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EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television
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EMC 2410 Lecture 9 Radio After Television

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  • 1. EMC 2410<br />Intro to Electronic Media<br />Edward Bowen<br />Lecture Nine<br />Radio After “The Golden Age”<br />
  • 2. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?<br />News and News Talk<br />Political Talk<br />Religion and Religious Talk<br />Sports and Sports Talk<br />Classic Country<br />Gospel Music<br />Spanish Language<br />Adult Contemporary (Easy Listening)<br />Public Radio<br />
  • 3. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?<br />At 1020 KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh …<br />“We broadcast news and talk programming 24 hours a day over a 50,000-watt signal that at night reaches 38 states and several Canadian provinces. In the Pittsburgh area, listen to us crystal-clear on your HD radio at 1020 AM and on the HD-3 channel of our sister station: KDKA-FM (93.7).”<br />
  • 4. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?<br />Music<br />(with a little talk and public radio in assigned frequencies)<br />
  • 5. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?<br />At Sportsradio 93.7 The Fan KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh<br />“…local sports programming 24 hours a day, 7 days a week … with unbiased and unfiltered opinions on Pittsburgh sports, 93-7 The Fan’s most important voice is its listeners, THE FANS.”<br />
  • 6. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />"This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.” - Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.<br />
  • 7. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />"This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.” - Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.<br />
  • 8. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />November 2, 1920 - The First broadcast by a commercially licensed radio station<br />"This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns.”- Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920.<br />
  • 9. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />January, 1921 - First full-time radio announcer hired: Harold W. Arlin. Arlin introduced such celebrities as William Jennings Bryan, Will Rogers, Babe Ruth and Herbert Hoover over the KDKA airwaves.<br />
  • 10. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />November 2, 1921 - First broadcast of a regularly scheduled church service: Calvary Episcopal Church, Pittsburgh.<br />
  • 11. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />March 4, 1921 - First broadcast of a presidential inaugural address: Warren G. Harding, the 28th President of the United States.<br />
  • 12. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />April 11, 1921 - First broadcast of a sporting event: a 10-round, no decision fight between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee in Pittsburgh’s Motor Square Garden.<br />http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-firsts/<br />
  • 13. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />September 20, 1921 - World’s first radio newsroom, with remote pick-up facilities at the Pittsburgh Post.<br />December 4, 1922 - First musical group established exclusively for radio broadcast: The KDKA Little Symphony.<br />http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-firsts/<br />
  • 14. KDKA Pittsburgh<br />The Golden Age – 1930s and 1940s<br />NBC affiliate<br />The Uncle Ed Schaughency Show<br /> 1936 St. Patrick’s Day Flood <br />Popular Big Band and Jazz<br />The KDKA Farm Hour<br />Buzz and Bill<br />
  • 15. What Ended Radio’s Golden Age?<br />A return to competition for profit after World War II, ending artificial wartime support for culture.<br />
  • 16. What Ended Radio Golden Age?<br />A return to competition after World War II, ending artificial wartime support for culture.<br />Television leaves only recorded music to radio.<br />
  • 17. Radio After World War II<br />95% of homes had radios<br />Television arrives and siphons off programming, stars, and advertisers …<br />…leaving recorded music to the radio.<br />Radio begins to localize.<br />
  • 18. Radio After World War IIThe Fate of FM<br />After World War II the FCC moved FM to the frequencies between 88 and 108 MHz, making all previous FM equipment obsolete.<br />As late as 1947, in Detroit as an example, there were only 3,000 FM receivers in use for the new band, and 21,000 obsolete ones for the old band.<br />On March 1, 1941 W47NV (later WSM) began operations in Nashville, Tennessee, becoming the first modern, post-war, new frequency band, commercial FM radio station. They shut down in 1951 due to lack of commercial viability.<br />
