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Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
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Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies

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A presentation to the LOM Special Session at the DC-2006 conference, Manzanillo, Mexico in October 2006.

A presentation to the LOM Special Session at the DC-2006 conference, Manzanillo, Mexico in October 2006.

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  • 1. Lomtologies - issues and challenges in maintaining simple LOM-related vocabularies
  • 2. Contents
    • scene setting…
      • the UK context
      • LOM directions
    • UK elearning vocabularies
    • where formal meets informal
      • using formal vocabularies to improve social tagging systems
      • OR using informal systems to improve the maintenance of vocabularies
  • 3. JISC CETIS
    • represents UK colleges and universities on international learning technology standards initiatives
    • principle channel between the UK community and IMS and IEEE LOM
    • wide range of other elearning related activities
    • range of community-based ‘Special Interest Group’ activities – e.g. CETIS Metadata and Repository SIG
    http://www.cetis.ac.uk/
  • 4. UK MEG group
    • MEG = Metadata for Education Group
    • informal grouping of parties interested in elearning issues
    • across school, college and university sectors in the UK
    • potentially useful home for UK vocabulary development
    • but no funding
    • now largely defunct
    http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/education/
  • 5. Higher Education Academy
    • distributed service supporting provision of elearning in UK
    • delivered thru range of subject centres
    • focussing on needs of elearning practioners in UK universities
    • previously known as the LTSN (Learning and Teaching Support Network)
    http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/
  • 6. Intute
    • JISC-funded service delivering subject gateways
    • 4 major subject hubs (portals)
      • science, engineering and technology
      • arts and humanities
      • social sciences
      • health and life sciences
    • joint catalogue of approx 120,000 high-quality Internet resources (using DC)
    • about 80 subject-based Internet tutorials
    • previously known as the RDN (Resource Discovery Network)
    http://www.intute.ac.uk/
  • 7. UK LOM Core
    • UK activity to build an application profile of IEEE LOM
    • led by CETIS
    • intended to meet UK requirements
    • using UK-specific vocabularies where necessary
    • activity never formally signed-off, but standardised enough to allow implementation
  • 8. RLLOMAP
    • joint activity between the RDN and the LTSN (RL LOM AP)
    • developed an application profile of LOM – similar to UK LOM Core though slightly different
    • developed or made use of vocabularies in the areas of:
      • resource types
      • UK educational levels
      • UK educational contexts
      • UK policy themes
      • pedagogic terms
  • 9. RLLOMAP – lesson 1
    • think about naming!
      • LTSN became the HEA
      • RDN became Intute
      • which yields HILOMAP rather than RLLOMAP??!
    • more seriously, there’s a danger of names getting built into URIs
      • e.g. in the rdn_dc OAI-PMH format
      • the http://purl.org/rdn/terms/annotation property
    • note: I don’t think that ‘rllomap’ is built into any namespace URIs – but it could have been!
  • 10. RLLOMAP – lesson 2
    • don’t fracture the community
    • RLLOMAP is (quite widely??) used and cited
    • but everyone really wants to talk about and use UK LOM Core (or even just LOM)
    • by developing RLLOMAP we helped the community move forward but ultimately left a division
    • not drastic for interoperability
    • but potentially divisive for the community
    there’s a long term interoperability cost each time a new application profile is created?
  • 11. RLLOMAP – lesson 3
    • ensure sustainability
    • need to ensure that RLLOMAP is maintained
    • particularly important for the vocabularies
      • policy themes vocabulary
      • pedagogic terms vocabulary
      • UK Educational Contexts (UKEC)
      • UK Educational Levels (UKEL)
      • etc.
    • e.g. regular (twice-yearly) meetings to check/update?
  • 12. Wider environment
    • the wider environment is also changing
    • IEEE have initiated activity designed to lead towards next-generation LOM
    • IEEE and DCMI have jointly created a DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce
    • note: these activities likely to change the syntax we’re used to
    • but (broadly speaking) the semantics being encoded will remain much the same
  • 13. DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce
    • aim is to align use of DC in LOM
    • currently LOM and DC can’t easily be mixed in XML
    • why? because they don’t currently shared a common underlying model
