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Computer fundamentals & window based application
 

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    Computer fundamentals & window based application Computer fundamentals & window based application Document Transcript

    • E-528-529, sector-7, Dwarka, New delhi-110075 (Nr. Ramphal chowk and Sector 9 metro station) Ph. 011-47350606, (M) 7838010301-04 www.eduproz.inEducate Anytime...Anywhere..."Greetings For The Day"About EduprozWe, at EduProz, started our voyage with a dream of making higher education available for everyone. Sinceits inception, EduProz has been working as a stepping-stone for the students coming from variedbackgrounds. The best part is – the classroom for distance learning or correspondence courses for bothmanagement (MBA and BBA) and Information Technology (MCA and BCA) streams are free of cost. Experienced faculty-members, a state-of-the-art infrastructure and a congenial environment for learning -are the few things that we offer to our students. Our panel of industrial experts, coming from variousindustrial domains, lead students not only to secure good marks in examination, but also to get an edge overothers in their professional lives. Our study materials are sufficient to keep students abreast of the presentnuances of the industry. In addition, we give importance to regular tests and sessions to evaluate ourstudents’ progress. Students can attend regular classes of distance learning MBA, BBA, MCA and BCA courses at EduProzwithout paying anything extra. Our centrally air-conditioned classrooms, well-maintained library and well-equipped laboratory facilities provide a comfortable environment for learning.Honing specific skills is inevitable to get success in an interview. Keeping this in mind, EduProz has a careercounselling and career development cell where we help student to prepare for interviews. Our dedicatedplacement cell has been helping students to land in their dream jobs on completion of the course.EduProz is strategically located in Dwarka, West Delhi (walking distance from Dwarka Sector 9 MetroStation and 4-minutes drive from the national highway); students can easily come to our centre fromanywhere Delhi and neighbouring Gurgaon, Haryana and avail of a quality-oriented education facility atapparently no extra cost.Why Choose Edu Proz for distance learning? • Edu Proz provides class room facilities free of cost. • In EduProz Class room teaching is conducted through experienced faculty. • Class rooms are spacious fully air-conditioned ensuring comfortable ambience. • Course free is not wearily expensive. • Placement assistance and student counseling facilities. • Edu Proz unlike several other distance learning courses strives to help and motivate pupils to get
    • high grades thus ensuring that they are well placed in life.• Students are groomed and prepared to face interview boards.• Mock tests, unit tests and examinations are held to evaluate progress.• Special care is taken in the personality development department. "HAVE A GOOD DAY"
    • Karnataka State Open University(KSOU) was established on 1st June 1996 with the assent of H.E. Governor ofKarnatakaas a full fledged University in the academic year 1996 vide GovernmentnotificationNo/EDI/UOV/dated 12th February 1996 (Karnataka State Open UniversityAct – 1992).The act was promulgated with the object to incorporate an Open University at theState level for the introduction and promotion of Open University and DistanceEducation systems in theeducation pattern of the State and the country for the Co-ordination anddetermination of standard of such systems. Keeping in view the educationalneeds of our country, in general, and state in particular the policies andprogrammes have been geared to cater to the needy.Karnataka State Open University is a UGC recognised University of DistanceEducation Council (DEC), New Delhi, regular member of the Association ofIndian Universities (AIU), Delhi, permanent member of Association ofCommonwealth Universities (ACU), London, UK, Asian Association of OpenUniversities (AAOU), Beijing, China, and also has association withCommonwealth of Learning (COL).Karnataka State Open University is situated at the North–Western end of theManasagangotri campus, Mysore. The campus, which is about 5 kms, from thecity centre, has a serene atmosphere ideally suited for academic pursuits. TheUniversity houses at present the Administrative Office, Academic Block, LectureHalls, a well-equipped Library, Guest HouseCottages, a Moderate Canteen, Girls Hostel and a few cottages providing limitedaccommodation to students coming to Mysore for attending the ContactProgrammes or Term-end examinations. Unit1 Computer Fundamentals • This unit deals with Generations of Computers. This unit also includes Classification of Computers according to their size and capabilities, the different Input-Output devices used with the computers. It deals with Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit, terms Hardware, Software, computer languages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers are also discussed in this Unit.
    • Today computers have become part of our life. Usage of computers in different fields hasbecome a necessity in the present competitive world. Lot of work and evolutions hastranspired from the initial computer systems to the present day computer systems.Computers are made up of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical components. Computersare just the machines and you must specify the work that is to be carried out by thecomputer. Thus to carry out a specific task series of instructions must be given to theComputer in a particular order.ObjectivesTo Understand· Generations of Computers· Classification of Computers· Organization of Computers· Input-Output devices· Central Processing Unit· Memory Unit- Primary and Secondary Memory· The terms Hardware and Software· Computer Languages· Application of Computers· Advantages and Disadvantages of ComputersHistoryThe tool known as ABACUS was the age-old tool used by man to count and calculatewas designed and developed by Chinese some 5000 years ago.Blaise Pascal designed a working mechanical calculator in 1642. These devices were ableto add and subtract directly, whereas multiplication and division were performed throughrepeated addition and subtraction respectively.Gottfried Von Leibnitz a German, modified Pascal’s calculating machine which couldmultiply numbers directly.
    • In 1833 Charles Babbage an English scientist, designed Analytical Engine using toothwheels so that it could perform all mathematical operations in a predetermined sequenceusing a set of operational instructions, so he is called as Father of modern computers.Lady Ada Lovelace is considered as the first lady Computer Programmer as she hasdeveloped the concept of writing systematic operational instructions for the analyticalengine.In 1850 George Boole an English mathematician proposed logic theory of using thebinary (two) number system. This number system had only two numbers 0 and 1. In thisprocedures all the quantities are represented in terms of o and 1 for example 9 isrepresented as 00001001.Bool proposed a logic popularly known as Boolean algebra. Computer processors aredesigned on this system of logic.A statistician Dr. Herman Hollerith, developed a punched card that would contain datacoded in form of punched holes.Self Assessment Questions:1) Who is the first lady Computer Programmer?2) What is logic proposed by an English mathematician George Bool?Generations of ComputersEvolution of modern computer is commonly considered in terms of Generation ofComputers.First Generation (1940-1956): Vacuum TubesThe computers of this generation were made of vacuum tubes for circuitry and magneticdrums for memory. This made computers bulky and heavy. Punched cards were used tofeed the information. Magnetic tapes were used as external storage devices. They werevery expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated alot of heat and occupied a large amount of space. These machines used machine andassembly level language.The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computingdevices.Second Generation (1956-1963): TransistorsThe computers of this generation made up of transistors replacing vacuum tubes. Theseare small in size so the machines occupied a less amount of space. The use transistors
    • made the computers work much faster. The transistor was far superior to the vacuumtube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient andmore reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor stillgenerated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vastimprovement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punchedcards for input and printouts for output. The development of higher-level languages likeFORTRAN, COBOL and BASIC was possible.Third Generation (1965-1971): Integrated CircuitsThe computers of these generations were made up of IC (Integrated Circuits). Integratedcircuits mean incorporation of hundred of transistors on a single silicon chip. These werestill smaller than the computers of second-generation machines. Heat generated was alsoless and occupied less space.Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computersthrough keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowedthe device to run many different applications at one time with a central program thatmonitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a massaudience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.Fourth Generation (1971- ): MicroprocessorsThe computers of this generation saw the advent of Large Scale Integration (LSI) andVery Large Scale Integration (VLSI), which incorporated several thousands transistors ina single chip. The main characteristic of this generation computers is the evolution of theuse of Microprocessors. Microprocessors had thousands of integrated circuits were builtonto a single silicon chip.The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer –from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls – on a single chip.Self Assessment questions1) What are the components used in second and third generation computers2) Give example for first generation computersClassification of ComputersComputers are classified according to their sizes and their capabilities. Broadly, they maybe categorized as personal computers, lap top computers, minicomputers, mainframesand supercomputers.
    • Personal Computers: A microcomputer is the smallest general purpose processingsystem. Functionally it is similar to any other large system. Microcomputers are self-contained units and usually designed for use by one person at a time.Minicomputers: A minicomputer is medium sized computer that is more powerful than amicrocomputer. An important distinction between a microcomputer and a minicomputeris that a minicomputer is usually to serve multiple users simultaneously.Mainframes computers: Computers with large storage capacities and very high speed ofprocessing are known as mainframes. They support a large number of terminals forsimultaneous use by a number of users.Super computers: These have extremely large storage area and computing speeds,which are many times faster than earlier discussed machines. While the speed of earlierdiscussed computers measured in turns of million instructions per second whereas insupercomputers speed is measured as tens of millions of operations per second; anoperation is made of many instruction. These have more than one processor in it and theprocessing is carried out in parallel. The super computers are used in applications includelarge scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines like weatherforecasting, atomic research, space research etc.Lap Top/ Note Book Computers:These are the computers, which are small in size and weigh few Kgs. These computerscan be carried from one place to another easily. The people who are always on the movemostly use these. This has all the capabilities of a Personal Computer. It has an LCDscreen and has rechargeable batteries.Now you can even get computers which can be placed on you palm hence the name PalmTop Computers.Self Assessment Questions:1) Classify the computers according to their size and capabilities
    • Organization of a ComputerA computer is a fast and accurate device, which can accept data, store data, process themand give, desired results as output. The computer is organized into four units as shown inthe following diagram.1.4.1 Input Unit:Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into a computer is known as Inputdevice. Input devices convert data from any convenient external format into binary codesthat a computer can store and manipulate internally. Some of the most common, mostpopularly used devices are discussed below.Mouse: This Input device is categorized as an pointing device because itis used to point and select an option on the monitor. It is small boxlike object that isconnected to the computer by a cable and can be rolled around on the table. A pointer onthe screen follows the movements of the mouse; rolling the mouse left moves the pointerleft by an equipment amount, rolling the mouse in the right direction moves the pointer inthe right direction, rolling the mouse in the up direction moves the pointer in the updirection, rolling the mouse in the down direction moves the pointer in the downdirection and you can roll the mouse in a angular direction also. In order to select anoption on the computer screen, the user should move the pointer at the desired positionand press the button on the mouse. The mouse can be used to open menus, select texts forediting, move objects on the screen, draw images or diagrams etc.
    • A mouse can be classified on the basis of the number of buttons it has, the technology ituses, and the kind of interface it shares with the computer. A mouse may have one, twoor three buttons. The program that uses the mouse determines the function of each button.A mouse may be classified as a Mechanical mouse and an Optical mouse, on the basis ofthe technology it uses. In a Mechanical mouse, the rubber-coated ball that projectsthrough the bottom surface rotates as the mouse is moved along a flat surface and sendselectrical signals to the system unit by means of switches inside the mouse. This causesthe cursor, or pointer, to move in a corresponding fashion. An Optical mouse uses diodesto emit light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect movement across a speciallypatterned metal pad.Light Pen:This is also categorized into a pointing device, which can be used only with videodisplays. It can be used to select an option by simply pointing at it, or drawing figuresdirectly on the screen. An electron beam that repeatedly scans the display screen from leftto right and from top to bottom produce a video display. Because of this scanning action,each point on the display is illuminated at a slightly different time. The light pen, whichis a pen like device, has a photo detector at its tip. The detector can detect changes in thebrightness of the screen. The light pen is connected to the computer by a cable. When thepen is pointed at a particular spot on the screen, the point is scanned and the photodetector records changes in the brightness and sends electrical pulses to the computer.The computer can find out the exact spot with this information. Light pens are useful formenu-based applications. It is also useful for drawing graphics in Computer AidedDesign software.Touch Screen:Touch screens are normally used when information has to be accessed with minimumeffort. The user need to only touch the appropriate point on the display to point out anitem to the computer. This is again a kind of pointing devices.Joy Stick: This is another kind of Input device used to play computer games, whichis connected to game port.Keyboard:
    • Keyboards are the most widely used input devices. The most popular keyboards are thosethat look, feel, and possibly sound like an ordinary typewriter keyboard. Alternatives areMembrane keyboards, whose keys are merely printed on a plastic membrane. A pressuresensitive two-dimensional keyboard covered with a dust proofed and dirt proofed plasticsheet are useful in dirty environments. Keyboards are of different varieties. Generally akeyboard has 105 keys. It features 12 function keys arranged at the top of the keyboard,and larger Backspace key, a numeric keypad, a cursor movement keypad, toggle lights,Shift keys, Alt keys, Ctrl keys, Caps Lock key, Num Lock key, Spacebar key, Enter key,Alphabetical keys etc.Scanners:These are the eyes of your computer. They can see images or printed text and translatethem into binary code. Most scanners collect data from a page by recording, which areasare light and which areas are dark. They contain a camera, which is made up of thousandsof tiny cells, called charge coupled devices (CCD). Each CCD detects whether a smallpart of the image is either light or dark. It transmits this data to the CPU, which thencreates the image. Some scanners are sensitive enough to tell the difference betweencolors.Many scanners available nowadays are capable of not only scanning texts and graphics,but also integrated text and graphic files. Scanners are used to reproduce photographs onthe computer screen. Businesses use scanners fro storing documents on the computer.Optical Character Readers (OCR): These are another kind of input devices that areused to read any printed text. They can interpret hand made marks, handwrittencharacters, machine printed characters and special symbols and codes. Optical characterreaders scan text character-by-character converts them into machine-readable codes andstore it in the memory. Since they read characters at the rate of around 2600 charactersper second this reduces the organizations the data inputting time.Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR): This is a device that identifies a characterthat is written with the ink that contains particles of magnetic material. This device ismainly used to read the Bank cheque.Mark Sense Reader: This device is used to recognize the marks made by a pencil or penon a specially designed paper. These devices are also known as Optical Mark Readers(OMR). These devices are used in competitive exams, to carry out the survey work etc.Bar Code Reader: This is used to read different kind of vertical lines known as barswhich signify some information.
    • 1.4.2 Output Unit:Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient externalforms as text and pictures are known as Output devices. Some of the most popularly usedOutput devices are discussed below.Visual Display Unit: The Visual Display Unit is an output device that gives visualrepresentation of data. They are also known as Monitors. They are television screen likedevices used for displaying the output of computers. Computer monitors are often calledCathode Ray Tubes (CRT). Computer users may select from monochrome (black andwhite) or color/graphics monitors. CRT monitors are too bulky for portable computers.Instead they have flat screen monitors. Many of these use Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)screens. An LCD screen is filled with molecules (tiny particles) of a liquid, which reflectsthe light. When the computer scans the screen, some molecules twist to shut out light.The off molecules cause a pixel to go dark, and so form part of image. LCDs are similarto the display those found in calculators and digital watches are widely used in Laptopcomputers and pocket computers.Printer:The Printer is another output device used to store the output for later reference. UsingPrinters, output can be obtained on paper.The Printers can be divided into two categories1) Impact Printers 2) Non Impact PrintersImpact Printers:These printers print by striking the type against the ribbon and the printer. The examplefor this kind of printers is Dot Matrix Printers, Daisy wheel Printers and Line Printers.They can produce carbon copies, if necessary.Dot Matrix Printer: The print head comprises a matrix of tiny needles, usually of sevenrows and five columns. They are electrically driven and punch characters in the form of
    • patterns of tiny dots. The pattern of dots for each character is dictated by the informationheld electronically in the printer.Daisy wheel printer: It is a character printer and derives it’s name from the shape of theprint wheel. The daisy shape wheel is made of metal or plastic and holds the characterson its petal. The wheel rotates at a high speed and when the required character ispositioned over the ribbon, a tinny hammer strikes it against the ribbon thus transferringthe character symbol to the paper.Dot matrix and Daisy wheel printers are called as character printers as they can print onlyone character at a time.Line Printers: It prints an entire line at a time and is the fastest printer. It is the fastestprinter as it prints all the characters in the line simultaneously.Non-Impact Printers: These create the images without striking the type against theribbon and paper instead they are practically noiseless and create images only on onecopy. The example for these kind of printers is Ink-jet printers, Laser Printers andThermal printers.Ink-jet Printers: These printers print characters by spraying electrically charged inkonto the paper. They are capable of producing characters of various shapes and sizes. Wecan take colored output.Laser Printer: These are high speed, high quality printers. A laser beam is used to burncharacters images on the rotating drum and the heated surface area picks up the tonerparticles, which is sprinkled on the paper.Thermal Printer: These kind of printers use heated dot matrix wires to print the outputon a specially treated paper. The output on a thermal paper fades quickly when exposedto light.
    • Plotters:This is an output device used to create high quality visuals on papers, which cannot beobtained using a printer. It is used to create presentation visuals, charts, graphs, table, andengineering plans. A plotter consists of an arm that moves across the paper on which thediagram or graph needs to be drawn. A pen moves along the arm, and the arm itselfmoves relative to the paper. A combination of the two thus provides movement along thehorizontal and vertical axes. To draw clear, high quality designs, a plotter needs highquality pens with special inks of different colors. A plotter is more software dependentthan any other peripheral and needs much more instructions that the printer for producingoutput.1.4.3 Central Processing Unit:The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the heart of the computer combined with theprocessing system of a computer. The CPU carries out actions with help of Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU). This is done following a detailed set of instructions written in themain memory. It also uses the main memory for temporary storage of information.Through the channels of information “Bus”, the CPU instructs various parts called devicecontrollers to transfer data between secondary memory and the main memory. The CPUaccepts the data from the Input unit processes it and gives the result/output to the outputdevice. The data/result can be stored for the use by storing it in the secondary memory.The total operations of the computer is synchronized and controlled by the CPU.The processing capacity of a computer is measured in terms the amount of data processedby the CPU in one operation. The CPU has three important sub units.1) Arithmetic-Logic unit2) Control Unit3) Memory UnitArithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out thearithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This unitcarries out logical operations like greater than, less than, equal to etc. It performs theoperation on the data provided by the input devices. A comparison operation allows aprogram to make decisions based on its data input and results of the previouscalculations.Logical operations can be used to determine whether particular statement is TRUE orFALSE.The ALU operates on the data available in the main memory and sends them back afterprocessing again to main memory.