  • 19. The 1950s<br />Harry S. Truman and Dwight David Eisenhower are presidents.<br />The Korean War<br />The Cuban Revolution<br />Joseph Stalin dies, is succeeded as leader of the Soviet Union by Nikita Khrushchev<br />Sputnik, first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, launched by the Soviet Union<br />The transistor is invented<br />Movies experiment with 3-D<br />Construction begins on the Interstate Highway System<br />McCarthyism<br />Brown vs. the Board of Education outlaws segregation in public schools and launches the civil rights movement<br />The structure of DNA is discovered<br />The first organ transplants are performed<br />Resurgence of evangelical Christianity<br />“Playboy” magazine premieres.<br />Frisbees, Barbies, Slinkies, Hula-Hoops and Mr. Potato Head are introduced.<br />
  • 20. The 1950s<br />Rock and Roll emerges.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OS6jrs7LE3E<br />
  • 21. The 1950s<br />Rock and Roll emerges.<br />45s, inexpensive records with one song per side, become popular.<br />
  • 22. The 1950s<br />Rock and Roll emerges.<br />45s, inexpensive records with one song per side, become popular.<br />The Jukebox reaches the height of its popularity.<br />
  • 23. The 1950s<br />“Top 40” radio, short play lists repeated, is created at KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska by Todd Storz, inspired by the jukebox.<br />
  • 24. The 1950s<br />The format is perfected by Gordon McLendon at KLAF in Dallas, Texas, with the addition of jingles, contests, and DJ “patter.”<br />Audio: sampler4.mp3<br />
  • 25. The 1950s<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbu9zI5yuR0<br />
  • 26. The 1950s<br />http://youtu.be/dvyEI-l9PVY<br />
  • 27. The 1950s<br />The Payola Scandal<br />1958 - Alan Freed, possibly the most famous disc jockey in the world at the time, having coined the phrase “Rock and Roll,” was accused of accepting payola (bribes) from record companies to play specific records, and of taking songwriting co-credits (most notably on Chuck Berry's "Maybellene"), which entitled him to receive part of a song's royalties. Freed could help increase these royalties by heavily promoting the record on his own popular radio show. Freed lost his own show on the radio station WINS; then he was fired from the station altogether. In 1960, payola was made illegal. In 1962, Freed pleaded guilty to two charges of commercial bribery, for which he received a fine and a suspended sentence.<br />This leads to the creation of the position of Program Director<br />
  • 28. The 1950s<br />At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh<br />Shift to local programming<br />There’s a morning show with music, skits, and characters<br />DJs play Rock ‘n Roll and popular vocalists - Bill Haley, the Everly Brothers, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Peggy Lee.<br />There’s a call-in talk show<br />And a popular award-winning news program<br />More conservative sound than most Top 40 Stations.<br />
  • 29. The 1960s<br />The Vietnam War and the anti-war movement.<br />The Stonewall Riots and other events spotlight gay rights<br />The Cuban Missile Crisis<br />Decolonization of Africa accelerates<br />John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon are presidents.<br />The Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act are signed into law<br />Construction begins on the Berlin Wall<br />Medgar Evers, John Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy are all assassinated<br />The “Space Race” between the US and the Soviet Union is at full tilt, and man walks on the moon<br />First trans-Atlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar satellite<br />The first computer video game, Spacewar!, is invented<br />Touch-Tone telephones introduced<br />Hispanic - Chicano movement<br />“The Sound of Music” is the highest grossing movie of the decade<br />“Star Trek” debuts on NBC<br />
  • 30. The 1960s<br />Top 40 AM continues to dominate, now specifically targeted to 12-35 year olds, based on demographic research into spending habits and the influence of “baby boomers” and the new middle class.<br />The format is enlivened by the “British Invasion.”<br />The FCC enacts a non-duplication rule prohibiting AM stations simulcasting on FM counterparts.<br />
  • 31. The 1960s<br />Transistor radios hit the market.<br />http://youtu.be/5KnxSE09EnQ<br />
  • 32. The 1960s<br />Tom Donahue at KMPX-FM in San Francisco instigates the Album-Oriented Rock (AOR), or Progressive Rock format, reflecting the popular shift from singles to albums.<br />The format aids FM radio’s rapid growth, as does a demand for broadcasting quality to rival home audio systems.<br />http://www.bayarearadio.org/audio/kmpx/1967/kmpx-fm-107_may-5-1967.shtml<br />
  • 33. The 1960s<br />http://youtu.be/HejiD1S-g4w<br />
  • 34. The 1960s<br />At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh<br />Shift to local programming<br />There’s a morning show with music, skits, and characters<br />DJs play Rock ‘n Roll and popular vocalists - Bill Haley, the Everly Brothers, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, Peggy Lee.<br />There’s a call-in talk show<br />And a popular award-winning news program<br />More conservative sound than most Top 40 Stations.<br />