    • e.g. nesting in LOM/XML doesn’t carry the same semantics as nesting in DC/XML
    • intention is to use the DCMI Abstract Model
    • i.e. interpreting the semantics of LOM in terms of the DCMI Abstract Model
  • 14. What is the DCMI Abstract Model?
    • a set of rules defining how DC metadata descriptions are constructed
      • A description is made up of one or more statements …
      • Each statement instantiates a property/value pair and is made up of …
      • Each value string is a simple, human-readable string …
    • a set of human-readable statements (as per above)
    • also formalised using UML
  • 15. What is the DCMI Abstract Model? (2)
    • independent of particular syntaxes
    • but descriptions that comply with the model can be encoded using any of the recognised DCMI encodings
      • i.e. XHTML, XML and RDF
    • simple
      • largely based on resource, property, value triple
      • can be mapped to the RDF model
    • highly extensible
  • 16. Example description Description Set ( Description ( Resource URI ( <http://purl.org/poi/rdn.ac.uk/12345-67890> ) Statement ( Property URI ( dc:title ) Value String ( &quot;Wilfred Owen and Realism&quot; Language ( en-GB ) ) ) Statement ( Property URI ( dc:language ) Value String (&quot;en-GB&quot; ) Syntax Encoding Scheme URI ( dcterms:RFC3066 ) ) Statement ( Property URI ( lom:keyword ) Vocabulary Encoding Scheme URI ( a:NLS ) Value String ( &quot;Owen, Wilfred&quot; ) ) ) )
  • 17. UK Educational Levels
    • developed under MEG
    • list of 14 levels covering ‘foundation’ (pre-school) thru to post-doctoral levels
    • largely specified in terms of typical age, e.g.
    • UK Educational Level 9 Definition: Undergraduate degree level. Typical age range: 18+
    • started life as a 12-level list
  • 18. UK Educational Levels
    • usage in LOM/XML…
    <classification> <purpose> <source>LOMv1.0</source> <value>educational level</value> </purpose> <taxonPath> <source> <string language=&quot;x-none&quot;>UKEL</string> </source> <taxon> <entry> <string language=&quot;x-none&quot;>UK Educational Level 5</string> </entry> </taxon> </taxonPath> </classification> just strings…
  • 19. Assigning URI to vocabulary terms
    • good practice in DC metadata to assign and use URIs to terms (not just strings)
    • so that each term in vocabulary is globally and uniquely identified
      • value URI vs. value string in DCAM
    • therefore need to assign a URI to each term in UKEL and other vocabularies
    • and declare using RDFS/SKOS
    • have assigned a PURL
      • UK Educational Level 4 = http://purl.org/meg/UKEL/level9
    note that this URI is still under discussion…
  • 20. But what about maintenance?
    • what does the PURL resolve to?
    • who owns it?
    • who is responsible for maintaining and serving the SKOS declaration?
    • who is responsible for updates?
    • need body with interest and persistence
    • … the interested parties in the UK are relatively short term
  • 21. Using UKEL in tagging systems
    • but what about social tagging systems like Flickr, del.icio.us and Connotea?
    • these systems allow end-user to assign simple ‘tags’ to resources
    • wouldn’t it be neat if we reached agreement about how to tag by educational level and other key ‘educational’ terms?
    • in UK, why not simply agree to all use ‘ukel4’ as tag for ‘UK Educational Level 4’…
    • or better, reach global agreement as to what ‘el4’ means – it can’t be that hard can it?!?
  • 22. del.icio.us example UKEL-based tag
  • 23. Flickr example UKEL-based tag
  • 24. Tagging beyond UKEL…
    • is it possible to go further?
    • can we agree how to tag by educational level, pedagogy (instructionalMethod), high-level subject and resource type
    • most tagging systems have simple APIs
      • allowing services to be built across systems
      • based on common set of tags…
      • … but where ‘our’ tags are related to an educational requirement
  • 25. Features of folksonomies
    • open - no centralised control
    • no formal definitions associated with tags
      • understanding of meaning comes from common usage
    • URIs not assigned to tags
    • no simple mapping to commonly used metadata properties
      • e.g. tags not necessarily appropriate values for dc:subject
  • 26. Summary Formal Informal LOM futures, DCMI/IEEE LTSC Taskforce, UKEL URIs, LO repositroies, etc. tagging systems, Flickr, del.icio.us, Connotea, folksonomies lomtologies as glue
  • 27. Lomtologies
    • an informal and potentially fluid vocabulary
    • that is useful in the context of describing learning resources
    • and that is maintained by the community thru social tagging systems
    • without central control
    • where each term comprises a ‘tag’ and a URI
    Do lomtologies help to give the community ownership of the maintenance problem? Does the use of existing vocabularies as lomtologies improve the use of tagging systems?
  • 28. Discuss
    • … discuss…

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