    • Control Unit: The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units in thesystem. Its main functions are to control the transfer of data and information betweenvarious units and to initiate appropriate actions by the arithmetic-logic unit.Conceptually, the control unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them, anddirects them to various units to perform the specified tasks.Memory Unit: The main memory is also called primary memory, is used to store datatemporarily. Although, the CPU is the brain behind all the operations in the computer, itneeds to be supplied with the data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what todo. Once the CPU has carried out an instruction, it needs the result to be stored. Thisstorage space is provided by the computer’s memory. Data provided by the input device,and the result of that processed data is also stored in the memory nit. This main memoryis like a scratch pad. The storage capacity of the memory is generally measured inmegabytes.8 Bits = 1 Byte1024 Bytes= 1 Kilobyte (KB)1024 Kilobytes= 1 Megabyte (MB)1024 Megabytes= 1 Gigabyte (GB)Different kinds of primary memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read OnlyMemory (ROM). You can read and write data in RAM but the data is volatile ortemporary that is whenever the power is switched off the contents of RAM is lost so its isrequired to store the data in the secondary memory if the data is required for the futureuse. But you can only read the data from ROM and you can not write any thing into it andthe data is permanent. The manufacturer himself has written the data in it initially.Secondary Memory:This is the permanent memory. The data stored in it is permanent. But you can delete thedata if you want. There are different kinds of secondary storage devices available. Few ofthem are Floppy disks, Fixed (hard) disks and Optical disks etc.Floppy disk:
    • This is one of the most common storage medium used todayin computers. It is flexible circular plastic disk coated with magnetic material. The diskhas two surfaces and data will be stored/retrieved from both the surfaces. Circular tracksare recorded on each of the surfaces. A track is further subdivided into sectors. Thesetracks, sectors and surfaces of disks are used to identify the place where the data will bewritten/retrieved.The information can be stored or retrieved by inserting the floppy disk in the disk drivepresent in the computer. The above shown floppy disk is 3.5-inch floppy disk, which hasthe capacity of 1.44 MB.Fixed (hard) disk:These are smooth metal plates coated with a thin film of magnetic material. A set of suchmagnetic plates is fixed to a spindle one below the other to make up a set of disks. Thisdisk pack is sealed and mounted on a disk drive. The disk drive consists of a motor torotate the disk pack around its axis at the speed of about 7200 rotations per minute(RPM). The drive also has a set of magnetic heads mounted on arms. The arm assemblyis capable of moving in and out in radial direction. Information is recorded on the surfaceof a disk as it rotates about its axis. Circular tracks are recorded on each of the surfaces.A set of corresponding tracks in all surfaces of disks is called a cylinder. A track isfurther subdivided into sectors. These cylinders, sectors and surfaces of disks are used toidentify the place where the data will be written/read.These have the capacities in 40 Giga Bytes (GB), 80 GB etc. Optical disks:
    • These disks are different from the magnetic disks by the way the data is recorded andretrieved. In optical disks, a laser beam is used to write and read data on these reflectivedisks. Optical disk have storage capacity much more higher than the magnetic disks.These optical disks are popularly known as Compact disks (CD). To read the contents ofthe CD you are required to place the CD in the CD drive of your computer. But to recorddata on your CD you are required to have CD-Writer drive in your computer. This CD-Writer drive can be used to Read and Record the data on CD.Different forms of CD’s are available they are basically CD, CD-R andCD-RW.CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read Only Memory. On these the data is already recorded andyou are going to use this CD_ROM.CD-R: Compact Disk Recordable. In this the data can be written only once.CD-RW: Compact Disk ReWritable. In this the once stored data can be erased and newdata can be stored.Compact disks with different capacities are available they are 650 MB, 700 MB etc.Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory (DVDROM):This uses the same principle as CD-ROM for reading and writing. But in this the data isstored two layers. On each layer the data is recorded. The distance between successivetracks is less. Thus the capacity can be doubled. The total capacity of DVDROM is 8.5GB. In double-sided DVD two such disks are placed back to back so the recording can bedone at both the sides. Since each side can hold 8.5 GB of data, both sides in total canstore 17GB of data.Magnetic Tape Drives:Magnetic tape memories are similar to the commonly used audio tape recorders. Amagnetic tape drive is made up of spool on which a magnetic tape is wound. The tape istransported across a set of magnetic heads and is taken up on another spool. Between thespools heads are mounted which are used store and retrieve the data from the tape. Thestandard size of width of the tape is half an inch. The data is recorded and retrievedsequentially. So the access time in case of tape is large compared to disks.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different kinds of Input devices2) Differentiate between Impact and Non Impact printers3) List out different kinds Optical Disks
    • 4) List out different kinds Optical DisksTwo important Computer terminologies:1. Hardware2. SoftwareHardware: This comprises the Electronic, Electrical and mechanical components of themachine. The physical parts, which can be seen, touched and felt about.Software: These are the programs. Program means the set of meaningful instructionswritten in a particular order so as to carry out some task. The program is fed into orstored in the computer. A computer is said to be running or executing a program when itis carrying out programs instructions. Without the software the hardware is of no use. Ascomputers are dumb machines they can work only with the help of software, which tellthem what the machine is required to do. Writing instructions for a computer is known asprogramming, and the persons who writes programs is called as a Programmer. There aredifferent languages and packages to write these instructions.Computer LanguagesA language is a system of communication. A programming language consists of all thesyntaxes (grammar or usage rules) and semantics (meaning) that permit people tocommunicate with the computer. The computer languages must have instructions tomanipulate input/output, text etc. They should have instructions to calculate, do logicaloperations like comparison, storing and retrieval of information etc.These languages are broadly classified as· Machine level language· Assembly level language· High level language· Fourth generation languagesMachine level language: A program written using binary numbers i.e. 0’s and 1’sspecified for the processor’s operation and absolute binary address is known as themachine language of the computer. The instruction prepared in machine level languagecomprises of two parts. The first part makes the operation code or op code or commandwhich species the function required to be carried out by the processor. The second part of
    • the instruction specifies the operand on which the operation is required to be performed.Operand can be data or the location of the data.Assembly level language: This language uses mnemonics or abbreviations to represent aparticular operation. Again the instruction in this language has two parts, first partsrepresenting the operation required to be performed (mnemonic for a operation) and thesecond part representing the operand on which the operation specified in the first part willbe performed. The operand can be data, location for data retrieval/store or label etc. Theoperation code (mnemonic) and operand varies from processor to processor.Ex: Assembly level language instruction for 8086 processor isADC BX, AXEx: Assembly level language instruction for 8085 processor isACI 65HA program written in Assembly level language is converted to its machine level languageby translator software called as Assembler.High-level language: In this language the instructions are written in simple English. Butagain you should use certain specified English words of the particular language, whichrepresent a particular operation. These languages are machine independent and procedureoriented. These languages are easy to understand and write programs. The example forthe higher-level languages is BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C, C++ and Javaetc.BASIC: Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language designed specially for business dataprocessing.FORTRAN: Formula Translation, this language is more suited for science, engineeringand mathematical calculations.Pascal: This language is named after Blaise Pascal an eminent scientist who developedmechanical calculator.C: This is a more efficient general-purpose language.Ex:main(){
    • float i,j,k;i=3.5;j=8.5;k=j-i;printf(“Entered values are i=%f, j=%f, The result of subtraction is k=%f”,i,j,k); }In the above program three variables named as i, j and k are declared to hold real values.Then two values are assigned to variables i and j. Then value of i is subtracted from thevalue of j and the result is stored in k. Then the values of i, j and k are printed withappropriate messages.C++: This language is the extension of C language. This language is object oriented.Java: This language is another general purpose and object oriented language.A program written in Higher-level language is converted to its machine level languageequivalent by translator software. Two different types are translator software areavailable they are Interpreter and CompilerInterpreter: This translator software converts program, one statement at time, andexecutes it immediately.Compiler: This translator software converts entire program at a time and then executes it.Fourth Generation languages: These are the application development tools, whichimprove the efficiency and productivity. A number of tools from different vendors areavailable in the market and these tools are collectively referred to as fourth generationlanguages (4GL). A 4GL tools interacts with Database Management System (DBMS) orRelational Database Management System (RDBMS) to store, retrieve, manipulate and togenerate reports according to the user requirement.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different categories of Programming languagesTwo kinds of software present are1. System Software: The computer uses this software. This software control and directthe operation of the computer. It coordinates and synchronizes operations of differentunits of the computer. It helps carrying out Input-Output operations, implementing theinstructions given by the user, converting the instructions, which are in higher-level
    • language to machine level language equivalent etc. The examples for the Systemsoftware are Operating System, Compiler, and Interpreter etc.2. Application Software: These are the software used for specific applications such asletter typing, accounting, billing and inventory etc. It acts as an interface between the userand system software. This application software takes the help of system software toprocess the needs of the users.Operating SystemThis is the system software, which acts as an interface between the user and computer.All the computers require operating system without which one cannot work with thecomputer. This control, co-ordinates, synchronizes all the operations of the computer.Whatever the user wants to do with the computer with the help of the applicationsoftware, the operating system will assist the application software to carry out the job. Oreven the user can directly interact with the operating system to get his work done.Different operating systems are available they are Microsoft Disk Operating System(MS-DOS), Microsoft-Windows 98, Microsoft-Windows XP, Microsoft-Windows 2003Server, UNIX, LINUX etc.This operating system resides in the secondary memory and if you want to work with thecomputer it is required to be loaded in the primary memory.BootingThe process of loading the operating system from the secondary memory to primarymemory is called as booting. This is the process carried out first when the computer isturned on. A program called as bootstrap loader, which is stored in the Read OnlyMemory present in the computer, carries out the process of booting.Basically two different kinds of operating system exist they are :· Single User: Only one user can access the machine at a time on which this kind ofoperating system is loaded. Example is Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS).· Multi User/Multi tasking Operating System: Many users can access the machine onwhich this kind of operating system is loaded simultaneously i.e. through the network.Example: Microsoft-Windows 98, Microsoft-Windows XP, Microsoft Windows-NT,Microsoft Windows 2003 Server, UNIX, LINUX etc.PortWe have discussed different input and output units earlier and these units are required tobe connected to the computer before they are used and these units are connected to theconnector or socket present at the back of a computer. This connector or socket is calledas a port. Instructions and data are allowed to flow between devices and computer.
    • Different kinds of ports are available they are Parallel Port, Serial Port, Keyboard Port,Game Port, Universal Serial Bus (USB), PS2 Port and Monitor Port.Universal Serial Bus is a new type of port that can be used to connect up to 27 differentperipheral devices with single connector. Using this, different devices can be connectedto a unit, which is out side the system unit.Applications of ComputersComputers have a very big impact on our day-to-day life. They can be used for a numberof applications like Business, Education, Research, Office, Accounting, Military, Space,Entertainment, Medical etc. You can use it for any of the applications. Computers arebecoming the integral part of our life, which enhances our efficiency and productivity. Inthis competitive world the usage of computers to carry out day-to-day work will give youan edge over the others.Following are the broad application areas where computers are used extensively· Entertainment: It can be used to make cartoon movies, animation and special effects inmovies, games etc.· Day to day life: It can be used in institution like Collages, Hospitals, Railway andAirline Booking Systems, Shops, Bank etc. to carry out day to day work. For exampletrain ticket bookings can be done with help of computer. If you want to book a ticket to aparticular destination instead of a human being searching for the availability of the ticketsin books or by calling a respective station the computers can do that job as computers ofdifferent station are connected in a networkThe computer without using paper does most of the jobs done by the human beings withthe help of paper. if an entry is to be made in many place in the case of not using thecomputers humane being are required to make entrees in all the places whereas thecomputers are used than the human beings are required to do entries in our place in all theother place computers will do not entries atomically. For example when a sale bill ismade in shop the entry is made in the Ledger, Cash/Bank book, Stock book etc.automatically.· Communication: Nowadays Internet is becoming integral part of life to gatherinformation about different topics or to send and receive emails etc.· Scientist: It can be used for research purposes, space programs, nuclear programs etc.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the application area of computersDisadvantages
    • · Computers cannot think by themselves and they require human direction to performspecific tasks.· If the data given is wrong then it gives the wrong result. For example if you want to addtwo numbers say 900 and 760, (here 900 and 760 are data) instead of typing 900 and 760if you give the data as 900 and 780 then the result what you get will be wrong.· Instructions given also should be correct that is instead of addition if you ask it tomultiply it will multiply.· It will not work without electricity.· Investment and maintenance in this equipment is also required.SummaryCharles Babbage is known as the Father of modern computers. Lady Ada Lovelace isconsidered as first lady computer programmer. George Boole proposed the binarynumbers system. The First generation computers are made of Vacuum tubes, the Secondgeneration computers made of Transistors, the Third generation machines are made up ofIC’s and Fourth generation machines are made up of VLSI technology. Computers areclassified according to their sizes and capacities. Computers are organized into four partsand they are Input Unit, Output Unit, Central Processing Unit and Memory Unit.Hardware is nothing but the combination of Electrical, Mechanical and Electroniccomponents. Software is nothing but the series of instruction written in a particular orderto carry out a specific task. Computers have application in all the walks of life that is inBusiness, Education, Research, Science, Entertainment etc.Terminal Questions1) Explain different generations of Computers2) With the block diagram explain the organization of Computers3) Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers Unit 2 Number Systems • This unit deals with Generations of Computers. This unit also includes Classification of Computers according to their size and capabilities, the different Input-Output devices used with the computers. It deals with Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit, terms Hardware, Software, computer languages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers are also discussed in this Unit.Introduction
    • Any quantity is measured in some system. The quantity measured is represented in somenumbers. There are different number systems. In each number system different symbolsare used to represent the numbers. The different number systems are Decimal, Octal,Binary etc.Objectives:To understand· Decimal Number System· Binary Number System· Binary Addition and Subtraction· Binary Multiplication And Division· Conversion From Decimal Numbers To Binary· Negative Numbers· Representing Negative Numbers Using Complements· Complements In Binary Number System· Gates: OR, AND, NOTDecimal Number SystemIn this ten symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it is Decimal number system.The ten symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. These are called Arabic numerals.It is necessary to learn only the 10 basic numerals and the positional notational system inorder to measure any desired quantity or to count any required figure. After memorizingthe addition and multiplication tables and learning a few simple rules, we can perform allarithmetic operations.For example let us represent the quantity 127. The actual meaning of the number 127 canbe seen more clearly if we notice that it is said as “one hundred and twenty seven”Basically, the number is a contraction of 1 x 100 + 2 x 10 + 7. The important point is thatthe value of each digit is determined by its position. For example, the 3 in 300 has adifferent value than the 3 in 30. We show this verbally by saying “three hundred” and‘thirty” Different verbal representations have been invented for numbers from 10 to 20(eleven, twelve, . .), but from 20 upward we break only at powers of 10 (hundreds,thousands, lakhs, crores etc.). Written numbers are always contracted, however, and onlythe basic 10 numerals are used, regardless of the size of the integer written.
