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Project Management: More Caught Than Taught

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From more than 10 years in IT project management, here\'s a compilation of essential information relevant to those who are starting.

From more than 10 years in IT project management, here\'s a compilation of essential information relevant to those who are starting.

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  • 1. Project Management More Caught than Taught Edward Uy, PMP Contact: edward_uy@yahoo.com February 13, 2009
  • 2. CONTENTS Processes in Project Management V. Final Word Project Organizations Triple Constraint Project Manager Project Management VI. IV. III. II. I.
  • 3. Project
    • Definition
      • Unique and temporary endeavor aimed to produce a product or service within a specified time, scope, cost and quality
        • Unique
        • Temporary
        • Specified Scope
        • Approved Budget
        • Limited Resources
        • Carries Business Risk
        • Achieve Business Benefits
  • 4. Project Management
    • Definition
      • Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements and achieve business benefits.
      • Also:
        • Use product-based approach to planning
        • Utilizes a Work Breakdown Structure
        • Creates products and services to meet business benefits
        • Early stakeholder involvement
        • Risk and quality management are integrated in the project lifecycle
        • Organizational structure defined
  • 5. CONTENTS Processes in Project Management V. Final Word Project Organizations Triple Constraint Project Manager Project Management VI. IV. III. II. I.
  • 6. Project Manager’s Tasks
        • Influences the organization
        • Leads the project
        • Monitors and reports progress
        • Anticipates and solves problems
        • Negotiates
        • Communicates
        • Holds meetings
        • Ensures stakeholder management is performed
  • 7. Project Manager’s Powers
        • Formal
          • Power based on position
        • Reward
          • Giving rewards based on performance
        • Penalty
          • Penalizing team member/s
        • Expert
          • Being the technical or project management expert
        • Referent
          • Based on referring to the authority of someone in a higher position
    Best Choices   Worst Choice  Derived Earned
  • 8. Problem Resolution
        • Problem Solving / Confronting
        • Compromising
        • Smoothing
        • Withdrawal
        • Forcing
  • 9. CONTENTS Processes in Project Management V. Final Word Project Organizations Triple Constraint Project Manager Project Management VI. IV. III. II. I.
  • 10. Triple Constraint
        • Cost
        • Scope
        • Time
    Cost Scope Customer Satisfaction Time Quality
  • 11. A Good Methodology…
        • Strategic plan
        • Stakeholder management
        • Resource allocation
        • Quality management
        • Risk management
        • Thresholds and metrics
  • 12. Project Failures
        • Lack of quality control
        • Inadequate planning
        • Inadequate definition of roles and responsibilities
        • Inadequate planning and monitoring
        • Inadequate definition of project deliverables
  • 13. CONTENTS Processes in Project Management V. Final Word Project Organizations Triple Constraint Project Manager Project Management VI. IV. III. II. I.
  • 14. Project Organizations
    • Functional Organization
      • Organized by areas of specialization
        • Advantages
          • Team reports only to one boss
          • Clear career path in areas of specialization
    • Project Manager’s Authority
      • LOW
        • Disadvantages
          • More emphasis on functional work and may hurt the project
          • Career path for project managers may not be clear
          • Project manager’s authority is low or none
  • 15. Project Organizations
    • Matrix Organization
      • Team members report to 2 bosses
        • Advantages
          • Improved project manager control over resources
          • Better coordination
          • Better horizontal and vertical dissemination of information
          • Team members have a home when projects end
    • Project Manager’s Authority
      • Strong Matrix: HIGH
      • Weak Matrix: LOW
      • Balanced Matrix: Power shared
        • Disadvantages
          • Still have more than one boss with more potential for conflict
          • More complex to control
          • Resource allocation problems
          • Differing priorities between functional and project manager
  • 16. Project Organizations
    • Projectized Organization
      • Organized by projects
        • Advantages
          • Loyalty
          • Organized more efficiently
          • More effective communication
    • Project Manager’s Authority
      • HIGH
        • Disadvantages
          • Members do not have a ‘home’ after the project
          • Duplication of job functions and facilities
  • 17. Project Organizations
    • Project Expeditor
      • Acts as a coordinator and does not have decision-making authority
    • Project Manager’s Authority
      • NONE
    • Project Coordinator
      • Has some power for decision-making and reports to a higher-level manager
    • Project Manager’s Authority
      • LOW
  • 18. Stakeholder
        • Interests will be affected either positively or negatively
        • Includes the project sponsor, project manager, project team, customers, organization, product users, society
        • Holds the “stake”
  • 19. Stakeholder Management
        • Identifying who they are
        • Assess their knowledge and skills
        • Ensure their needs are met
        • Keep them involved
        • Get their approval and signoff on project deliverables
  • 20. CONTENTS Processes in Project Management V. Final Word Project Organizations Triple Constraint Project Manager Project Management VI. IV. III. II. I.