  • 35. The 1970s<br />The Vietnam War ends; the Cold War continues<br />The Iranian Revolution<br />Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter are presidents<br />The Camp David Accords lead to a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt<br />Nixon visits China<br />Oil and Energy crises lead to ecological awareness<br />Microwave ovens and video tape recorders become commercially viable<br />The Feminist Movement peaks<br />“Star Wars” is the highest grossing film of the decade<br />The World Trade Center towers are constructed<br />Disco<br />
  • 36. The 1970s<br />FM overtakes AM as a format of choice.<br />Advertising revenues are high.<br />New more precisely targeted formats emerge - Soft Hits, Classic Rock, Disco, Soul, Latino.<br />
  • 37. The 1970s<br />There are still stations finding their way in the new marketplace.<br />http://www.hulu.com/watch/308/wkrp-in-cincinnati-pilot-part-1<br />
  • 38. The 1970s<br />At KDKA –AM Pittsburgh<br />They’re playing Adult Contemporary - America, The Carpenters, Doobie Brothers, Paul Simon, Dawn, and Neil Diamond<br />Their morning show adds more news and commercial content<br />
  • 39. The 1980s<br />Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush are presidents<br />American and French military barracks are targeted by suicide bombers in Beirut<br />The Tiananmen Square protests in China<br />Mikhail Gorbachev initiates détente<br />The Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrates after launch<br />The Exxon Valdese oil spill off the coast of Alaska<br />Graphical user interface and mouse interface become accepted features in computers<br />Nintendo begins to dominate the computer game market<br />The AIDS pandemic begins<br />“E.T. - The Extraterrestrial” is the highest grossing movie of the decade.<br />
  • 40. The 1980s<br />De-Regulation gives stations more freedom. Requirements that stations broadcast news as part of their daily programming are removed.<br />Emphasis on profits leads to cutbacks, more automation, less news and public affairs.<br />Almost half of the radio stations in the U.S. change ownership during the 1980s.<br />Number of stations swells to 12,000, leading to niche programming and the fragmentation of the listening audience.<br />AM tries a comeback, with the help of the FCC<br />Satellite technology leads to live syndication.<br />
  • 41. The 1980s<br />The Sony Walkman hits the market.<br />http://youtu.be/TpAdsf4Cn18<br />
  • 42. The 1980s<br />An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.<br />http://youtu.be/m2EtfXPI7i0<br />
  • 43. The 1980s<br />An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.<br />http://youtu.be/AJkxBLgd5Hs<br />
  • 44. The 1980s<br />An emphasis on capturing the “Drive Time” demographic leads to the “Morning Zoo” phenomenon.<br />http://www.filmhouse.com/flv_viewer/viewer.php?vid=WSIX_SPK_106-16.flv<br />
  • 45. The 1980s<br />Migration of listenership to the FM bands leads AM stations to experiment with the highly-charged talk radio format.<br />The FCC repeals “The Fairness Doctrine” (adequate coverage to public issues and that coverage must be fair in reflecting opposing views, 1949) in 1987, opening the door for politically partisan programming.<br />
  • 46. The 1980s<br />At KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh<br />They commit to news and information<br />They reduce their music to four to six songs per hour at drive time and 10-12 songs per hour middays and weekends<br />At night – it’s all talk<br />
  • 47. The 1990s<br />The first Gulf War, as well as war in Yugoslavia and Kosovo<br />Genocide in Rwanda<br />Oklahoma City and World Trade Center bombings<br />The end of Apartheid in South Africa<br />German reunification<br />First Mp3 player released<br />Popularity of e-mail, internet, instant messaging, web-based commerce<br />Digital cameras become commercially available<br />The Columbine High School massacre<br />The O.J. Simpson trial<br />“Titanic” is the highest grossing movie of the decade.<br />Sony's PlayStation becomes the top selling game console<br />
  • 48. The 1990s<br />Talk Radio, Shock Talk, and Hot Talk become thriving formats.<br />Howard Stern<br />Rush Limbaugh<br />FCC cracks down on over-the-air hoaxes.<br />Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) was established by the FCC in 1992 by establishing certain segments of radio frequency for satellite broadcast on radio.<br />Classic-Howard-Stern--Amazing-Radio-Breakthrough.mp3<br />
  • 49. The 1990s<br />At KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh<br />They switch to an all news/talk format<br />In 1992, they play their last song on the air - American Pie <br />Rush Limbaugh added at noon<br />Infinity Broadcasting is acquired by Westinghouse. Westinghouse merges with CBS.<br />
  • 50. The 2000s<br />I-Pod’s hit the market.<br />http://youtu.be/Y3GbHVhD6P0<br />