    • The base, or radix, of a number system is defined as the number of different digits whichcan occur in each position in the number system. The decimal number system has a base,or radix, of 10. Thus the system has 10 different digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 , …9), any one ofwhich may be used in each position in a number.Binary Number SystemIn this number system two symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it is binarynumber system. The two symbols are 0 and 1.The same type of positional notation isused in the binary number system as in the decimal system.Although the same positional notation system is used, the instead of powers of 10 as usedin decimal number system the binary system uses powers of 2. As was previouslyexplained, the number 127 actually means 1 ×102 + 2 × 101 + 7 × 100. In the binarysystem, the same number (127) is represented as 1111111, meaning 1 × 26 + 1× 25+ l ×24+1×23+ l × 22 + l × 21 + l × 20.Binary Addition and SubtractionIn the same manner as decimal addition is performed Binary addition is also carried out.The table for binary addition is as follows:“Carry-overs” are performed in the same manner as in decimal arithmetic. Since 1 is thelargest digit in the binary system, any sum greater than 1 requires that a digit be carriedover. For example, 010 plus 010 binary requires the addition of the two 1’s in the secondposition to the left, with a carry-over. Since 1 + 1 = 0 plus a carry-over of 1, the sum of010 and 010 is 100. Here are three more examples of binary addition:It is necessary to establish a procedure for subtracting a larger digit from a smaller digitin subtraction. The only case in which this occurs with binary numbers is when 1 issubtracted from 0. The remainder is 1, but it is necessary to borrow 1 from the nextcolumn to the left. This is the binary subtraction table.0–0=01–0=11–1=00 – 1 = 1 with a borrow of 1
    • A few examples will make the procedure for binary subtraction clear:Binary Multiplication and DivisionBinary Multiplication:The table for binary multiplication is also given below.0x0=01x0=00x1=01xl=1The following examples of binary multiplication show the simplicity of each operation. Itis only necessary to copy the multiplicand if the digit in the multiplier is 1 and to copy all0s if the digit in the multiplier is a 0.The following two examples of binary multiplication illustrate the simplicity of eachoperation. If the digit in the multiplier is 1 then copy multiplicand and copy all 0s if thedigit in the multiplier is a 0.Binary Division:Binary division is, like any number system is very simple.0÷1=01÷1=1Division by zero is not done in any number systemFollowing are the examples of division:
    • To convert the quotient obtained in the second example from binary to decimal, wewould proceed as follows:Therefore, 10.011010101 binary equals approximately 2.416 decimal.Self Assessment question:1) With example explain when the Carry or a Borrow is generatedConversion from Decimal Numbers to BinaryMany methods are available for converting a decimal number to a binary number.In first method simply subtract all powers of 2, which can be subtracted from the decimalnumber until nothing remains. The highest power of 2 is subtracted first, then the secondhighest, etc. To convert the decimal integer 14 to the binary number system, first thehighest power of 2, which can be subtracted from 14, is found. This is 23 = 8. Then 14 – 8= 6. The highest power of 2, which can be subtracted from 6, is 22, or 4 so 6-4=2. Nowsubtract 21 , that is 2 from 2 so the remainder of subtraction is 0The binary representation for 14 is, therefore, 1110.But this is a laborious method for converting numbers and is convenient for smallnumbers, but for larger numbers it may be difficult. So in the second method, the decimalnumber is repeatedly divided by 2, and the remainder after each division is used to
    • indicate the coefficients of the binary number to be formed. The binary number derived iswritten from the bottom up.The binary representation of 123 is, therefore,1111011. Checking this result givesBut this method will not work for mixed numbers. If similar methods are to be used, firstit is necessary to bifurcate the number into its whole and fractional parts; that is, 121.567would be divided into 121 and 0.567. The binary representation for each part is found,and then the two parts are added.The conversion of decimal fractions to binary fractions may be accomplished usingseveral techniques. Again, the most obvious method is to subtract the highest negativepower of 2, which may be subtracted from the decimal fraction. Then the next highestnegative power of 2 is subtracted from the remainder of the first subtraction, and thisprocess is continued until there is no remainder or to the desired precision.So let us consider the following example where 0.875 will be converted to it’s binaryequivalent.Thus 0.875 decimal is represented by 0.111 binary. A much simpler method for longerfractions consists of repeatedly “doubling” the decimal fraction. If a 1 appears to the leftof the decimal point after a multiplication by 2 is performed, a 1 is added to the right ofthe binary fraction being formed. If after a multiplication by 2, a 0 remains to the left ofthe decimal point of the decimal number, a 0 is added to the right of the binary number.This process can be continued till you get 0 after the decimal point after themultiplication other wise for as number of precision you want. The following exampleillustrates the use of this technique in converting 0.3475 decimal to the binary system:BINARY REPRESENTATION
    • The binary representation of 0.3475 is, therefore, 0.01011000Negative NumbersFor writing negative numbers a standard convention adopted and it consists of placing asign symbol before a number that is negative. For example, negative 27 is written as -27.If – 27 is to be added to + 45, we write+45 + (–27) = 18But if a negative number is subtracted from a positive number, for example the aboveexpression can be written as +45 – (– 27) = + 45 + 27 = 72(- and – becomes +).In binary machines each of the binary digit is represented by a switch which can be usedto represent two values but one at a time either ON or OFF.As an example, given a set of six switches, any number from 000000 to 111111 may berepresented by the switches if we define a switch with its contacts closed as representinga 1 and a switch with open contacts as representing a 0. If we desire to increase the totalrange of numbers that we can represent so that it will include the negative numbers from000000 to – 111111, another bit (or switch) will be required. We then treat this bit as asign bit and place it before the magnitude of the number to be represented.The convention is adopted generally is that when the sign bit is a 0, the numberrepresented is positive, and when the sign bit is a 1, the number is negative. Let usconsider the previous example where we have used six switches to represent the quantityand now to specify the sign of the quantity whether positive or negative one more switchwill have to be used. When the contacts of this seventh switch is open, the number will bea positive number equal to the magnitude of the number stored in the other six switches;and if the switch for the sign bit is closed, the number represented by the seven switcheswill be a negative number with a magnitude determined by other six switches.Let us consider the following example when seven switches are used– 37 = 1100101The seventh switch represents the negative sign, which is 1+37 = 0100101The seventh switch represents the positive sign, which is 0Representing Negative Numbers Using Complements
    • The negative numbers can be represented in complement form so that a machine can bemade to add and subtract, using only circuitry for adding.2.5.1 Complements in Binary Number SystemThere are two types of complements in this and they are 2’s complement and 1’scomplement.The 2s complement of a binary number is formed by simply subtracting each bit of thenumber from the radix minus one and adding a 1 to the least significant bit. Since theradix in the binary number system is 2, each bit of the binary number is subtracted from1. The application of this rule is actually very simple; every 1 in the number is changed toa 0 and every 0 to a 1. Then a 1 is added to the least significant bit of the number formed.The 2’s complement of 10110 is formed by the following stepsSo the 2s complement of 10010 is 01010.Similarly the 2s complement of 10010 is 01110. Subtraction using the 2s complementsystem involves forming the 2s complement of the subtrahend and then adding thiscomplement to the minuend. For instance,Example 1:11001 11001– 10100 = + 0110000101 1 00101Carry is droppedExample 210110 10110– 01110 = + 1001001000 1 01000Carry is droppedSubtraction using the 1s complement system is also straightforward. The 1s complementof a binary number is formed by changing each 1 in the number to a 0 and each 0 in the
    • number to a 1. For instance, the 1s complement of 11101 is 00010, and the 1scomplement of 00011 is 11100.When subtraction is performed in the 1s complement system, any end-around carry isadded to the least significant bit. For instance,Note: Observe the difference in 2’s and 1’s complement subtraction for the samequantity.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the concept of 1’s and 2’s complement2.6 GatesA gate is an electronic circuit which operates on one or more input signal to produce anoutput signal. There are different gates like OR, AND, NOT etc.OR Gate:The following table gives the combinations of input and the output for each of thecombinations. This table is also called as truth table of OR gate.Inputs OutputXY Z0 0 01 0 10 1 11 1 1
    • In the above table X and Y are the Inputs and Z is the Output. As shown in the tablewhen both the Inputs are 0 then the Output is 0. If any one of the Input or both the Inputsare 1 then the Output is 1.Logical addition table0+0 00+1 11+0 11+1 1OR gate is used to realize the logical addition operation.AND Gate:The following table gives the combinations of input and the output for each of thecombinations. This table is also called as truth table AND gate.Inputs OutputXY Z0 0 01 0 00 1 01 1 1In the above table X and Y are the Inputs and Z is the Output. As shown in the abovetable the Output is 1 only when both the Inputs are 1 and in all other cases the output is 0.Logical multiplication table0.0 00.1 01.0 01.1 1AND gate is used to realize the logical multiplication operationNOT Gate
    • Singular or unary operations define an operation on a single variable. The familiarexample of unary operation is -, so we can write -7, -9 or –Z, that means we are to takethe negative of these values. The operation complementation means inversion of aquantity and this operation is defined by the following table.Input Output X Z 0 1 1 0The above table gives the output for each input. This table is also called as truth tableNOT gate. The operation complementation or inversion of a quantity can be realized bythe help of NOT gateSelf Assessment Question:1) Differentiate between OR, AND and NOT gateSummaryIn Binary number system two symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it isbinary number system. The two symbols are 0 and 1.The same type of positional notationis used in the binary number system as in the decimal system. In the same manner asdecimal arithmetic is performed Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisionis also carried out. The negative numbers are represented in complement form so that amachine can be made to add and subtract, using only circuitry for adding. There are twotypes of complements in this and they are 2’s complement and 1’s complement.A gate is an electronic circuit which operates on one or more input signal to produce anoutput signal. There are different gates like OR, AND, NOT etTerminal Questions1) Convert the following from Binary to Decimala) 11111b) 10110c) 11001
    • d) 001012) Perform the following Arithmetic operations in Binarya) 11011 + 11110b) 11.01 + 101.11c) 1110 – 1100d) 1001 – 0101e) 1011 * 110f) 111* 101g) 1111÷ 111h) 111 ÷ 113) Perform the following subtraction using 1’s and 2’s complement systema) 11101 – 11110b) 11001 – 100114) Write the truth table of OR, AND, NOT gates Unit 3 Introduction to Operating Systems • In this unit we deal with different terminologies with reference to Operating System and various flavors of Operating System. This unit also includes the main functions of Operating system. We discuss various features of Windows XP in specific in this unit.IntroductionOperating System is systems software. This software acts as an Interface between theuser and the computer. It also controls and coordinates different operations of computer.As computer understands machine language and it is difficult for us to understand themachine language, we issue commands in our language say in English. But the computerdoes not understand our language as it knows only machine language so this softwareaccepts the commands given by us in the language known to us say in English andconverts that command into equivalent machine level language command for theexecution by the computer.
    • So without operating system we can not work with the computer. It is similar to asituation where two people of different languages speaking to each other with the help ofan interpreter who knows both the languages.To work with any of the software it has to be present in the Primary memory i.e. RandomAccess Memory (RAM) of the computer. But we know that when we switch off themachine whatever is present in the RAM will be lost. So how the OS will be brought tothe RAM? When we switch on the machine after Power On Self Test (POST) process theoperating system will be loaded into the computer’s memory with the help of certaininstructions (Bootstrap program) present in the ROM. The process of loading theOperating System into computer’s memory is known as Booting. Once the OperatingSystem is loaded into the memory of the computer we can work with the computer.Thus the main functions of Operating System are1) To act as an interface between the user and the computer2) To monitor the use of the resources of computers (Resources can be hardware orSoftware)3) To control and coordinate Input and Output devices4) To manage the program and data files i.e. to store, to retrieve, to delete files5) To help the application programs execute commands given by the userExamples for operating systems are Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows XP,Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows 2003, UNIX, Linux, Novell Netware,Solaris etc.Operating system is a general term and the above mentioned examples are the names forthe product given by different Organizations which have developed this Operating systemsoftware.Objectives:To understand· Different types of operating systems· Features of Windows XP· Options available in the Start button after Windows XP Installation· Copying of files/Folders
    • · Restoring the deled files/folders· Windows media playerDifferent types of Operating SystemsLet us categorize the Operating System as follows1) Single User2) Multi User3) Batch Processing4) Multi Processing5) On Line and Real TimeSingle usera) Single user, Single Task: As the name implies, this operating system is designed tomanage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The PalmOS for Palm handheld computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-taskoperating system. When you are using MS-DOS it is a single user single task operatingsystem.b) Single user, Multi-tasking: This is the type of operating system most people use ontheir desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s MacOSplatforms are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have severalprograms in operation at the same time. For example, it’s entirely possible for a Windowsuser to write a letter and at the same time the printing of another letter can be done or atthe same Internet browsing can be done.So in Single user operating systems there is one keyboard and one monitor that youinteract with.Consider a typical home computer. There is a single keyboard and mouse that acceptinput commands, and a single monitor to display information output. There may also be aprinter for the printing of documents and images.In essence, a single-user operating system provides access to the computer system by asingle user at a time. If another user needs access to the computer system, they must waittill the current user finishes what they are doing and leaves.
    • Multi-userA multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of thecomputer’s resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that therequirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they areusing has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn’t affectthe entire community of users. Unix, VMS and mainframe operating systems areexamples of multi-user operating systems.A multi-user operating system lets more than one user access the computer system at onetime. Access to the computer system is normally provided via a network, so that usersaccess the computer remotely using a terminal or other computer.These terminals nowadays are generally personal computers and use a network to sendand receive information to the multi-user computer system. Examples of multi-useroperating systems are UNIX, Linux and mainframes such as the IBM AS400.The multi user operating systems must manage and run all user requests, ensuring they donot interfere with each other. Devices which can only be used by one user at a time, likeprinters and disks must be shared amongst all those requesting them so that all the outputdocuments are not jumbled up. If each user tried to send their document to the printer atthe same time, the end result would be garbage. Instead, documents sent are placed in aqueue, and each document is printed in its entirety before the next document to be printedis retrieved from the queue. It is similar to a situation where in you are waiting for yourturn in a ticket counter to get a ticket. The ticket issuer issues the ticket when your turncomes. Here also all the printing jobs wait in a queue and jobs are printed one after theother. Some priority can also be set to some jobs so that they can be taken up earlyaccording to some priority.Batch Processing Systems:In these kinds of systems the user feeds his job into the computer and waits for thecompletion of his job. New job can not be started until the old job is not completed. Thusthe jobs required to be processed are kept in ready state and whenever one job iscompleted the next job is automatically taken and executed.Multi Processing:We are considering the system with more than one processor. When we are having morethan one processor in the system then different tasks can be actually run simultaneouslyon different processors. For example if we have two processors in a system and two tasksto run then these two different tasks can be run on two different processorssimultaneously. The operating systems used in such systems are called Multi Processingoperating systems. Multi Processing is achieved in different ways.
    • On Line and Real Time Systems:In these kinds of systems the information should be retrieved quickly whenever neededand updated immediately once a transaction is complete. There should not be any delayin the process. Such systems are called On Line Systems. The example for these kinds ofsystems are ticket reservation systems may it be Air line or Railway. In such system, theresponse time should be very short because a customer’s reservation is to be done whilehe waits. So the information about a particular route and status about the reservationshould be obtained without any delay and similarly when ticket is issued that informationis also be updated immediately.In few of the applications computers are used to control the operations of physicalsystem. A factory floor in which, the machines are controlled by the computers. Forexample the rotation speed of lathe, controlling the temperature of furnace, controllingthe placement of space crafts in the correct orbits etc. In such an application the operationis in real time that is the control has to be exercised during the actual functioning of thesystem. Real time operating systems have to work within strict limits of a critical job.Self Assessment Question:1) Differentiate between Multi tasking in single processor system and Multi processingIntroduction to Windows-XPThis is another operating system brought out by Microsoft for desktop machines.Windows XP features friendly new screens, simplified menus, and a whole lot more.Discover the fresh, streamlined design of Windows XP.Following are the features of Windows XPSafe and Easy personal computing: Windows XP makes personal computing easy andenjoyable. Power, performance, a bright new look, and plenty of help when you need it.Windows XP has it all, along with unmatched dependability and security.World of Digital media: A lot of working with digital media at home, at work, and onthe Internet. Enjoy photography, music, videos, computer games, and more.Connected Home and Office: Share files, photos, music, even a printer and Internetconnection – all on a network that is private and secure.Best for Business: With Windows XP, you get the proven dependability of MicrosoftWindows 2000, enhanced for high-speed performance and even greater reliability.Installation of Windows XPOnce Windows XP is installed on your computer you will get a desktop as shown in fig.1.
    • Now you can click on to start button available at the left hand corner of the screen. Youwill get menu as shown in Fig. 2.In this menu you will get different options which are discussed below.3.5.1 My Documents Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Documents asshown in Fig. 3 and you can store a file in this or you can open an already existing file.Fig. 33.5.2 My Recent Documents
    • This folder contains the recently opened documents asshown in figure 4. When you move the cursor on this you will get another menu whichcontains the recently opened documents.Fig. 43.5.3 My Pictures Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Pictures as shownin Fig. 5 and you can store digital photos, images and graphic files or retrieve that kind offile from this folder.Fig. 53.5.4 My Music Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Music as shown inFigure 6 and one can store and retrieve music and audio files.
    • Fig. 63.5.5 My Computer Clicking on this gives you access to, and information about the diskdrives, cameras, scanners and other hardware devices connected to your computer asshown in figure 7.Fig. 7From the menu of figure 7 you can go to any of the secondary devices installed. Forexample if you want to work with C drive double click on that drive and the drive isopened and you can get the contents of the drive as shown in figure 8.Fig. 8
    • Fig. 9Now you can go to the required folder or can create a new folder. To create a new folder,follow the steps given below.1) Bring the mouse pointer to the blank area of desk-top then right click the mousepointer you will get a menu as shown in figure 9.2) Now click on the folder icon the new folder is created with name of the folder as NewFolder.3) Later you can change the name of the folder. To do this, right click on the folder ofwhich you want to change the name. From the resulting menu click on to Rename option.Now it allows you to change the name of the folder and you can type the new name forthe folder.3.5.6 Control Panel Clicking on this item provides option for you to customize theappearance and functionality of your computer, Add or Remove programs and set up network connections and user accounts. The menu is shown in figure 10.Fig. 10
    • Depending on the kind of set up you want to do select the required option. For example ifyou want to change the desktop of your computer, follow the steps given below.1) Click on to Appearance and Themes you will get a menu as shown in figure 11.2) Now click on to Change the desktop background. You will get a menu as shown infigure 12. Now you can select the required background as shown in figure 13 and clickon to Apply and then on OK. The new desktop will be applied. You can even havedesktop designed by you. To do that click on to Customize Desktop option and follow thesteps shown in the resulting menu.Fig. 11Fig. 123.5.7 Printers and Faxes Clicking on this displays installed printers and faxes. Also helps inadding new ones. This menu is shown in figure 13. To add a printer you can click on toAdd a printer option and follow the steps shown in menus.
    • Fig. 133.5.8 Help and Support Clicking on this item opens a central location as shown in figure 14for help topics, tutorials, troubleshooting and other support services. For example if youare not able to copy a file from your hard disk to your floppy disk there may be someproblems and you want to know what the problem is and want to fix the problem. Youclick on to the option Fixing a problem and in the resulting menu as shown in figure 15type the text My floppy drive is not working and click on to . You will get a menu asshown in figure 16 which shows the search result. Now you can click on to any of theoption available for example click on to search result Copy a file or folder to floppy disk.You will get menu as shown in figure 17 and follow the steps given.Note: You can even type the searching text in the menu shown in figure 14 also.Fig. 14
    • Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 173.5.9 Search Clicking on this opens a window as shown in figure 18 where you canpick search options and work with search results.