  • 21. Project Management Processes
        • Initiation
        • Planning
        • Execution
        • Monitoring and Control
        • Closing
  • 22. Initiation
        • Business Case
        • Project Charter
        • Historical Information
        • Project Office
  • 23. Initiation
        • Business case
          • Reasons for setting up the project
          • Used throughout the project to check if project is still feasible
          • May include a feasibility study
  • 24. Initiation
        • Project Charter
          • Project title
          • Project description
          • Objectives
          • Rationale or business case
          • Product description or deliverables
          • Project manager assigned
          • Project manager’s authority level
          • Sign-off by senior management person
  • 25. Initiation
        • Historical Information
          • Lessons learned from previous projects
            • WBS
            • Estimates
            • Project plans
            • Risks
            • Performance reports
          • Used for
            • Estimation
            • Project planning
            • Risk management
  • 26. Initiation
        • Project Office
          • Physical or virtual environment
          • Communication tools
          • Documentation – standards, templates, methodologies
          • Tools – accounting, planning, monitoring
  • 27. Initiation
    • Project Management Office (PMO)
        • Formal structure that supports project management
        • Can come in different forms:
          • Provide methodologies, policies, templates, standards
          • Provide guidance to project managers
          • Provide training on tools
          • Handles review and approval to start new projects
          • Oversees progress
  • 28. Initiation
    • Project Management Office (PMO)
        • To make it work:
          • Role must be clearly defined
          • Senior management support
          • * Projects need to adhere to sound project management processes and techniques.
          • * Projects managers are to keep projects on track or get it on track.
  • 29. Planning
        • Project Management Plan
        • Scope Management Plan
        • Quality Planning
        • Work Breakdown Structure
        • Estimation
        • Risk Management
        • Setting up Controls
        • Plan Purchases and Contracting
        • Kick-Off Meeting
  • 30. Planning
    • Project Management Plan
        • Project Charter
        • Project Management Approach
        • Scope
        • Schedule
        • Responsibility Assignments
        • Resources
        • Cost Management and Budgets
        • Quality Plan
        • Acceptance Plan
        • Risk Management Plan
        • Procurement and Solicitation Plan
        • Change Control Process
  • 31. Planning
    • Scope Management Plan
        • Processes to ensure all the work and only the work required
        • Controls what is and is not included in the project
        • Looks to prevent additional work or “gold-plating”
        • Putting additional work under change control
  • 32. Planning
    • Quality
        • Conformance to requirements and fitness for use
    • Quality Planning
        • Identifies the quality standards to be met and how
  • 33. Planning
    • Work Breakdown Structure
        • All the work needed to come up with the project’s end-product or service
        • Enables the project manager to manage the project in pieces and improves manageability
  • 34. Planning
    • Estimation
        • Requires resource planning
        • Cost estimating
        • Cost budgeting
  • 35. Planning
    • Estimation
        • Estimating using PERT
          • Requires three estimates – Optimistic, Pessimistic and Most Likely
        • PERT Formula:
        • ( P + 4M + O) / 6
        • Standard Deviation:
        • ( P – O ) / 6
