtu.be/EcZOu3PoLh4
  • 54. The 2000s
    At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh
    Overnight America with John Grayson, 5:00-9:00 am
    KDKA Morning News with Larry Richert and John Shumway, 9:00-12:00 pm
    The Inside Story with Marty Griffin, 12:00-3:00 pm
    The Mike PintekShow, 3:00-6:00 pm
    KDKA Afternoon News with Paul Rasmussen and Rose Ryan-Douglas, 6:00-10:00 pm
    The Robert ManginoShow, 10:00-12:00 am
    The Jim Bohannon Show, 12:00-5:00 am
  • 55. Radio Programming Today - Formats
    Music
    Formats determined by:
    Budget
    Local Audience Characteristics and Size
    Number and Strength of Competing Stations
    Potential Advertising Revenue
  • 56. Radio Programming Today - Formats
    Music
    Formats (Top 20 in U.S and Canada:
    Country
    Adult Contemporary
    Christian
    News/Talk
    Sports
    Oldies
    Religious
    Talk
    Spanish
    News
  • Radio Programming Today -Formats
    News and Information
    About 2/3 of “All-News” or “All-Talk” stations in U.S. are on AM
    Three Categories
    1. All-News
    2. News/Talk
    3. Sports/Talk
  • 66. Radio Programming Today - Formats
    Noncommercial
    Usually owned by universities, religious institutions, or governmental entities.
    Rely on alternative revenue, i.e. donations, grants, underwriting.
    About 3500 such stations in the U.S.
    Congress established Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) in 1968.
    CPB established National Public Radio (NPR) in 1970.
  • 67. Radio Programming Today
    Origination
    Local Programs (Music, Newscasts, weather and traffic reports, sports shows, community programming)
    Network (All inclusive packaging - station buys around-the-clock material)
    Syndicated (Purchased individually)
    Network and Syndicated programming generally delivered by satellite
  • 68. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Week / Day
  • 69. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Week / Day
  • 70. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Week / Day
  • 71. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Hour
  • 72. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Hour
  • 73. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Hour
  • 74. Radio Programming Today
    Scheduling
    By Hour
  • 75. Radio Programming Today
    Nashville AM Dial
    Sports
    Country
    Religious
    Religious
    Religious
    Spanish
    Country
    Gospel Music
    Country
    Spanish
    Religious
    Country
    Religious
    Country
    Religious
    Country
    Spanish
    Nostalgia
    Religious
    News/Talk
    Country
    Religious
    Adult Contemporary
    Religious
    Talk
    Public Radio
    Talk
    Urban Contemporary
    Variety
    News/Talk
    Country
    Adult Contemporary
    Country
  • 76. Radio Programming Today
    Nashville FM Dial
    Hip Hop, Public Radio, Christian Contemporary, Gospel Music
    Smooth Jazz, Radio
    College, Radio
    Religious, Radio
    College, Radio
    Christian Contemporary, Radio
    Christian Contemporary, Radio
    Jazz, Radio
    Public Radio, Radio
    College, Radio
    College, Radio
    Religious, Radio
    Urban Contemporary, Radio
    Adult Contemporary, Radio
    Christian Contemporary, Radio
    Christian Contemporary, Radio
    Country, Radio
    Country, Radio
    Oldies, Radio
    Country, Radio
    80's Rock, Radio
    Country, Radio
    Country, Radio
    Talk, Radio
    Adult Album Alternative, Radio
    Hip Hop, Radio
    Oldies, Radio
    Alternative, Radio
    Country, Radio
    Talk, Radio
    Gospel Music, Radio
    Classic Rock, Radio
    Hip Hop, Radio
    Top-40, Radio
    Variety, Variety, Variety, Variety
  • 77. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?
    News and News Talk
    Political Talk
    Religion and Religious Talk
    Sports and Sports Talk
    Classic Country
    Gospel Music
    Spanish Language
    Adult Contemporary (Easy Listening)
    Public Radio
  • 78. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?
    Music
    (with a little talk and public radio in assigned frequencies)
  • 79. So, What’s On Satellite Radio Today?
    Everything, including Jack Benny.

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