    • Fig. 18For example if you want to search a particular file you can click on to All files andfolders option and you will get a menu as shown in figure 19.Fig. 19Here you have different criteria using which you can search. Following are the differentcriteria’s.All or part of the file name: Here you can type the complete name of the file name orpartial name with the help of wild card characters.Ex: test.doc or te*.doc ( this will search for all the files which starts with te and hasextension as doc) or t*.* (this will search for all the files which starts with t and havingany type of extension). Using wild card characters will be useful when you don’t knowthe exact name of the file.A word or phrase in a file: You can type in a particular word or phrase which you knowis present in the file which you are searching for.Look in: Here you can specify the place (drives or folders) where you think file ispresent. Default is all drives.When was it modified: Here you can specify the tentative date of modification of thefile which you want to search? Default is Don’t remember.
    • What size it is: Here you can specify the approximate size of the file. Default is Don’tremember.You can make use of the advanced options also.3.5.10 Run Clicking on this opens a window as shown in figure 20 where you cantype the name of the folder, program, document or Internet resource, it will be opened.Fig. 20Here you can type the name of the program which you want to execute. You can use theBrowse option to select the file which you want to execute. Then click on to OK.For example you want to got to DOS prompt you can type in command and click on toOK. You will get a menu as shown in figure 21. Now to go back to Windows XP againyou can type in exit at the prompt and press Enter key.Fig. 213.5.11 All Programs Moving the cursor on this gets you a menu which shows the programsinstalled in the computer which is shown in figure 22. From this menu you can select theprogram which you want to execute. Move the mouse pointer over the program whichyou want to execute and click on that. Some of the options shown in figure may have submenu also, so it will be displayed and you can select the required program from that
    • menu also. For example the Accessories option has sub menu which is shown in figure23. Presence of sub menus is identified by the symbol in front of the option.Fig. 22Fig. 233.5.12 Log Off Clicking on this provides option for closing your programs and logging offor for leaving your programs running and switching to another user.If different users are created you can switch between the users. Click on to Log off youwill get a menu as shown in figure 24. Then to know the different users click on toSwitch User you will get a menu as shown in figure 25. Here you can select the user towhich you want to switch to or you can come back to the same user by clicking on thatuser.
    • Fig. 24Fig. 253.5.13 Turn Off Computer Clicking on this provides the option for turning off or restarting thecomputer, or for activating standby or Hibernate modes as shown in figure 26.Fig. 26If you want to switch off the computer you can click on to Turn Off option. If you wantrestart the computer you can click on to Restart option.Self Assessment Question:
    • 1) In Windows XP why control Panel is used?2) Explain the different options available in Search tool of Windows XP?Copying of Files/FoldersFiles/Folders can be copied/moved from one location to another location. To do thisfollow the steps given below.For example you want to copy a file named Internet from mahalasa subdirectory of whichis in D drive to a folder named swarnalakshmi in C drive.1) Click on to Start, from the resulting menu click on to My Computer (figure 29).2) Double click on to D drive, in the resulting menu double click on to mahalasa folder itwill display the contents of the folder.3) Right click on to the file named Internet. From the resulting menu as shown in figure27, click on to Copy option if you want to copy this file to another location. Click on toCut option if you want to move this file to another location.Fig. 27Fig. 28Note: if you want to copy this file to floppy disk, click on to Send option and you will getanother sub menu as shown in figure 28, then click on to 3 ½ Floppy (A:) option. Makesure that floppy disk is inserted in the floppy drive.
    • 4) Now click on to this icon twice you will reach a menu which displays you withall the drive option as shown in figure 29. Double click on to the drive C and in theresulting menu double click on to swarnalakshmi folder and now right click the mousepointer. You will get a menu; click on to Paste option. The file will be copied or moveddepending on the option which you had selected in step 2.Fig. 29Recycle BinWhen ever you deleted a file or folder it will be stored in Recycle Bin. You can evenrestore the deleted file or permanently delete the file or empty the Recycle Bin.To restore or permanently delete a file/folder:Right click on to Recycle Bin icon from the resulting menu click on to Explore option. Inthe resulting menu right click on to file which you want to restore or permanently delete.From the resulting menu click on to Restore if you want to restore the file or click on toDelete if you want permanently delete it.To empty the Recycle Bin:Right click on to Recycle Bin icon from the resulting menu click on to Empty RecycleBin option.Windows Media PlayerThis tool is used to play the digital media like music, Video, CD, DVD and Internetradio. To start this tool Click on to Start, from the resulting menu click on to WindowsMedia Player icon. Using the resulting menu you can select the files which you want toplay.
    • SummaryOperating system is system software which acts as an Interface between the user andcomputer. There are different types of Operating systems like Single User, Multi user,Batch Processing, Multi Processing, On Line and Real Time. Windows XP is theOperating System for the Desktop machines brought out by Microsoft. Windows XP isSafe and Easy for personal computing, can be used to connect to the Network easily.Terminal Questions1) Discuss different types of Operating systems2) Explain different features of Windows XP Unit 4 MS-WORD-I • This Unit deals with most widely used Microsoft tool Word, which is used to create and edit document. This unit deals with the basic parts of Word. How you can create, save and close a new document. It also deals with formatting of the document. Working with table is also discussed. The header, footers and Page setup is also discussed in this.IntroductionIn an organization lot of documents to be prepared, for example letters to be written tosuppliers, customers, banks, authorities. Similar letters may have to be written again andagain. For all these, the letter may be typed once and it can be stored in the computer.When the same or similar letter is needed then it can be retrieved and changes can bemade to it if needed. Thus lot of time is saved in typing and the efficiency is increased.So Microsoft Word is such software which can be used to create, format, store, retrieve,edit and print the document.Microsoft Corporation developed this software. This software is used to create, edit, layout, save, print, mail merge etc. a document.ObjectivesTo Understand· The steps to start Microsoft Word· Basic units of Microsoft Word· The creation of a document
    • · The saving of the document· The opening of an existing document· The formatting of a document· Editing of a document· Numbering· Inserting of symbols, pictures, tables in the document· The printing of document4.2 Starting MS-WORDFollowing steps are undertaken to start Microsoft Word1. Move the mouse pointer over the Start button present on the extreme left of the taskbar and then click the left mouse button. A push up menu appears.2. Place the Mouse pointer over the Program option inside the push up menu. A secondmenu gets displayed immediately.3. Move the mouse pointer over Microsoft Word option and click the left mouse buttonas shown in Fig.1. A blank document file named Document1 gets displayed on thescreen instantly Fig. 2. Now the text/data can be entered in the file Document1 appeared.Fig. 1
    • Fig. 2Basic Units of MS Word1. Title Bar – Displays the application name, file name and various window controls likeminimize button, maximize button and close button.2. Menu Bar – Different options for selection.3. Standard tool bar – Displayed by default, allows to give common commands likesaving the file, opening a file, printing etc.4. Formatting toolbar – Allows the user to give commands related to formattingtext/data like Bold, Underline, Font Style, Font Size, Color etc.5. Editing area - Here you can type and edit the text.6. Scroll Bars – Used to scroll through different parts of current document.7. Drawing Tool Bar – This is used to draw different shapes, arrows, etc.8. Status Bar –The Status bar, which is a horizontal area at the bottom of the document window inMicrosoft Word, provides information about the current state of what you are viewing inthe window and any other contextual information.To display the status bar, click on the tools menu then click on to Options then click theView tab, and then select the Status bar check box under ShowNote: Toolbar
    • To display a toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click the toolbar youwant. If the button you want doesn’t appear, click More Buttons on that toolbar. For Helpon an option, press SHIFT + F1, and then click the option.Now let us discuss in detail each of these units.Title Bar: Fig. 31. Title Bar: Displays the application name, file name and various window controlledlike minimize button, maximize button and close button.a. Minimize button : This is used for changing a window/ document into a buttonb. Maximize button : This is used for enlarging window/ document after it has beenminimized or restored. When a document is maximized then to bring it back to theoriginal size use Restore button.c. Close button : This is used to close a window/documentMenu Bar:This has different options for selections (which is discussed in detail below). In additionto minimize and close button(described above) it has a restore button which is used forbringing a window/sheet to its original size and adjusting the size of awindow/Document.Fig. 4File: This helps in creating a new file; opening an existing file; saving a file; printing;print preview; setting up of print area; page setup; sending the page to MS-PowerPointetc; closing the Document; exiting MS Word etc.Edit: This helps in copying, cutting, deleting a range of text. Pasting a text which hasbeen copied or cut from some other location. Clearing the content at a particular location.Finding the particular text and Replacing it with new text in the Document etc.View: This helps in enabling and disabling certain tools in the word window. This is alsoused to add Header and Footer to the document.
    • Insert: This can be used to insert page numbers, page breaks, pictures etc.Format: This helps in changing the Font of the textTools: This helps with the spell checker, protection of documents by providing thepassword The document can be customized according to one’s specification etc.Table: This is used to insert, delete, select, and draw table.Window: This is used to hide/unhide the work book. To create new window, to split thepane etc.Help: This can be used to get any help about MS Word.Standard tool bar:Fig. 5 New: This is used to create a new Document Open: This is used to open an existing file Save: This is used to save the file Print: This is used to take the print out of the file Preview : This is used to see the printing document before printing Spelling checker: This is used to check the spelling and grammatical errors in thefile Cut: This is used to move a selected block from one location to another. Copy: This is used to copy a selected block we want from one location to another Paste: This is used to make appear the block selected during the copy or cutoperation at a certain location.
    • Format Painter: This is used to copy character and paragraph formats. Follow thesteps given below to use Format painter.To copy paragraph formatting, select the paragraph – including the paragraph mark – thathas the formatting you want to copy.To copy character formatting, select the text that has the formatting you want to copy.On the standard tool bar, click Format Painter and then select the paragraph or textyou want to apply the formatting to.To copy the selected formatting to several locations, double click Format Painter. Clickthe button again when you’re finished, or press ESC. Undo: This is used to retain any modifications made to a file Redo: This is used to repeat the last action. Insert Hyperlink: Hyperlink can be used to move to a specific location in the samedocument or other document. Tables and Borders: This is used to draw a table with the drawing tool. The borderof the table can also be set to required design. Insert Table: This is used to insert a table with required number of Rows andColumns. The border of the table can also be set to required design. Insert Worksheet: A work sheet with required number of cells can be inserted inyour document and you can work with that work sheet. Columns: Changing the pages into columns. Drawing: This is used to toggle between enable/disable of Drawing tool bar. Document Map: The Document Map is a separate pane that displays a list ofheadings in the document and keeps track of your location on it. When you click aheading in the Document Map, Word jumps to the corresponding heading in thedocument, displays it at the top of the window, and highlights the heading in theDocument.
    • Zoom: You can “zoom in” to get a close-up view of your document or “zoomout” to see more of the page at a reduced size. Close: To close all open documents without exiting the program. Find: This is used to find a text or find a text and replace it by the required text.Formatting Tool BarFig. 6Font: This helps in changing the style of the text typed in the documents. You can selecta required font from the available font list and change the style of the text which is insidethe selected block.Font Size: This helps in changing the size of the text. You can select a required size forthe font from the available list and change the size of the text which is inside the selectedblock.Bold: This helps in make the selected block look bolder than the other textItalic: This helps to make the text in the selected block look tilted or slanted.Underline: This helps in getting an underline to the selected text.Align Left: This helps in aligning the contents in the selected block to the left edge of thepage.Center: This helps in aligning the contents of the selected block to the center of the page.Align Right: This helps in aligning the contents of the selected block to the right edge ofthe page.Justify: The contents of the document can be aligned from the left edge to the right edgeof the page.Numbering: Automatic numbering can be generated when you want number certainpoints that you are typing.Increase Indent and Decrease Indent: These can be used to set the position of Text inrelation to the left and right margins and spacing is used to set the amount of spacebetween lines and paragraphs.
    • Highlight Color: Particular portion of the document can be highlighted using this icon.Font Color: The color of the text can be changed to the required color by using this icon.Vertical Scroll Bar: The vertical scroll bar consists of two buttons Up Arrow Scrollbutton and the Down Arrow Scroll button. Clicking of any of these buttons allows you tosee those lines of a document, which are not visible on the screen.Horizontal Scroll Bar: The horizontal scroll bar consists of two buttons Right ArrowScroll button and the Left Arrow Scroll button. Clicking of any of these buttons allowsyou to move the contents of the document to the left or right of the screen respectively.Closing the MS Word documentThere are two ways in closing the Document.1. Closing the document without saving it2. Closing the document with saving it1) Closing the document without saving it: In this your work/latest update is not saved.To do this follow the steps mentioned below. 1. Move the mouse pointer over the File option on Menu bar and click the left mouse button. A pull down menu gets displayed immediately as shown in Fig 7.Fig. 72. Inside this pull down menu move the mouse pointer to the Close option and click theleft mouse button. A message box gets displayed immediately asking you whether youwant save this sheet with three options Yes, No and Cancel. Move the mouse pointerover No and click the left mouse button this will close the sheet without saving it.
    • Fig. 8Note:1) But at this point if you want to save the sheet you can select Yes option by moving themouse pointer over it and clicking the left button. A menu appears, here select the driveand folder in which you want to save. Then give the file name and select Save option.2) If you don’t want to save or close the sheet select Cancel option. This will take youback to the sheet.3) Closing the document with saving it: In this your work/latest update is saved. To dothis follow the steps mentioned below.1) Move the mouse pointer over the File option on Menu bar and click the left mousebutton. A pull down menu gets displayed immediately.2) Inside this pull down menu move the mouse pointer to the Save option and click theleft mouse button. Then you will get a screen as shown in Fig. 9.Fig. 9A menu appears, here select the drive Fig. 10 and folder Fig.11 in which you want tosave. Then give the file name Fig 12 and select Save option.
    • Thus the file named smu1 will be saved in the folder named SMU in drive ENote:You can even use the Close button, which is at the right hand corner of the Standardtool bar. Again if the document is not saved earlier or latest update is not saved it willdisplay the message as shown in fig.8 and follow the steps as explained above dependingon your choice.Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12
    • Closing MS WordYou can use two methods to close the MS Word program.1) Using the Close button on the Title bar:· Move the mouse pointer over the Close button which is at the right hand corner ofthe Title bar· Click the left button on the mouse.2) Using the Exit option:· Move the mouse pointer over the File option on Menu bar and click the left mousebutton. A pull down menu gets displayed immediately.· Click on to the Exit option in that menu.Saving the DocumentThree methods are there to save a new document.1. Use of Save button on standard tool bar:Click the Save button which is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the figureshown below. Here select the drive, folder and give the file name and then click on Savebutton.2. Use of File option button on Menu Bar:a) Click on the File option button of Menu Barb) Select Save from drop down menuc) You will get a screen as shown Fig. 9. Here select the drive, folder and give the filename and then click on Save button. As explained earlier.3. Press Ctrl and S key simultaneously you will get a screen as shown in Fig. 9. Nowfollow the step c).Note: If you want to cancel the saving process now you can click on the Cancel button.Once you have saved a document, next time if you want to save you can use any of threemethods discussed above but you need not give the name of the file as it is already givenwhen it was saved for the first time.
    • Create a new DocumentThree methods are there to open a new work book.1. Use of New Blank Document button on Standard tool bar: Click the New buttonthat is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the new document.2. Use of File option button on Menu Bar:a) Click on the File option button of Menu Barb) Select New from drop down menuc) You will get a screen as shown Fig. 13Fig. 13d) Click OK3. Press Ctrl and N key simultaneously you will get blank document automaticallygenerated.Note: If you don’t want to open the new document at this stage click on the Cancelbutton so the new document will not be created.In all the above three cases the blank document is generated as shown in Fig. 14. Adefault name Document1 is given to that file which is shown in the Title bar of thatdocument as shown in Fig. 14.You can create any number of blank documents but recently created document is shownon the screen. All other documents are minimized and they are displayed on the StatusBar at the bottom of the screen and you can select any of them by clicking on the requireddocument.
    • Fig. 14Opening of an existing DocumentThree methods are there to open an existing Document.1. Use of File option button on Menu Bar:a) Click on the File option button of Menu Barb) Select Open from drop down menuc) You will get a screen as shown Fig. 15d) Select the drive and folder in which you have the filee) Type the name of the file you want to open in the file name boxf) Click Open2. Use of Open button on Standard tool bar:Click the Open button that is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the screenas shown in Fig. 15 then follow the steps d),e) and f) as given above.The Fig. 16 shows how to select the drive. It shows the selection of folder named“mahalasa” in drive C. If you want to select any other drive move the mouse pointer overthat drive (Fig. 17) and click the left mouse button to see the contents of that drive (Fig.18). Move the mouse pointer over the folder that you want to open and Double click onthat for example “BASRUR” as shown in Fig. 19.Figure 19 shows the selection of the folder and the name of the file which you want toopen, type in the File name box for example “Maha”.Now click on to Open. The required document “Maha” will be opened.
    • Note: If you don’t want to open an existing document at this stage click on the Cancelbutton. So the new document will not be opened.Instead of typing the File name and then clicking on Open you can even double click onthe file name which you want to open.3. Press Ctrl and O key simultaneously you will get open dialog box.Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17
    • Fig. 18Fig. 19CopyTo Copy a part of the document to some other place follow the steps given below:1) Make the block of document that you want to copy. Holding the left mouse buttondown and dragging the mouse pointer over that document of which you want to make theblock. Fig. 20 shows the selection of block.Fig. 202) Click the right mouse button on the selected block you will get a pop up menu asshown in Fig. 21. Now click on Copy option, this block is copied on to clip board ( atemporary location).