        • Variance
        • [ ( P – O) / 6 ]
    2
  • 36. Planning
    • Risk Management
        • Not a one-time but an ongoing event
        • Monitoring of identified risks, risk triggers
        • Identifying new risks
    • Risk
      • A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for good or bad
  • 37. Planning
    • Risk Factors
        • Probability of it occurring
        • Impact or amount at stake
        • Expected timing
        • Anticipated frequency
  • 38. Planning
    • Risk Identification
        • Brainstorming
        • Delphi technique
        • Interviewing
        • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis
    • Risk Triggers
      • Early warnings for each risk so that action can be taken proactively
  • 39. Planning
    • Risk Response Strategies
        • Avoidance
        • Mitigation
        • Acceptance
        • Transference
  • 40. Planning
    • Project Controls
        • Control mechanisms and tools to monitor project performance
        • Triggers correction and preventive actions to bring the project back on track
  • 41. Planning
    • Plan Purchases and Plan Contracting
        • Determines what to purchase and when
        • A “make” or “buy” decision is made
        • Includes identifying product or service requirements, potential sellers
        • RFP is created
  • 42. Planning
    • Hold Kick-Off Meeting
        • Meeting involving the project team, vendor, customer, senior management, project sponsor, functional management
        • Held at the end of the planning stage
        • Covers team member introductions, a review of the roles and responsibilities, milestones, risks, communication plan and regular meeting schedules
  • 43. Execution
        • Executes the plan
        • Budgeted costs are spent the most
        • Deliverables are created
        • Deliverables are reviewed and accepted
  • 44. Execution
    • Project manager as chief integrator
        • Authorizing project work
        • Delegation
        • Setting regular checkpoint meetings
        • Managing activities
        • Responding to unexpected events
        • Assigning and re-assigning resources to tasks
        • Taking preventive actions
        • Perform management tasks
        • Hold team meetings
        • Identify changes for change control
  • 45. Execution
    • Team Development
        • Enhance ability of the stakeholders to contribute
        • Enhance team’s ability to function as a team
        • Includes team building activities that should be part of every project
        • Scheduled at project start
  • 46. Execution
    • Quality Assurance
        • Implement and check overall
        • Looks at where quality can be improved
        • Determines if overall standards can be met from the quality control measurements
        • Preventive steps to eliminate variances
    • Quality Control
        • Measure details, done during Control phase
        • Curative steps to eliminate variances
  • 47. Execution
    • Performance Reporting
        • Status reports
        • Trend reports
        • Forecasting reports
        • Variance reports
        • Earned value
  • 48. Execution
    • Distribute Information
        • Done by the Project Manager as defined in the communication plan
    • % of Time a Project Manager spends communicating?
    90 %
    • Most important Project Management skill?
          • Negotiating
          • Communicating
          • Team Building
          • Technical Knowledge
  • 49. Execution
    • Select Sellers
        • Proposals are received and evaluated
        • Sellers are shortlisted
        • Further evaluation is made until a seller is selected
  • 50. Execution
    • Negotiation during Seller Selection
        • To obtain a fair and reasonable price
        • Develop a good relationship with the seller
    • Items to Negotiate?