  • 51. The 2000s<br />XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.<br />http://youtu.be/gpSjfVleYKo<br />
  • 52. The 2000s<br />XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.<br />http://youtu.be/WcosTyZD6ls<br />
  • 53. The 2000s<br />XM and Sirius launch (literally) their satellite radio services.<br />2004 - Howard Stern signed exclusively to Sirius radio.<br />2008 - Sirius acquires XM.<br />http://youtu.be/EcZOu3PoLh4<br />
  • 54. The 2000s<br />At KDKA-AM Pittsburgh<br />Overnight America with John Grayson, 5:00-9:00 am<br />KDKA Morning News with Larry Richert and John Shumway, 9:00-12:00 pm<br />The Inside Story with Marty Griffin, 12:00-3:00 pm<br />The Mike PintekShow, 3:00-6:00 pm<br />KDKA Afternoon News with Paul Rasmussen and Rose Ryan-Douglas, 6:00-10:00 pm<br />The Robert ManginoShow, 10:00-12:00 am<br />The Jim Bohannon Show, 12:00-5:00 am<br />
  • 55. Radio Programming Today - Formats<br />Music<br />Formats determined by:<br />Budget<br />Local Audience Characteristics and Size<br />Number and Strength of Competing Stations<br />Potential Advertising Revenue<br />
  • 56. Radio Programming Today - Formats<br />Music<br />Formats (Top 20 in U.S and Canada:<br />Country<br />Adult Contemporary<br />Christian<br />News/Talk<br />Sports<br />Oldies<br />Religious<br />Talk<br />Spanish<br />News<br /><ul><li>Classic Rock
  • 57. Gospel
  • 58. Variety/Diverse/Diversified
  • 59. Contemporary Hits / Top 40
  • 60. Rock / Album-Oriented-Rock
  • 61. Classical
  • 62. Urban Contemporary
  • 63. Jazz
  • 64. Other
  • 65. Alternative</li></li></ul><li>Radio Programming Today -Formats<br />News and Information<br />About 2/3 of “All-News” or “All-Talk” stations in U.S. are on AM<br />Three Categories<br />1. All-News<br />2. News/Talk<br />3. Sports/Talk<br />
  • 66. Radio Programming Today - Formats<br />Noncommercial<br />Usually owned by universities, religious institutions, or governmental entities.<br />Rely on alternative revenue, i.e. donations, grants, underwriting.<br />About 3500 such stations in the U.S.<br />Congress established Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) in 1968. <br />CPB established National Public Radio (NPR) in 1970.<br />
  • 67. Radio Programming Today<br />Origination<br />Local Programs (Music, Newscasts, weather and traffic reports, sports shows, community programming)<br />Network (All inclusive packaging - station buys around-the-clock material)<br />Syndicated (Purchased individually)<br />Network and Syndicated programming generally delivered by satellite<br />
  • 68. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Week / Day<br />
  • 69. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Week / Day<br />
  • 70. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Week / Day<br />
  • 71. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Hour<br />
  • 72. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Hour<br />
  • 73. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Hour<br />
  • 74. Radio Programming Today<br />Scheduling<br />By Hour<br />
  • 75. Radio Programming Today<br />Nashville AM Dial<br />Sports <br />Country <br />Religious<br />Religious<br />Religious<br />Spanish<br />Country<br />Gospel Music<br />Country<br />Spanish<br />Religious<br />Country<br />Religious<br />Country<br />Religious<br />Country<br />Spanish<br />Nostalgia<br />Religious<br />News/Talk<br />Country<br />Religious<br />Adult Contemporary<br />Religious<br />Talk<br />Public Radio<br />Talk<br />Urban Contemporary<br />Variety<br />News/Talk<br />Country<br />Adult Contemporary<br />Country<br />
  • 76. Radio Programming Today<br />Nashville FM Dial<br />Hip Hop, Public Radio, Christian Contemporary, Gospel Music<br />Smooth Jazz, Radio<br />College, Radio<br />Religious, Radio<br />College, Radio<br />Christian Contemporary, Radio<br />Christian Contemporary, Radio<br />Jazz, Radio<br />Public Radio, Radio<br />College, Radio<br />College, Radio<br />Religious, Radio<br />Urban Contemporary, Radio<br />Adult Contemporary, Radio<br />Christian Contemporary, Radio<br />Christian Contemporary, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />Oldies, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />80's Rock, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />Talk, Radio<br />Adult Album Alternative, Radio<br />Hip Hop, Radio<br />Oldies, Radio<br />Alternative, Radio<br />Country, Radio<br />Talk, Radio<br />Gospel Music, Radio<br />Classic Rock, Radio<br />Hip Hop, Radio<br />Top-40, Radio<br />Variety, Variety, Variety, Variety<br />
  • 77. So, What’s On AM Radio Today?<br />News and News Talk<br />Political Talk<br />Religion and Religious Talk<br />Sports and Sports Talk<br />Classic Country<br />Gospel Music<br />Spanish Language<br />Adult Contemporary (Easy Listening)<br />Public Radio<br />
  • 78. So, What’s On FM Radio Today?<br />Music<br />(with a little talk and public radio in assigned frequencies)<br />
  • 79. So, What’s On Satellite Radio Today?<br />Everything, including Jack Benny.<br />

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