    • OrClick on to Edit option of Menu bar, from the drop down menu click on to Copy optionas shown in Fig. 22. Now the selected block is copied on to the clip board ( a temporarylocation).OrClick on to the Copy icon that is on the Standard tool bar. This icon is activated whenthe block is created. Now the selected block is copied on to the clip board (a temporarylocation).3) Move the mouse pointer to the place where you want to copy this block and click theright mouse button and from the pop up menu select Paste option as shown in Fig. 23.The earlier selected block is copied to the new place as shown in Fig. 25.OrMove the mouse pointer to the place where you want to copy this block. Click on to Editoption of Menu bar, from the drop down menu click on to Paste option as shown inFig.24. Now the selected block is copied at the new place as shown in Fig. 25.OrMove the mouse pointer to the place where you want to copy this block. Click on to thePaste icon that is on the Standard tool bar. This icon is activated when the block iscreated. Now the selected block is copied at the new place as shown in Fig. 25.Note: The new place can be the same document or some other document.Fig. 21
    • Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24
    • Fig. 25Cut (Move)To move a part of the document to some other place from the existing location follow thesteps given below:1) Make the block of document that you want to move. Holding the left mouse buttondown and dragging the mouse pointer over that document of which you want to make theblock. Fig. 20 shows the selection of block.2) Click the right mouse button on the selected block you will get a pop up menu asshown in Fig. 21. Now click on Cut option, this block is moved on to clip board ( atemporary location) and the selected block will disappear from the existing location.OrClick on to Edit option of Menu bar, from the drop down menu click on to Cut option asshown in Fig. 22. Now the selected block is moved on to the clip board (a temporarylocation) and the selected block will disappear from the existing location.OrClick on to the Cut icon that is on the Standard tool bar. This icon is activated whenthe block is created. Now the selected block is moved on to the clip board (a temporarylocation) and the selected block will disappear from the existing location.3) Move the mouse pointer to the place where you want to move this block and click theright mouse button and from the pop up menu select Paste option as shown in Fig. 23.The earlier selected block is moved to the new place as shown in Fig. 26.OrMove the mouse pointer to the place where you want to copy this block. Click on to Editoption of Menu bar, from the drop down menu click on to Paste option as shown inFig.24. Now the selected block is copied at the new place as shown in Fig. 26.OrMove the mouse pointer to the place where you want to copy this block. Click on to thePaste icon that is on the Standard tool bar. This icon is activated when the block iscreated. Now the selected block is copied at the new place as shown in Fig. 26.Note: You can observe that the selected block is disappeared from the original place.
    • Fig. 26Formatting the documentFont: The style of the contents typed in the documents can be changed. To do thisfollows the steps given below.1) Make the block of the contents of which you want to change the Font.2) Select the Font from the list available as shown in Fig. 27. For example “Batang”. Fig.28 shows the changed font style in the selected block.Fig. 27Fig. 28
    • Font Size: The size of the font in the selected block can be changed. Follow the stepsgiven below to do this.1) Make the block of the contents of which you want to change the font size.2) Select the font size from the list available as shown in Fig. 29. For example select“20”. Fig. 30 shows the changed font size in the selected block.Fig. 29Fig. 30Bold: To make the contents of the document look bolder follow the steps given below.1) Create the block, which you want to make Bolder as shown in Fig. 31.2) Click on to Bold icon that is on the Standard tool bar. The result is shown in Fig.32.
    • Fig. 31Fig. 32Note: To remove the Boldness; create the block of which you want to remove theBoldness and again click on the Bold icon again.Italic: To make the contents of the document look slanted follow the steps given below.1) Create the block, which you want to make slanted as shown in Fig. 33.2) Click on to Italic icon that is on the Standard tool bar. The result is shown in Fig.34.
    • Fig. 33Fig. 344.11.5 Underline: To have underline to the contents of the document follow the stepsgiven below.1) Create the block of contents to which you want Underline as shown in Fig. 352) Click on to Underline icon that is on the Standard tool bar. The result is shown inFig. 36.Fig. 35
    • Fig. 364.11.6 Align Left: The contents of the document can be aligned to the left edge of thepage. Follow the steps given below to achieve this.1) Create the block of contents, which you want to align to left as shown in Fig. 372) Click on to Align Left icon that is on the Standard tool bar. You will get thealigned contents as shown in Fig. 38.Fig. 37In Fig. 37 the text in the selected box is aligned to the right edge of the page.
    • Fig. 38Align Right: The contents of the document can be aligned to the right edge of the page.Follow the steps given below to achieve this.1) Create the block of contents, which you want to align to right as shown in Fig. 392) Click on to Align Right icon that is on the Standard tool bar. You will get thealigned contents as shown in Fig. 40.Fig. 39Fig. 40
    • The contents of the document can be aligned to the center of the page. Follow the stepsgiven below to achieve this.1) Create the block of contents, which you want to align to the center as shown in Fig. 412) Click on to Center icon that is on the Standard tool bar. You will get the alignedcontents as shown in Fig. 42.Fig. 41Fig. 42Justify: The contents of the document can be aligned from the left edge to the right edgeof the page. Follow the steps given below to achieve this.1) Create the block of contents, which you want to align Fig. 432) Click on to Justify icon that is on the Standard tool bar. Result is shown in Fig. 44.
    • Fig. 43Fig. 44Numbering:Automatic numbering can be generated when you want number certain points that youare typing. For example if want type MS-Word, MS-Access, MS-PowerPoint, MS-Excelline by line and if you want to number them as 1,2,3,4 then you need not type thenumbers manually. To generate the numbers automatically follow the step given below.1) Click on to Numbering icon available on Standard tool bar. First number isgenerated Fig. 45.2) Type the first line then press Enter key the second number is generated Fig. 46.3) Thus you can type as many points as required.
    • Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Note: Once you finish typing, to deactivate the automatic number generation feature,click on to Numbering icon again.Changing the Format of Number Generation:You can select different formats for the number generation. You can achieve this byfollowing the below given steps.Click on to Format option of Menu bar. From the drop down menu click on the Bulletsand Numbering … option Fig. 48.Fig. 48
    • You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 49. From the menu you can select the requiredstyle.Fig. 49Now you can select radio button Restart numbering or Continue previous list. If youselect Restart numbering then whenever the numbering feature is selected in a documentthen the list start from the first number of the list as shown in Fig. 50.Fig. 50If you select the radio button Continue from previous list, whenever the Numberingfeature is selected then the numbering continues from previous list as shown in the fig.51.Fig. 51
    • You can also customize the Number format, Font, Number style, Starting of the numberlist, place of the number list etc. by selecting the Customize option of the Bullets andNumbering menu (Fig. 49 ). You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 52.Fig. 52Bullets:Automatic bullets can be generated when you want to give bullets to certain points thatyou are typing. For example if want type MS-Word, MS-Access, MS-PowerPoint, MS-Excel line by line and if you want to have bullets in front of them then you need not typethe bullets manually. To generate the bullets automatically follow the step given below.1) Click on to Bullets icon available on Standard tool bar. First Bullet will begenerated.2) Type the first line then press Enter key the second Bullet will be generated Fig. 53.3) Thus you can type as many points as required.Fig. 53Note: Once you finish typing, to deactivate the automatic Bullet generation feature, clickon to Bullets icon again.Changing the Format of Bullet generation:The bullets can be formatted to suit your needs by following the steps given below.
    • 1) Click on to Format option of Menu bar. From the drop down menu click on the Bulletsand Numbering … option Fig. 48.Fig. 542) From the resulting menu select the kind of bullets you want and click on to OK button(Fig. 54).You can select the required picture also as your Bullet by clicking on to the Pictureoption of Menu shown in Fig. 54. You will get a Menu as shown in Fig. 55.Fig. 55You can customize your Bullet selecting the Customize option of Menu shown in Fig. 54.You will get the Menu as shown in Fig. 56.
    • Fig. 56Font color: The color of the can be changed to the required color by using Font Coloricon available on Formatting Tool Bar.To change the colors of the font to the required color follow the steps given below.1) Select the text of which you want to change the color, make the block of it as shown inFig. 57Fig. 572) Click on to the first arrow available on Font Color icon and select the required color asshown in Fig. 58.Fig. 583) Click on to the required color and the color of the blocked text will change.If you want to have better shade than the available, you can click on to More Colors…option available and you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 59 and you can select therequired shade from the menu.Fig. 59Highlight:
    • If you want to high light a particular portion of the document by using the Highlight iconavailable on the formatting tool bar. Follow the steps given below to achieve this.1) Click on to the arrow available at the Highlight icon and select the color forhighlighting.2) Drag the cursor on to the text and the text will be highlighted. Font color will not bechanged (Fig. 60).Fig. 60FindThis icon can be used to find a particular pattern in the document. This can also be usedto find a pattern and replace that pattern with the required pattern. Find icon isavailable on Standard Tool Bar.Follow the steps given below to use the Find icon.1) Position you cursor to the required position2) Click on to Find icon, you will get a menu and type in the pattern you want to searchin the space provided as shown in Fig. 61Fig. 613) If you want to use the more search options you can click on to More command buttonavailable in the menu and you will get the enhanced menu as shown in Fig. 62.
    • Fig. 62You can select the required search options by selecting the check box against each of it.For example Match case option distinguishes between uppercase and lowercasecharacters. When Match case is selected, Word finds only those instances in which thecapitalization matches the text you typed in the Find what box. When you use wildcards,this option appears dimmed.To replace the pattern found with the required pattern click on to Replace tab you will getan enhanced menu where you have a text box (Replace with) to type in the pattern youwant to replace with (when is the replace pattern typed in) as shown in Fig. 63.Fig. 63You have different option tabs available in this menu and the explanation of each ofwhich is given below.Replace: Replaces the selected instance of the search criteria, finds the next occurrence,and then stops. If you want Word to automatically replace all occurrences of the searchcriteria in your document, click Replace All.Replace All: Replaces all occurrences of the search criteria in your document. If youwant to review and selectively replace each occurrence, click Replace instead of ReplaceAll.
    • Find Next: Finds and selects the next occurrence of the text or formatting specified in theFind what box.Go To: This is used to select the location where you want to search (Fig. 64). Follow thesteps given below to use this option.Click the type of location you want to move to. Then enter the item number in the Enterbox and click Go To (fig. 65). If you want to browse through the document to move toeach occurrence of the selected type of item, clear the Enter box and click Next orPrevious.Fig. 64For example if you want to find a pattern in Page number say 21 then enter the pagenumber in the available Enter page number box as shown infig. 65.Fig. 65How do you find the grammatical or spelling mistakes in the text?When you get a green line below the text that means there is some grammatical error andif there is red line below the text it means it is the spelling mistake. You can correct thesemistakes by Right clicking on the text which has either green or red underlining andopting for the correct text, which is suggested by the application.Consider an example: An ApplictionPoint the cursor on the word Application and right click on it and a suggestion for correctwords is obtained as shown in Fig. 66, select the proper required word.
    • Fig. 66InsertionIn some cases you may require to have some mathematical symbols, special symbols orpictures be present in your document. But you may not have keys for those symbols andpictures in the keyboard. In this kind of situation, the special symbols or pictures can beinserted without typing it or drawing it respectively.Inserting symbols:To insert the special symbols follow the steps given below.1) Point the cursor to the location where you want to insert the symbol and then click onto Insert option available in the Menu bar, you will get a drop down menu as shown infig. 67.Fig. 672) Now click on to Symbol… option available you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 682) You can select the required font and can also select the different sub set of symbols.3) Once you select the required symbol in the subset (Fig.69) click on to Insert
    • Fig. 68Fig. 69Inserting Picture:To insert a picture follow the steps given below.1) Point the cursor to the location where you want to insert the picture and then click onto Insert option available in the Menu bar, you will get a drop down menu as shown infig. 67.2) Now click on to Picture option you will get a sub-menu as shown in Fig. 70.Fig. 70Now you can insert a picture from the existing MS-WORD repository or from a filewhere the users have stored pictures.Clip Art: Click on to Clip art you will get a menu Fig. 71, which shows differentcategories of available pictures. Click on to the required category you will another menu,here select the required picture (Fig. 72) and insert it into location in your document.
    • Fig. 71Fig. 72Inserting picture from a file:1) Point the cursor to the location where you want to insert the picture and then click onto Insert option available in the Menu bar, you will get a drop down menu as shown infig. 67.2) Now click on to Picture option you will get a sub-menu as shown in Fig. 70.3) Click on to From File, give the path of the picture file where the picture you want toinsert in your document is stored.Insert WordArt:This option will allow you to insert your text in the style, which you have selected.1) Point the cursor to the location where you want to insert the picture and then click onto Insert option available in the Menu bar, you will get a drop down menu as shown infig. 67.2) Now click on to Picture option you will get a sub-menu as shown in Fig. 70.3) Click on to WordArt you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 73.
    • 4) Select the style you want then click OK you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 74 whichwill allow you type your required message. After typing your message, click on OK youwill get your typed text displayed in your document.Fig. 73Fig. 74Fig. 75Inserting Charts:Even the charts can be inserted in the word document and the charts properties can bemodified.
    • Fig. 76To get the property sheet of the chart right click on to chart area you will get a menu asshown in Fig. 77.Fig. 77Inserting TablesTable can be inserted in the document by following the steps given below. 1. Move the cursor at the location where you want to insert the table and then Click on to Table option available in the Menu bar, you will get a drop down menu as shown in fig. 78. 2. Move the cursor on the Insert option you will get another menu where you have Table option, click on to that you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 79. 3. Select the number of Rows and Columns you want in the table and click on OK the table will be inserted at the location where you have pointed the cursor earlier.
    • Fig. 78Fig. 791 2 3 4 5 6Fig. 80Modifying the table properties:The property of the table can be modified that is inserting/deleting the rows and columns,merging the cells, changing the shade of the border etc. To modify the property of the tableselect the table by dragging the mouse on the table area and then click on to Table optionavailable in the Menu bar. You will get a drop down menu as shown in Fig. 81.Fig. 81Note: Black patches in Fig. 81 shows the selection of column in the table, which you want tomodify.
    • Different options available are:Table: By clicking on to Table option a table inside the present table will be added with defaultnumber of Rows and Columns.Fig. 82Fig. 83Columns to the Left: This option will add the Column to the left of the selected column. Columnselection made Fig. 83. Column added Fig. 84.Fig. 84Columns to the right: This option will add the Column to the right of the selected column.Column selection made Fig. 83. Column added Fig. 85.Fig. 85Rows Above: This will add the Rows to the above the selection. Fig. 86 shows selection of therow and Fig. 87 shows the insertion of the row.Fig. 86
    • Fig. 87Rows Below: This will add the Rows below the selection. Fig. 86 shows selection of the row andFig. 88 shows the insertion of the row below the selection.Fig. 88Cells: After you make the selection of insertion by selecting a cell, this option will display a menuas shown in Fig. 90. Select the required option and click OK. The explanation for all the optionsare given below.Fig. 89Shift Cells Down: Inserts new cells above the selected cells.Fig. 90Shift Cell Right: Inserts new cells to the left of the selected cells.
    • Insert entire row: Inserts an entire row above the row that contains the selection.Insert entire column: Inserts an entire column to the left of the column that contains theselection.Merge CellsThis option will merge the selected Table, Rows, Columns and Cells. Fig. 91 shows the selection.Fig. 92 shows the Delete menu and Fig. 93 shows the merged cells.Fig. 91Fig. 92Fig. 93Implementing Formula on table contentsConsider the following table. In that consider the last column and assume that you want add thecontents to find the total. To do that, follow the steps given below.Point the cursor where you want to get the total.Click on to Table option of menu bar and from the resulting menu click on to Formula option.You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 95. Select the required function from the Paste function listbox (Fig. 95). There are many functions available. In our case since we want to add the contentswe select the function SUM () and type “above” inside the parenthesis to add the contentspresent above the cell where cursor was earlier pointing to. You can see the result in Fig. 96.
    • Serial No. Item name Units Price/ Unit Price 1 CD-ROM 10 14 140 2 Floppy 10 12 120 3 Cartridge 5 600 3000 4 Toner 2 3500 7000 TotalFig. 94Fig. 95Serial No. Item name Units Price/ Unit Price 1 CD-ROM 10 14/- 140 2 Floppy 10 12/- 120 3 Cartridge 5 600/- 3000 4 Toner 2 3500/- 7000 Total 10260Fig. 96Formatting the contents of the tableThe contents of the table can be formatted according to our needs using the options available inthe Formatting tool bar. For example if you want to have serial numbers to be at the center ofthe first column then select the contents of the first column and click on to center alignmentoption available on the Formatting tool bar and you will get the table as shown in Fig. 97.Fig. 97
    • Similarly you can have the different kinds of formatting according to your needs.Draw TableUsing this option you can draw a table using the drawing tool.To use this option click on to Table option available in menu bar. From the resulting menu clickon to Draw Table option you will get the drawing table as shown in Fig. 98. Use this tool to drawthe table of your requirement as shown in Fig. 99.Fig. 98Fig. 99Headers and FootersHeaders and footers are typically used in printed documents. You can create headers andfooters that include text or graphics – for example, page numbers, the date, a company logo,the document’s title or file name, or the author’s name – that are usually printed at the top orbottom of each page in a document. A header is printed in the top margin; footer is printed inthe bottom margin.You can use the same header and footer throughout a document or change the header andfooter for part of the document. For example, use a unique header or footer on the first page, orleave the header or footer off the first page. You can also use different headers and footers onodd and even pages or for part of a document.Follow the steps given below to insert Headers and Footers 1. Click on the View option available on menu bar, then click on Header and Footer available in the resulting menu you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 100. 2. To create a header, enter text or graphics in the header area. Or click a button on the Header and Footer toolbar.