        • Responsibilities
        • Authority
        • Applicable law
        • Technical and business management matters
        • Contract financing
        • Price
  • 51. Monitoring and Control
        • Measure progress
        • Identify exceptions
        • Identify trends
        • Identify changes to scope
        • Monitoring risks and issues
        • Quality control
        • Schedule control
        • Updates to project plans
        • Identify correction and preventive actions
  • 52. Monitoring and Control
    • Corrective Actions
        • A very proactive activity
        • Project manager goes out “looking”
        • Need to evaluate its effectiveness
  • 53. Monitoring and Control
    • Managing Changes
        • Influencing the factors that affect change
        • Ensuring that change is beneficial
        • Determining that a change has indeed occurred
        • Looking for alternatives and come up with options, together with the team
        • Minimizing adverse impacts of the change
        • Inform affected stakeholders
  • 54. Monitoring and Control
    • Handling Requested Changes
        • Clarify the change requirements
        • Assess impact of change with team
        • Create alternatives such as ‘crashing’ or ‘fast tracking’
        • Meet with your management, sponsor or stakeholders on the impacts and alternatives
        • Meet with the customer on impacts and alternatives identified
  • 55. Monitoring and Control
    • Earned Value Analysis
        • Method to measure scope, time and project performance versus plan
  • 56. Monitoring and Control Actual cost incurred AC Actual Cost Budget for the total work BAC Budget at Completion Estimated work that has been completed EV Earned Value Source: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) version 1.3 Estimated value of work planned to be done PV Planned Value Description Acronym Earned Value Analysis
  • 57. Monitoring and Control How much over or under budget do we expect at the end of the project VAC Variance at Completion Moving forward, how much more will we spend to complete the work? ETC Estimate to Complete Source: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) version 1.3 Estimated total project cost EAC Estimate at Completion Description Acronym Earned Value Analysis
  • 58. Monitoring and Control EV / AC We are getting $ X % for every dollar spent CPI Cost Performance Index EV / PV We are moving X % of the rate originally planned SPI Schedule Performance Index EV – PV Negative is behind schedule Positive is ahead of schedule SV Schedule Variance Source: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) version 1.3 EV – AC Negative is over budget Positive is under budget CV Cost Variance Description Acronym Earned Value Analysis
  • 59. Monitoring and Control AC + BAC - EV Current variances seen to be abnormal AC + (BAC – EV) / CPI Current variances seen to be typical of the future AC + ETC Used if original estimate is deemed incorrect Source: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) version 1.3 How much do we expect the project to cost? BAC / CPI No variances from BAC, same spending rate EAC Estimate at Completion Description Acronym Earned Value Analysis
  • 60. Monitoring and Control BAC – EAC Over budget (negative) or under budget (positive) at the end of the project VAC Variance at Completion Source: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) version 1.3 EAC – AC Estimate cost to be incurred from now onwards to complete the project ETC Estimate To Completion Description Acronym Earned Value Analysis
  • 61. Monitoring and Control
    • Quality Control
        • Measure details, done during Control phase
        • Curative steps to eliminate variances
  • 62. Monitoring and Control
    • Risk Monitoring and Control
        • Risk responses are executed
        • New risks are identified and tracked
        • Involves choosing alternative strategies
        • Results are monitored
  • 63. Monitoring and Control
    • Contract Administration
        • Ensuring seller’s performance meets contractual obligations
        • Project manager needs to know the terms and conditions of the contract and help manage its administration
  • 64. Closing
        • Formalizes deliverable acceptance
        • Close project phases
        • Close the project itself
  • 65. Closing
    • Closure aims to:
        • Check extent of meeting project objectives
        • Assess to what extent all expected products have been delivered and accepted by the client
        • Prepare a post-mortem review
        • Record lessons learned
        • Archive project files
  • 66. Closing
    • Close Project
        • Done at the end of each project phase and at project end
        • Finalizing all paperwork
        • Done in case the project was terminated
        • Analyze project success or failure and gather lessons learned
        • Administrative Closure procedure created
        • Contract Closure procedure created
        • Resources are released back to their functional teams
  • 67. Closing
    • Contract Closure
        • Done when contract ends or terminated, therefore done only once
        • Involves product verification, updating of contract records to reflect final results
        • Archiving
        • Contract/s are closed out before the project is closed.
        • Perform procurement audit (lessons learned for the procurement process)
  • 68. Closing
    • Post Mortem / Lessons Learned
        • Reviews overall project success or failure
        • Evaluates benefit of end-product
        • May be conducted or facilitated by a resource external to the project
        • Covers what went right, wrong and what should have been done differently
        • Best done by stakeholders (project manager, project team, management) and not just the project team
  • 69. Final Word
    • Project Management – “More Caught than Taught”
        • Proactive, proactive, proactive!
        • Looking for “problems” before they happen
        • Learned by training and practice
        • Consider obtaining PMP certification
          • www.pmi.org
  • 70. Contact Details
    • Please send me your feedback…
        • Email: edward_uy@yahoo.com