    • 3. To create footer, click Switch Between Header and Footer to move to the footer area. Then repeat step 2. 4. When you finish, click Close.Fig. 100Page SetupPage can be set up the way in which we want. Follow the steps given below to set up a Page.Click on to File option available on Menu bar. Click on to Page Setup available on the resultingmenu and you will get a menu as shown inFig. 101.
    • Page setup has four different tabs. They are Margins, Paper size, Paper Source and Layout.Options available in Margins menu are given below.Top: Enter the distance you want between the top of the page and the top of the first lineon the page.Bottom: Enter the distance you want between the bottom of the page and the bottom ofthe last line on the page.Left: Enter the distance you want between the left edge of the page and the left edge ofunindented lines.Right: Enter the distance you want between the right edge of the page and the right endof a line with no right indent.Gutter: Enter the amount of extra space you want to add to the margin for binding. Wordadds the extra space to the left margin of all pages if you clear the Mirror margins checkbox, or to the inside margin of all pages if you select the Mirror margins check box.From Edge: Enter the distance you want from the top edge of the paper to the top edgeof the header. If the Header setting is larger than the Top setting, Word prints the bodytext below the header.Header: Enter the distance you want from the top edge of the paper to the top edge of theheader. If the Header setting is larger than the Top setting, Word prints the body textbelow the header.
    • Footer: Enter the distance you want from the bottom edge of the paper to the bottomedge of the footer. If the Footer setting is larger than the Bottom setting, Word stopsprinting the body text above the footer.Mirror Margins: Adjusts left and right margins so that when you print on both sides ofthe page the inside margins of facing pages are the same width and the outside marginsare the same width.2 Pages per sheet: Prints the second page of a document on the first page. This checkbox is used when the printed page is folded in half with the two pages on the inside. Theouter margins (gutter) of the page will be the same width, and the inner margins will bethe same width.Apply to: Click the portion of the document you want to apply the current settings to inthe Page Setup dialog box. You have two options here. Whole document and This pointonwards. Whole document means the settings, which you are making will apply to all thepages in the file of which you want to take print out. This point onwards means thesettings will be applicable to all the pages starting from the page in which you areactually making the settings.Gutter position: You can set it either to the left or to the top of the paper dependingupon the radio button you will select.Options available in Paper size menu are given below (Fig. 102).Fig. 102Paper size: Click one of the paper sizes supported by your printer, or click Custom size and thenenter the paper size dimensions in the Width and height boxes.
    • Orientation:Click a page orientation. When you change the page orientation, Word swaps the top andBottom margin settings with the Left and Right margin settings.Preview: Shows how your document will look with the selected options.Apply to: Click the portion of the document you want to apply the current settings. Youhave two options here. Whole document and This point onwards. Whole document meansthe settings, which you are making will apply to all the pages in the file of which youwant to take print out. This point onwards means the settings will be applicable to all thepages starting from the page in which you are actually making the settings.4.21.2 Options available in Paper source menu are given below.Fig. 103First Page: Click the printer tray from which you want to print the first page of each section.Word lists the feed available on your current printer.Other Pages: Click the printer tray from which you want to print the second and subsequentpages in each section. Word lists the feed options available on your current printer.Previewand Apply to options are same as explained above.Options available in Layout menu are given below (Fig. 104).Section start: Tells Word where you want the current section to start.Headers and Footers: Select the different odd and even check box to create one header orfooter for even-numbered pages and a different header or footer for odd-numbered pages.
    • Select the different first page check box to create a different header or footer for the first pageof a section or document.Vertical Alignment: Click the way you want to align text vertically between the top and bottommargins. The justified setting affects only full pages; Word aligns pages with the top margin.Line Numbers:Adds or removes line numbering from the portion of the document currently selected in theApply to box.Borders: Set options for applying a border around each page in the document.Fig. 104Fig. 105Indents
    • Setting Indents and spacing:Indents are used to set the position of text in relation to the left and right margins and spacing isused set the amount of space between the lines and paragraphs. You can do it by invoking theParagraph menu. Clicking on to Format option available on the menu bar and clicking on to theParagraph option from the resulting menu can invoke paragraph menu. Paragraph menu asshown in Fig. 106Fig. 106Let us now discuss the different options available in this menu under Indents and Spacing sheet.Alignment: Sets the position of selected paragraphs relative to the indents. To align textrelative to the left and right margins, remove any indentation formatting.Outline level: Click the outline level you want to assign to the selected paragraphs.Indentation: Sets the position of text in relation to the left and right margins.Left: Indents a paragraph from the left margin by the amount you enter in this box. If youwant text to appear in the left margin, enter a negative number.Right: Indents a paragraph from the right margin by the amount you enter in this box. Ifyou want text to appear in the right margin, enter a negative number.
    • Special: Click First line to indent only the first line of a paragraph. Click Hanging toindent all but the first line of a paragraph. Click (none) to remove special indentationformatting.By: Enter the amount of indentation for a first-line or hanging indent. Word clears thisbox if you click (none) in the Special list.Spacing: Sets the amount of space between lines and between paragraphs.Before: Sets the amount of space above each selected paragraph.After: Sets the amount of space below each selected paragraph.Line Spacing: Sets the amount of vertical space between lines of text. If you click Atleast, Exactly, or Multiple, enter a value in the At box.At:Enter the amount of vertical space you want between lines of text. This setting iseffective only if you click At least, Exactly, or Multiple in the Line spacing box.Let us now consider the text given in Fig. 107 and make paragraph settings according toFig. 108 and apply those settings to the text shown in Fig. 107. The text will be changedto as shown in Fig. 109.Fig. 107
    • Fig. 108Fig. 109Tabs…This is used to set or change the tab stop settings in a paragraph. Click on to Tabs.. optionavailable in Paragraph menu, you will get the Tabs menu as shown in Fig. 110.
    • Fig. 110Tab stop position: Type the measurement for a new tab stop, or click an existing tabstop and then type a new measurement for it.Default tab stops: Sets the default spacing between tabs stop.Alignments:Click the way you want text to be aligned at the tab stop. To change the alignment for anexisting tab stop, click it in the Tab stop position box, and then click the new alignmentoption.Left: Extends text to the right from the tab stop.Center: Centers text at the tab stop.Right: Extends text to the left from the tab stop. If text fills the space to the left of the tab stop,the text often extends to the right.Decimal: Aligns a decimal point at the tab stop. Text or numbers without a decimal point extendto the left of the tab stop.Bar: Inserts a vertical line at the tab stop.Leader: Click the dotted, dashed, or solid line option to fill the empty space to the left ofa tab stop. Click 1 None to leave the space blank or to remove a previously applied leaderline.2: Fills the empty space to the left of a tab stop with a dotted leader line.
    • 3: Fills the empty space to the left of a tab stop with a dashed leader line.4: Fills the empty space to the left of a tab stop with a solid leader line.Tab stops to be cleared: Lists the tab stops that will be cleared from the selectedparagraphs when you click OK. Word does not clear these tab stops if you click Cancel.Set: Sets a tab stop using the current settings.Clear: Clears the tab stop that is selected in the Tab stop position box. Word lists the tab stopsto be cleared at the bottom of the dialog box and actually clears them when you click OK.Clear All: Clears all the custom tab stops listed in the Tab stop position list. Word lists the tabstops to be cleared at the bottom of the dialog box and actually clears them when you click OK.Fig. 111 shows the setting of Tab stop at 2 inches and Fig. 112 shows Tab stop. Default Tab stopwill be 0.5 inch there onwards.Fig. 111Fig. 112ColumnsThis is used to create newspaper columns to continue a story in the next column on thesame page.
    • Assume that you have typed a paragraph as shown in Fig. 113 and you want to divide that intocolumns. To do these follow the steps given below. 1. Be in the page where you have typed the paragraph and click on to Format option available on Menu bar. 2. From the Drop down menu click on to Column option. You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 114. Here select the number of columns you want to have and other configurations and click OK to effect the change. The menu in Fig. 114 has different options, which are discussed below. 3. Fig. 115 shows the settings in Column menu and Fig. 116 shows the columns of text.Fig. 113Fig. 114Different options available in Columns menu:Presets: Click one of these common preset column formats or enter your own customsettings.
    • One: Inserts a single column.Two: Inserts two columns of equal width.Three: Inserts three columns of equal width.Left: Inserts two columns, of which the left column is half as wide as the right.Right: Inserts two columns, of which the right column is half as wide as the left.Number of Columns: Enter the number of columns you want in a document or sectionof a document.Width and Spacing: Enter the width and spacing measurements for each column. If theEqual column width check box is selected, the Width and Spacing settings for column 1apply to all the columns.Line Between: Adds vertical lines between columns.Apply to: Click the portion of the document to which you want to apply columnformatting. Here you have got two options Whole document and This point onwards.Whole document means column format will be applied to the contents of entiredocument. This point onwards means column format will be applied to the documentfrom the point you specify or you can even select the paragraph to which you want toapply the column format.Start new column: Moves text following the insertion point to the top of the nextcolumn.
    • Fig. 115Fig. 116Change CaseThis menu provides you with the different options of cases you can apply to the text.First select the text to which you want to apply the required case and click on to Format optionavailable on Menu bar. From the Drop down menu click on to Change case option. You will get amenu as shown in Fig. 117. Here select the kind of case you want to have and click OK to effectthe change. The menu in Fig. 117 has different options, which are discussed below.Fig. 117Sentence case: Capitalizes the first letter of the first word in the selected sentences.lower case: Changes all selected text to lowercase letters.UPPER CASE: Changes all selected text to capital letters.Title Case: Capitalizes the first letter of each word in the selection.tOGGLE cASE: Changes all uppercase letters to lowercase in the selection and viceversa.
    • The options themselves are the example for different cases which can be applied to.SummaryMicrosoft Word is an Editor. The basic units of this software are Title Bar, Menu Bar,Standard Tool Bar and Formatting Tool Bar. Using this software you can create a newdocument and store it. Open existing documents edit it, format it if needed. Documentcan be formatted in terms of Font type, Font size etc. You can even make some part ofthe document Highlighted. The document can be aligned according to your needs. Thenumbering can be provided to different points. Proper indentation also can be provided.Symbols, pictures, tables can also be inserted in the document. A particular word can besearched and it can also be replaced with the new word if required. The printing of thedocument be done with the help of this Software. The default extension of a Worddocument is doc.Terminal Questions 1. Open Ms-Word, Type the following Paragraph Computer is an electronic device that accepts data, processes them and returns the result. The main units of computers are input unit, output unit. The input units are such as Keyboard, Mouse etc that receives the data from the user. The processing unit processes the data given by the user. The obtained result is thus given to the user through the output devices such as Printer, Monitor etc. Format the paragraph with Bold, Size=20, Font =Arial, color=Blue and justified alignment and apply proper header and footer. Convert the above paragraph into three columns with alignment justified and lines in between. Insert picture using clip art and place it in middle of the paragraph. 2. Type “COMPUTER” using Word Art and save the file. 3. Open New Word document and type the following paragraph The input units are the devices that receive the data from the user. Keyboard, mouse, is some of the example of the input unit. The processing unit processes the data given by the user. This processing unit includes arithmetic and logic Unit. The obtained result is thus given to the user through the output devices such as printer, Monitor etc.
    • a. Set the first line indent of first paragraph to 2 inch b. Set Double line spacing for the Second paragraph. c. Set 2pt space before and after all the paragraphs. Unit 5 MS-WORD-II • In this unit the concept of mail merge is discussed. Steps involved in creating mail merge are dealt with. Operations like inputting the data, printing the merged document etc. is also discussedMAIL MERGEIntroductionMicrosoft Word has a useful feature known as Mail Merge. It assists you to produce apersonalized letter for each person in your mailing list.Assume that you want to send New Year greetings to all of your friends. But, typing the samegreetings for different friends of yours becomes a tedious job. But using the Mail Merge featureof MS-Word you can make the tedious job easier. Using this feature you can quickly createpersonalized greetings for each and every friend of yours who are in your mailing list.In this facility all data is stored in one document. The format of the letter is stored in anotherdocument with some special instructions. This document, consisting of special instructions, iscalled the Main document. During the Mail Merge process, the Main Document is combinedwith or merged with the document containing the data. MS-word replaces special instructions inthe Main Document with the data from other document.Let us discuss the concept of working of Mail Merge. In this, the address of all of your friends issaved in one document, and the format of the letter to be sent to them is stored in anotherdocument. Special instructions are to be given in the letter format to indicate to MS-Word as towhere the address has to be inserted. When both these documents are mail merged, individualaddress from the first document replace the special instructions given in the table.ObjectivesTo Understand • The steps involved in creating Mail Merge Creating Data Source
    • Setting up the main document Combining or Merging the Main Document • Inputting the data • Printing the merged document • Saving the main document • Modifying the Records in the Data Source • Changing the contents of existing recordFile Needed to work with Mail Merge two files are needed to work with Mail Merge, they areData Source and Main Document.Data Source: The file that contains the mail list.Main Document: The file that contains the format of the letter to be sent simultaneously tomany people is referred to as Main Document. This document contains special instructions forthe data to be inserted from the data source.Following are the steps involved with Mail Merge: 1. Creating of the Data Source 2. Setting up of the Main Document 3. Combining or merging the Main Document and Data source.Creating a Mail Merge documentFirst of all decide the type of document you want to create i.e. letter, labels, envelopes orcatalogues.Now let us consider the example of sending greetings to your friends. So let us assume that youwill have the following fields in the address.First name , Last name, street name,Follow the steps given below to use Mail Merge. 1. So to use the mail merging you should be in MS-Word, then click on to Tools option and from the resulting drop down menu click on to Mail Merge… option (Fig. 118), you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 119.
    • Fig. 118 1. This menu asks you to enter the type of Main document you wish to create. Now click on to Create button, you will get a drop down menu as shown in Fig. 120. 2. Click on to Form Letter option, as you want to send the greetings to your friends. Immediately, a message box gets displayed on the screen as shown in Fig. 121. 3. The Message box as shown in Fig. 121 asks you whether you wish to have the form letter displayed in the currently open active window or you want to create a new document window. So assume that you want create the form letter in the active document then click on to Active window and Mail Merger Helper box gets displayed immediately.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain how mail merge is useful and efficient?Inputting the dataThe list of addresses of your friends is our data source. So let us first create the datasource for storing the addresses of your friends. Follow the steps given below to do this. 1. Inside the Mail Merge Helper Box as shown in Fig. 122 click on to Get Data button, a pull down menu appears immediately. In this menu, click on to Create Data Source option. Immediately, a create data source box appears on the screen. Here select field names, which make the address of your friend along with the name. 2. Now select the field names from the Field names in header row box as shown in Fig. 123. Select the field names, which you don’t want as the part of your address and click on to Remove Field Name option. Now let us assume that we don’t want Title field name then click on to Title and then click on to Remove Field Name. You can follow this procedure to delete field names that are not required. You can add new field names also. Assume that you want to add a field name named as Subject. So type Subject in the Field name box and click on to Add Field name option and this new field added will be displayed in the Field names in header row option (Fig. 124). 3. Then Click OK. Immediately the Save as box appears on the screen. Give the file name to this Data source for example friends.
    • 4. Since you have to enter the data in the data source file click on to Edit Data source option (Fig. 125). Immediately a Data Form box gets displayed as shown in Fig. 126. In the Data Form box, the addresses of all of your friends are needs to be entered. So enter the addresses of all of your friends. After adding the address of each of your friend (Fig. 127) click on to Add new button. So you will get a blank form to add new address. 5. After adding all the details, to have the look at the list of addresses, click on to View source. Immediately the list appears on the screen as shown in Fig. 128. Save the data and close this Data source.Fig. 119
    • Fig. 120Fig. 121
    • Fig. 122Fig. 123
    • Fig. 124Fig. 125
    • Fig. 126Fig. 127Fig. 128
    • You will find the mail merge tool bar as shown in fig. 129. Place the cursor in the placewhere you want the address and click on insert merge field. Select the required titles.Finalize your letter and click on merge on the mail merge tool bar. You will get the menuas shown in fig. 131. Click on merge. You will get the merged document as shown in fig.133.Fig. 129Fig. 130
    • Fig. 131Fig. 132Fig. 133Printing the merged documentThe personalized letters can be printed using the printer by following the steps given below. 1. Click on to Merge to Printer option available on the Mail Merge tools bar. 2. From the resulting menu select the appropriate Printer settings and then click on OK.
    • Saving the Main documentSave the main document as you save other documents.Modifying the Records in the data sourceYou can add a new record, you can change an existing record or you can delete a record.To add a record:To add a new record click on to Edit Data Source option available on the Merge Tool bar andfrom the resulting menu as shown in Fig. 134, click on to Add New button. Blank fields will getdisplayed on the screen, add the information in the field and click OK and the new record isadded.Fig. 134Changing the contents of existing recordClick on to Edit Data Source option and from the resulting menu (as shown in Fig. 134) selectthe record which you want to change by using the record selector option
    • . The record can be changed now.To delete a RecordTo delete a record click on to Edit Data Source option available on the Merge Tool bar andfrom the resulting menu as shown in Fig. 134, select the record, which you want to delete byusing the record selector option . Now click on to Delete option. Therecord can be deleted now.Self Assessment Question:1) How records can be modified in Data Source?SummaryThe two files needed to work with mail merge are Data Source and Main Document. Thesteps involved with mail merge are creating the Data Source which will contain theinformation of the people or the organization to which the document will be addressed to.Main Document will contain the text of the document and fields. The Data Source andMain Document can be merged and print outs can be taken.Terminal Questions1) _____ and _____ are the two files required in Mail merging.2) Discuss the steps involved in Mail Merging. Unit 6 MS-EXCEL-I • This unit deals with Excel spreadsheet. The basic components of an Excel worksheet are discussed with. The creation, editing, saving etc. of the worksheet is dealt with. This unit also deals with formatting text, entering formula etcIntroductionMS-Excel is a Windows based spreadsheet (worksheet) package. When calculations aremade on paper and certain data must be changed, then the entire work must berecalculated and re-written. If a spreadsheet package is used then the re-calculation is
    • automatic. The details of bank passbook, tax inventory, purchase and sales can also bemaintained using a spreadsheet package.Lotus 123, MS-Excel etc., are spreadsheet packages.Objectives:To Understand: • How to start Microsoft Excel • The different units of Excel • Cells and Cell addresses • The Creation and Saving of a Worksheet and Work book • The Components of Work book • The formatting the Texts • The entering of formulaStarting of Microsoft ExcelFollowing steps are undertaken to start Microsoft Excel 1. Move the mouse pointer over the Start button present on the extreme left of the task bar and then click the left mouse button. A push up menu appears. 2. Place the Mouse pointer over the Program option inside the push up menu. A second menu gets displayed immediately. 1. Move the mouse pointer over Microsoft Excel option and click the left mouse button. A blank document file gets displayed on the screen instantly. Now the data can be entered in the file Book1 appeared and calculations can be made on entered data.When MS-Excel is loaded, the Excel window will appear on the screen. Excel windowappearance with its parts is given below.Part of MS-Excel Window
    • 1. Title Bar – Displays the application name, file name and various window controls like minimize button, maximize button and close button. 2. Menu Bar – Different options for selection. 3. Standard tool bar – Displayed by default, allows togive common commands like saving the file, opening a file, printing etc. 4. Formatting toolbar – allows the user to give commands related to formatting cells and cell contents like Bold, Underline, Font Style, Font Size, Color etc. 5. Name box – Displays the address of the current cell. 6. Formula Bar – displays the cell content. 7. Current Cell – current cell will be the active cell 8. Row Headers – There are 65636 rows (lines) numbered as 1,2,3 … 65536. First row number is 1 and the last row number is 65636. To go to cell in last row, press End and Down arrow key, to return to cell in the first row, press End and up arrow key. 9. Column Headers – There are 256 columns numbered as A, B, C, … Z, AA, and AB… AZ, BA, BB, … IV. First column name is A and last column name is IV. To go to the cell in last column header press End and Right arrow key, to return to the cell in first column, press End and Left Arrow key. 10. Scroll Bars – used to scroll through different parts of current sheet. 11. Sheet Tabs – Displays the sheet names. Each worksheet is named as Sheet1, Sheet2 and sheet3. 12. Status Bar – Displays on the left side various modes like Ready or Edit mode. The status of num lock, caps lock and scroll lock keys on the keyboard on the right side.Explanations:
    • Title Bar:Display the application name, file name and various window controlled like minimizebutton, maximize button and close button. a. Minimize button: This is used for changing a window/sheet into a button b. Maximize button: This is used for enlarging a window/sheet after it has been minimized or restored. c. Close button: This is used to close a window/sheetMenu Bar :This has different options for selections (which is discussed in detail below). In additionto minimize and close button(described above) it has a restore button which is used forbringing a window/sheet to its original size and adjusting the size of a window/sheet.File: This helps in creating a new file; opening an existing file; saving a file; printing;print preview; setting up of print area; closing the worksheet; exiting Excel etc.Edit: This helps in copying, cutting, deleting a range of text. Pasting a text which hasbeen copied or cut from some other location. Clearing the contents of cells. Finding theparticular text in the worksheet etc.View: This helps in enabling and disabling certain tools in Excel worksheetInsert: This can be used to insert cells, row, column in the work sheetFormat: This helps in formatting of the row, column to increase/decrease height andwidth etc.Tools: This helps with the spell checker, protection of worksheets/ workbooks byproviding the password The worksheet can be customized according to one’sspecification etc.Data: This is used to sort (ascending/descending), filter the list , to obtain subtotal etc.Window: This is used to hide/unhide the work book. To create new window, to split thepane etc.
    • Help: This can be used to get any help about ExcelFig. 1Standard Tool Bar:New: This is used to create a new work bookOpen: This is used to open an existing fileSave: This is used to save the filePrint: This is used to take the print out of the filePreview : This is used to see the printing document before printingSpelling checker: This is used to check the spelling and grammatical errors in the fileCut: This is used to move a selected block from one location to another.Copy: This is used to copy a selected block we want from one location to anotherPaste: This is used to make appear the block selected during the copy or cut operation ata certain location.Undo: This is used to retain the any modifications made to a file
    • Redo:This is used to reverse the last undo action performed on the file.Auto Sum Button: This is used to add the numbers in a particular rangePaste function Button: This is used to do different operations on a selected set ofnumbers, such as finding average or finding the minimum or maximum of set of numbersetc.Sort Ascending: This is used to arrange a set of numbers in ascending(increasing) orderSort Descending: This is used to arrange a set of numbers in descending (decreasing)orderChart Wizard Button: This is used in creating chart graphs for a set of numbersDrawing:This is used to add the drawing tool bar just above the status bar of the window.Zoom: This is used to change the size of the work sheet or to display the selected blockin greater size.6.3.4 Formatting Tool Bar:Font: This helps in changing the style of the text typed in the work sheets. You can selecta required font from the available font list and change the style of the text which is insidethe selected block.Font Size:This helps in changing the size of the text. You can select a required size for the fontfrom the available list and change the size of the text which is inside the selected block.Bold: This helps in make the selected look bolder than the other textItalic: This helps to make the text in the selected block look tilted or slanted.Underline: This helps in getting a underline to the selected text.Align Left: This helps in left justify the contents of cell which is inside the selectedblock.
    • Center: This helps in center justify the contents of cell which is inside the selected block.Align Right: This helps in right justify the contents of cell which is inside the selectedblock.Formula BarThe above figure shows the address of the active cell and the contents of active cell. Inthe above example C1 is the address of the cell and ’sales’ is content of that cell.Status BarThe status bar is located at the bottom of the Microsoft Excel Window. It displays Ready,or Edit on the left hand side and NUM on the right hand side.Ready:This indicates that the work book is ready to accept data from the user.Edit: This indicates the work book is in edit mode that means the contents of the cellbeing modified or a new content is being placed in the cell.NUM: This appears on the right hand side of the status bar and represents the status ofNum Lock indicator on the keyboard. If Num Lock is enabled on the keyboard, NUMwill appear and if Num Lock is disabled NUM will disappear from the Status Bar.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different parts of MS-Excel WindowCell and Cell AddressThe intersection of a column and a row is called as a cell. Each cell has a name or a celladdress. The cell address consists of the column letter and row number. For example, thefirst cell is in first column and fist row. First column name is A and first row number is 1.Therefore the first cell address is A1. Similarly the address of last cell is IV65536 i.ecolumn IV and row number is 65536.
    • The total cells in a worksheet are 256*65536.Self Assessment Question:1) What is a cell?Components of an Excel Work BookRow numbers: The horizontal group of cells is termed as a row. Each row is assigned anumber. The row numbers appear on the left side of the work bookColumn Number: The vertical group of cells is termed as a column. Each column isassigned a number. The column number appear below the Formula Bar in the work book.Column Headings: The name given to each column is termed as column heading. Theseappear just below the Formula Bar.Vertical Scroll Bar: The vertical scroll bar consists of two buttons Up Arrow Scrollbutton and the Down Arrow Scroll button. Clicking of any of these buttons allows you tosee those rows of a sheet which are not visible on the screen.Horizontal Scroll Bar: The vertical scroll bar consists of two buttons Right ArrowScroll button and the Left Arrow Scroll button. Clicking of any of these buttons allowsyou to see those columns of a sheet which are not visible on the screen.Select all button: This is the first place where the row numbers and column headingsmeet.Sheet tab: Using this one can move from one sheet to other of the work book. By defaultan Excel workbook has three sheets and has its name displayed. The default name ofthese sheets are Sheet1,Sheet2 and Sheet3. These name can be changed and a new namecan be assigned to it. This tab appears just above the Status Bar.Minimize, Maximize/ Restore, and Close Buttons:There two sets of Minimize, Maximize/ Restore, and Close Buttons; one on the righthand corner of the Title Bar which is corresponding to Excel window and another set onthe right hand corner of the Menu Bar which is corresponding to Excel workbook.Minimize button: This is used for changing a Excel window/book into a button.Maximize button: This is used for enlarging a Excel window/book after it has beenminimized or Restored.
    • Restore button: This is used for changing a Excel window/book into its original size andadjusting the size of a window/bookClose button: This is used to close the Excel window/book.Figure shows the usage of minimize button of the Excel work book.Fig. No. 2Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different components of MS Excel Work bookClosing the Excel work bookThere are two ways in closing the work book1. Closing the work book without saving it2. Closing the work book with saving it 1. Closing the work book without saving it: In this your work/latest update is not saved. To do this follow the steps mentioned below. • Move the mouse pointer over the File option on Menu bar and click the left mouse button. A pull down menu gets displayed immediately.
    • • Inside this pull down menu move the mouse pointer to the Close option and click the left mouse button. A message box gets displayed immediately asking you whether you want save this sheet with three options Yes, No and Cancel. Move the mouse pointer over No and click the left mouse button this will close the sheet without saving it.Fig. No. 3Note: • But at this point if you want to save the sheet you can select Yes option by moving the mouse pointer over it and clicking the left button. A menu appears, here select the drive and folder in which you want to save. Then give the file name and select Save option. • If you don’t want to save or close the sheet select Cancel option. This will take you back to the sheet.
    • Fig. No. 4 2) Closing the work book with saving it: In this your work/latest update is saved. To do this follow the steps mentioned below. 1. Move the mouse pointer over the File option on Menu bar and click the left mouse button. A pull down menu gets displayed immediately. 2. Inside this pull down menu move the mouse pointer to the Save option and click the left mouse button. Then you will get a screen as shown in fig 5. A menu appears, here select the drive and folder in which you want to save. Then give the file name and select Save option.
    • Fig. No. 5Note:You can even use the Close button which is at the right hand corner of the Menu barsheet to close the sheet. Again if it the sheet is not saved earlier or latest update is notsaved it will display the message as shown in fig.no. 4 and follow the steps as explainedabove depending on your choice.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the different ways of closing Excel Work book.Closing the ExcelTo close the Excel program following steps are required to followed 1. Move the mouse pointer over the Close button which is at the right hand corner of the Title bar 2. Click the left button on the mouseWorksheets within WorkbookExcel documents (files) are known as workbooks. Each workbook contains 3 worksheetsby default. Adding or deleting the sheets can change the number of sheets. Each sheet is
    • named uniquely like sheet1, sheet2 etc. which is displayed in the sheet tab. A workbookcan also contain chart sheets, which are named as chart1, chart2 etc., by default.When Excel is loaded, it automatically opens a new workbook; named Book1, (With anextension .XLS) This name is displayed on the title bar. The main part of Excel screen isthe worksheet area – a grid of rows and columns. The worksheet contains 65536 rowsand 256 columns.Navigate WorksheetTo move any cell of any worksheet of an open workbook, the mouse can be used. • To scroll through different parts of the worksheet, drag the scroll box in the scroll bars or click on the arrow marks in the scroll bars. • To go to different sheets in the workbook, click on the desired sheet name in the sheet tab. • To go to a desired cell, click inside the cell, or select Edit > go to type the desired cell address in the Reference box (for example, D7) and click on OK.OR • Click on the name box, type the desired cell address and press enter.To move from one cell to another, the keyboard can also be used.Self Assessment Questions:1) Explain the concept Worksheets within a WorkbookEnter an Edit DataAny entry can be made in the active cell. Entries can be of 4 different types: They are:Text: Text in a cell can include any combination of letters, numbers and keyboardsymbols. A cell can contain 32000 characters. If column width prevents a text stringfitting visually in a cell, the display extends over neighboring cells. To store a number asa text entry, use apostrophe (’) as the first character.Number: Numbers include digits from 0 to 9 and some special characters like $, %, +, –() E etc. When a formatted number does not fit in a cell ##### is displayed.Logical Values – Logical values, TRUE, or FALSE can be entered in the cells.Formulas – Formulas are entered into the cell to perform calculations. A formula beginswith an equal sign (=) or plus symbol (+). After completing a formula entry, the result offormula will be displayed in the cell and the formula will be displayed in the formula bar.
    • To make any Entry in the cell: • Make the cell active (select the cell) on the cell or by pressing arrow keys. • Type the content of the cell. • Press enter or press the arrow keys or click on any other cell to complete the entry.To edit the cell content : • Press F2 function key after selecting the cell of which you want to edit the contents or double click on that cell, correct the cell content and press enter.or • Click on the formula bar (which displays the active cell content), make the correction and press Enter key.To delete the content of cell • Click on the cell which you want to delete and press delete key on the keyboard.Self Assessment Question:1) How do you edit an entry in the cell?Entering and Copying the FormulaIn the example (Fig. No. 6), you want to calculate the total price of each quantity and then thetotal price of all the quantity. That means to calculate the total price of the pen you should havethe quantity in cell address B2 and price in cell address C2 to be multiplied and result to beplaced in cell address D2. Similarly for the items Pencil and Pen Box and the total of all the threeitems which will be placed at the cell address D5.
    • Fig. No. 6A formula can also be entered by using the cell address. In the above example, the valueis to be calculated by using the formula Quantity * Rate. To calculate the value of firstitem, pen, in the cell D2 type = B2 * C2 or +B2*C2. (can be small letters or capitalletters) The screen looks as shown in Fig. No. 7.
    • Fig. No. 7Then press Enter key. The screen looks as shown in Fig. No. 8.To copy the similar formula:If similar formula is to be entered for other cells, the formula can be copied. For exampleif you want to calculate the total price of Pencil and Pen Box and want that to beappeared at cell address D3 you should have B3*C3 and at cell address D4 you shouldhave B4*C4. Thus instead of typing the formula again in those addresses you can copythe formula in cell addresses D3 and D4. To do this follow the steps given below. 1. Move the mouse pointer to right hand below corner of the cell from which you want to copy the formula. In the above example at the right hand below corner of the cell D2. You will get + (Fill Handle) symbol. 2. Drag the symbol by keep pressing the left mouse button to the cell to which you want to copy the formula. In this case it is D3 and D4. So drag the symbol down. Then release the left mouse button which you had kept down. The formula will be copied to the other cells with appropriate change in the cell address and the result will be displayed. In the above example in cell addresses D3 and D4.
    • 3. Now click the mouse button you will get the result of the calculation. The figure is shown below.Fig. No. 9Similarly to get the total price of all items add the values at D2,D3 and D4. If you wantthe result to be placed at cell address D5 then move the mouse pointer to cell addressedD5 and click on the left mouse button. Now type =D2+D3+D4 or +D2+D3+D4 and pressEnter key you will get the result shown on the screen, it is shown below.
    • Fig. No. 10A formula can be edited the same way you edit the contents in the cell.Formula Cell: This is the cell which contains the formula. In above example D2, D3, D4 and D5are the formula cell.Relative (reference) cell addressing:If a formula with relative reference is copied, the cell references used in the formula willautomatically change in the copied cell. For example, when the formula = B2 * C2 in the cell D2is copied to D3 and D4. The formula will be = B3 * C3 in the cell D3 and =B4*C4 in cell D4. Thusthe calculations are done depending upon the relative position of the cell addresses from theformula cell.
    • Fig. No. 11Thus as shown in the above example the formula in D2 contains the multiplication of: • The value at cell address B2 and C2 (two columns and one column before the formula cell)Similarly the formula cell D3 contains the multiplication of: • The value at cell address B3 and C3 (two columns and one column before the formula cell)
    • Fig. No. 12Absolute cell addressing:Consider the example shown below where if fixed value 50 as handling charges is required to beadded to Total1 and you will get Total2. The formula in E2 as shown in Formula bar is =D2+B7.In cell E3 and E4 we want to have the similar formula as in E2 and if now the formula informula cell E2 is copied to E3 and E4 as discussed earlier, E3 will have the formula as=D3+B8 and E4 will have the formula as =D4+B9 so we will get Total2 corresponding toPencil and Pen Box as shown below which is not correct. Since no value is present in cellB8 and B9 zero is added to the contents of cell D3 and D4.To add the contents of cell B7 to the contents of D3 and D4 while copying the formulafrom the formula cell, you have to make an address constant or absolute so that regardlessof wherever it is copied, it (B7) remains the same. This is called absolute addressing. It isdone by typing a dollar sign ($) before both the column name and row number in theformula cell as shown below$Column name$Row numberThus to change the contents formula cell E2, double click at the cell address E2 andchange the formula to D2+$B$7, then copy the formula to cell E3 and E4.The Fig. No. 13shows the changed formula and the Fig. No. 14 shows the result after copying theformula cell.
    • Fig. No. 13Fig. No. 14Self Assessment Question:1) Differentiate between absolute and relative cell addressing
    • 2) Why do we copy the similar formula from one cell to another?Saving the workbookThree methods are there to save a new work book. • Use of Save button on standard tool bar: Click the Save button which is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the figure shown below. Here select the drive, folder and give the file name and then click on Save button. • Use of File option button on Menu Bar: a) Click on the File option button of Menu Bar b) Select Save from drop down menu c) You will get a screen as shown in Fig. No. 15. Here select the drive, folder and give the file name and then click on Save button. • Press Ctrl and S key simultaneously. Now follow the step c. Fig. No. 15
    • Note: If you want to cancel the saving process now you can click on the Cancel button. Once you have saved a work book, next time if you want to save you can use any of three methods discussed above but you need not give the name of the file as it is already given when it was saved for the first time. Closing the workbook is discussed earlier. When workbook is saved all the three sheets of it also saved. Self Assessment Question: 1) Explain the different methods of saving the new Excel work book.Create a new workbookThree methods are there to open a new work book. 1. Use of new button on standard tool bar: Click the New button which is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the new work book. 2. Use of File option button on Menu Bar: a) Click on the File option button of Menu Bar b) Select New from drop down menu c) You will get a screen as shown in Fig. No. 16. d) Click OK 1. Press Ctrl and N key simultaneously you will get a screen as shown in Fig. No. 17. Now follow the steps c) and d) Note: If you don’t want to open the new document at this stage click on the Cancel button so the new document will not be created.
    • Fig. No. 16Opening of an existing workbookThree methods are there to open an existing work book. • Use of open button on standard tool bar: Click the Open button which is there on the Standard Tool Bar and you will get the new work book.2. Use of File option button on Menu Bar: a) Click on the File option button of Menu Bar b) Select Open from drop down menu c) You will get a screen as shown in Fig. No. 17. d) Select the drive and folder in which you have the file e) Type the name of the file you want to open in the file name box
    • f) Click Open 3. Press Ctrl and O key simultaneously you will get screen as shown in Fig. No. 18 then follow the steps d),e) and f) as given above.The figure shows how to select the drive. It shows the selection of C drive. If you want toselect any other drive move the mouse pointer over that drive and click the left mousebutton.Fig. No. 17Now to see the contents of selected drive you can double click left mouse button on theselected drive.This figure shows the selection of the folder and the name of the file being typed in thefile name box.
    • Fig. No. 18Note: If you don’t want to open an existing document at this stage click on the Cancelbutton so the document will not be opened.To Copy Cell ContentsTo Copy the cell contents to other cells, select the range of cells you want to copy bydragging the mouse by clicking the left mouse button down. The selection is shown inFig. No. 19.
    • Fig. No. 19To copy the contents to clip board (temporary location) you have following methods andselect one among them. 1. Select Edit on the Menu bar then select copy 2. Ctrl +C, 3. Click right mouse button, a menu props up and select Copy and click left mouse button.
    • Fig. No. 20Now move the mouse pointer to the position where you want to copy the contents of theselected cells and you can follow one of the following listed steps. 1. Select Edit from Menu Bar and click on Paste 2. Press Ctrl and V key simultaneously 3. Press right mouse button, a menu props and click on Paste option. Fig. No. 21 shows the copied cells
    • Fig. No. 21 Now to remove the highlighting of selected cells press Esc key.Moving the Cell ContentTo move the cell contents to other cells, select the range of cells you want to move bydragging the mouse by clicking the left mouse button down. The selection is shown inFig. No. 22.To move the contents to clip board (temporary location) you have following methods andselect one among them. 1. Select Edit on the Menu bar then select cut 2. Ctrl + X 3. Click right mouse button, a menu props up and select Cut and click left mouse button.Fig. No. 22 shows the selected cell.
    • Fig. No. 22Now move the mouse pointer to the position where you want to move the contents of theselected cells and you can follow one of the following listed steps. 1. Select Edit from Menu Bar and click on Paste 2. Press Ctrl and V key simultaneously 3. Press right mouse button, a menu props and click on Paste option. Following Fig. No. 23 shows the moved cells The data is moved from the original position to the new position.
    • Fig. No. 23Inserting Cells, Columns and RowsTo insert cells, columns and rows, follow the steps mentioned below. 1. Click on the Insert button on the Menu bar then in the drop down menu click on cells. You will get a screen as shown in Fig. No. 24.
    • Fig. No. 24 1. In the pop up menu you will get four options. Depending on your requirement select the options.a) Shift cells rightb) Shift cells downc) Entire rowd) Entire column a) Shift cells right: This will add a blank cell to the left of the selected cell. This is shown in Figure No. 25.
    • Fig. No. 25 b) Shift cells down: This will add blank cell at the top of the selected cell. Considering the Fig. No. 24 and after executing this command you will get as shown in Fig. No. 26.
    • Fig. No. 26 c) Entire row: This will add a blank row at the top of the selected row. Considering the Fig. No. 24 after executing the command you will get the figure as shown in Fig. No. 28.
    • Fig. No. 27 d) Entire column: This will add a blank column to the left of the selected column. Considering the Fig. No. 24after executing the command you will get the following Fig. No. 28
    • Fig. No. 28To insert one or more Columnsa) To insert one column: Follow the steps listed below. • Select the cell to left of which you want to insert the column • Click on the Insert button on the Menu bar • Click on the Column option from the drop down menub) To insert more than one columns: Follow the steps listed below • Select the cell to left of which you want to insert the columns • Block the number of columns to be inserted • Click on the Insert button on the Menu bar • Click on the Column option from the drop down menuTo insert one or more Rowsa) To insert one row: Follow the steps listed below. • Select the cell to above which you want to insert the row • Click on the Insert button on the Menu bar • Click on the Row option from the drop down menu
    • b) To insert more than one Rows: Follow the steps listed below • Select the cell to above which you want to insert the rows • Block the number of Rows to be inserted • Click on the Insert button on the Menu bar • Click on the Row option from the drop down menu6.20 SummaryExcel documents or files are known as workbooks. Each workbook contains threeworksheets by default. Adding or deleting the sheets can change the number of sheets.Each sheet is named uniquely as sheet1, sheet2 etc. A workbook can also contain chartsheets, which are named as chart1, chart2 etc. by default. When Excel is loaded, itautomatically opens a new Work book named book1. The Worksheet contains 65536 rowand 256 columns.The cell is a basic unit of the Work sheet. Formulas are entered into the cell to performcalculations. A formula begins with an equal sign or a plus symbol. After completing aformula entry, the result will be displayed in the cell and the formula will be displayed inthe formula bar. The default extension of an Excel workbook file is xls.Terminal Questions1) Create a worksheet with the following details Student Roll number, Student name, Student Class, Student marks in 4 different subjects. Now calculate the total marks obtained by each student2) Discuss Relative cell addressing3) _______is extension of a workbook file Unit 7 MS-EXCEL-II • This unit deals with the advanced features of Excel. The common Excel functions, Logical functions, Custom list etc are discussed. This unit also deals with Alignment, Column width, height of rows etc. The topics like Databases, Filters, and Validation are discussed in this unit.Excel Functions
    • IntroductionIn the earlier examples we have seen that to multiply the values of three columns andthen to add the values at three rows we have used the formulas. But it is fine if we wantto do the calculations involving very less number of cells. But if we want to add thevalues of say 100 cells then writing the formula will be very lengthy. For example youmay have to write=C1+C2+C3………..+C100. Instead it will be easy to use functions to perform certainoperations involving many cells. Functions are certain built in formulas and a functionbegin with the = or + sign.ObjectivesTo Understand • Functions • Common Excel functions • Logical functions • Custom list • Changing the Alignment • Changing the Column width, height of the rows • Formatting the values in Cells • Databases • Filters • Validation • Pivot tables and Pivot Chart Report • ChartsRangesYou have to make use of ranges for carrying out calculations through functions. So arange is a sequence of cell addresses. It is specified in the following manner.First cell address :Last cell addressOrFirst cell address.. Last cell addressExamples for ranges:A1:D1 means it includes cells A1,B1,C1,D1B3:D4 means it includes cell B3,B4,C3,C4,D3 and D4
    • Format for writing a function: A function can be written in the following format.= function name(range of cell address)Common Excel FunctionsSUM ( ):It is a mathematical function used to add the numeric value in a range of cells.The format of the sum function is:= SUM(Starting cell address: Ending cell address)For example if you want to add the contents of cells C7,C8, C9 and C10 and store theresult in cell C11, follow the steps given below.1) Take the mouse pointer to cell addressed as C112) Click the left mouse button (This is how you select a cell).3) Now type = SUM (C7:C10) and press enter.Following figure shows the way in which you should enter the formula.
    • Fig. No. 29Fig. No. 30 shows the result of usage of sum() functionFig. No. 30Average():This function calculates and returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the numericvalues in the given range of cells. It is a statistical function.For example to calculate the average of the contents in cell C7 through C10:= AVERAGE ( C7 : C10) – Average of values in the range C7 through C10.Steps mentioned to use the SUM() function can be followed to use the AVERAGE()function. Instead of SUM() use AVERAGE() and use the appropriate cell range.Considering the Fig. No. 30, if this function is entered in the cell address C12 andyou will get the result as 88.5 in cell address C12. It is the average of values 85,95,88and 86.Max ():
    • This function returns the largest value in the given range of cells. For example tocalculate the maximum value among the contents in cells C7 through C10.= MAX ( C7 : C10) – Highest value in the range C7 to C10.Steps mentioned to use the SUM() function can be followed to use the AVERAGE()function. Instead of SUM() use MAX() and use the appropriate cell range.Considering the Fig. No. 30, if this function is entered in the cell address C13 andyou will get the result as 95 in cell address C13. It is the maximum of values 85,95,88and 86.Min():This function returns the lowest value in the given range of cells. For example tocalculate the minimum value among the contents in cells C7 through C10.= MIN( C7 : C10) – lowest value in the range C7 to C10Steps mentioned to use the SUM() function can be followed to use the MIN()function. Instead of SUM() use MIN() and use the appropriate cell range.Considering the Fig. No. 31, if this function is entered in the cell address C14 andyou will get the result as 86 in cell address C14. It is the minimum of values 85,95,88and 86.Count ():This function is used to count the number of cell addresses containing the data. It isstatistical function.= COUNT (range)Steps mentioned to use the SUM() function can be followed to use the COUNT()function. Instead of SUM() use COUNT() and use the appropriate cell range.E.g.:= COUNT ( C7 : C15) Numeric cells in the range C7 to C15.Considering the Fig. No. 31, if this function is entered in the cell address C16 andyou will get the result as 8 in cell address C15. It is the number of cells in which youhave numeric values. Consider the following Fig. No. 31 in which in cell address C15you have A+ which is not a numeral.
    • Fig. No. 31Upper (): This function is used to convert the text in a cell address to capital letters.= UPPER (Cell address)For example to convert Name to NAME in the above shown example and to makeappear this NAME in cell address D4 follow steps mentioned below. 1. Move the mouse pointer to cell address where you want to get the converted text say in D4 from C4 2. Click the left mouse button 3. Type the function as given below = UPPER(C4) 4. Press Enter keyAs shown in the below Fig. No. 31(A) the text ‘Name’ is converted and shown asNAME
    • Fig. No. 31(A)Lower(): This function is used to convert the text in a cell address to lower caseletters.=LOWER (Cell address)For example to convert ‘NAME’ to ‘name’ in the above shown example and to makeappear this ‘name’ in cell address E5 follow steps mentioned below. 1. Move the mouse pointer to cell address where you want to get the converted text say in E4 from D4 2. Click the left mouse button 3. Type the function as given below = LOWER (E4) 4. Press Enter keyCounta(): Counts the number of cells that are not empty in the specified range.Syntax := COUNTA( Range)
    • In this case, a value is any type of information, including empty text (” “) but notincluding empty cells.For example in Fig. No. 31 shown above if we have function =COUNTA(C3:C16) incell C17 we will get the value as 13.Countblank ():Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells. Cells with Zero values are notcounted.Syntax:=COUNTBLANK (range)For example in fig. no() shown above if we have function=COUNTBLANK(C3:C16) in cell C17 we will get the value as 1.Self Assessment Question:1) Why do we use functions?2) Explain the following functionsa) count() b) upper() c) average() d)counta()Logical FunctionsLogical functions are used to see whether a condition is true or false or to check formultiple conditions.IF():The function is used to determine whether a condition is true or false. Value one isreturned if the condition is true, and different value is returned if the condition is false.Syntax:= IF (Condition, true action, false action)Consider an example in which the perks to the sales force is given according thefollowing tableIf sales > = 1,00,000/- per month 1%If sales < 1,00,000/- per month 0.25%
    • Consider the following fig and commission is calculated and placed in cell D2 foremployee Rajesh. Since commission is calculated according to the sales made by him andsales amount is stored in cell C2, type the IF() function in D2 as shown below.=IF(C2>=100000,C2*1%,C2*0.25%)The meaning of above IF():IF the value in cell C2 is greater than or equal to 100000 calculate the commissionaccording to the formula C2(value)*1%.IF the value in cell C2 is less than 100000 calculate the commission according to theformula C2(value)*0.25%.Fig. No. 32Fig. 33 shows the result after copying the IF() to D3 and D4 cells, to calculate thecommission for employees Ramesh and KiranFig. No. 33
    • Consider another example where the commission is calculated according to the followingtable.If sales is >=100000 1%If sales >=75000 and If sales <100000 0.75%If sales >=50000 and If sales <75000 0.50%If sales < 50000 0.25%The IF() is written as shown below:=IF(C2>=100000,C2*1%,(IF(C2>=75000,C2*0.75%,IF(C2>=50000,C2*0.50%,C2*0.25%)))Fig. No. 34After copying the formula to D3,D4 and D5 you will get the result as shown in Fig. No.35.Fig. No. 35Sumif()
    • SUMIF is used to total a range of numeric cells based on a condition.Syntax :=SUMIF ( range to check, criteria, range to total)Range to check is the range of cells where the criteria is to be searched. Criteria are in theform of a number, expression, or text that defines the cells to be added. Range to total is arange of cells the number of which is to be added. The cells in range to total are summedonly if their corresponding cells in range match the criteria.Consider the following worksheet which gives the sales of different products for differentmonths.Fig. No. 36Following figure shows the calculation of total soap sales.In this, the range A2:A8 is checked to search for a criteria “Soap” and the contents ofE2:E8 is added when the criteria matched. So criteria “Soap” matches for cells A1,A6and A7 and the value in cells E2,E6 and E7 are added and the result is stored in cell E13.
    • Fig. No. 37Fig. No. 38 shows the applying of SUMIF() for total sales for the month of MarchFig. No. 38Figure No. 39 shows the addition sales which is above 9000.
    • Fig. No. 39Figure No. 40 shows the result of all the SUMIF() functionsFig. No. 40COUNTIF() :
    • This function gives the count of number of cells which satisfies the condition.All the above mentioned functions can be implemented with the help of Paste Functionbutton which is on the Menu Bar.Follow the steps mentioned below: 1. Select the cell in which you want to have the function. 2. Click the left mouse button on the Paste function button which is on the Standard tool bar. You will get the screen as shown in Figure 41. 3. Select the function which you want to implement say Average() 4. You will get the screen as shown in Fig. No. 42. Here select the range of which you want to find the Average() say C7:C10Fig. No. 41
    • Fig. No. 42Self Assessment Questions: 1) Why do we use logical functions. With example explain the syntax of any one logical functionsAuto SUMThis is used to total a range of numeric cells. This icon is available in Standard toolbar.To use this icon, select the numeric cells of which you want to find the sum and click onthe auto sum icon.
    • Fig. No. 43Auto FillThe auto fill feature of MS-Excel will save data entry time by expanding series ofnumbers, days of week, different months, etc. from a given cell to adjacent ones. This isachieved using fill handle. 1. To generate the serial numbers 1,2,3,4 .. With the increment 1, type 1 in any cell and Ctrl+Drag the fill handle down or right, this will increase the number by 1 in each cell and Ctrl+Drag the fill handle up or left will reduce the number by 1 in each cell. Instead of 1, any other starting number can also be entered. As we drag the fill handle, the number, which will appear in the cell will be displayed near the fill handle for our reference. 2. To generate the serial numbers with the increment or decrement other than 1, type the first 2 numbers; block those 2 cells and the Frag the fill handle. To generate 5,10,15,20… one below the other, type 5 in any cell, in the next cell type 10, block those 2 cells and Drag the fill handle down. We can also generate the numbers in descending order by typing 100, 95 in different cells. 3. Text can be entered with the number. To generate F1, F2, F3 … type F1 in any cell and Drag the fill handle. 4. We can also generate the Week day names like Sunday, Monday… etc, and we can generate the month days from January to December.If you are required to fill a range of cells with repeating values or sequence of values. It ispossible to achieve this using Excel feature easily.If the students are allotted the Registered numbers and if the institution has say 800students then instead of typing the Registered number for each student it is easy to useauto fill feature.Consider the example given below in which the starting Reg. No. is 101 and the nextshould be 102,103….and so on. So instead of typing the numbers to use the auto fillfeature follow the steps given below. 1. Select the cells in which the numbers are required to be filled as shown in Fig. No. 44.
    • Fig. No. 44 1. Click the left mouse button on the Edit option of Menu Bar, a drop down menu appears 2. Select Fill from that menu, a sub menu appears select Series option from it, a menu as shown below appears.Fig. No. 45 1. Click on OK. You will get the Registered numbers filled against each name as shown in Fig. No. 46.
    • Fig. No. 46Note following points regarding auto fill feature. 1. To generate the serial numbers with the decrement use step equal to –1. If you want to generate the series as say 101,99,97… then use the step value accordingly. In this case it is –2. 2. To generate the serial numbers in increment order and as say 101,104,107…then use step as 3. You can use starting number as any value. 3. We can also generate the Week day names like Sunday, Monday… etc, and we can generate the month days from January to December.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the feature of Auto FillCustom ListA custom list is a collection of some commonly used words, which can be reproduced bydragging fill handle. For example, a company deals in different products and the namesof this is used in many places in a work sheet or in different work sheets. This is used tosave data entry time.Consider the following example shown in Fig. No 47. The list of the products is used indifferent work sheets. To do that, you have to create the Custom list first.
    • Fig. No. 47Follow the below mentioned steps to create the custom list. 1. Select the list of which you want create the list as shown in Fig. No 48.Fig. No. 48 1. Click on to Tools option on the Menu Bar. From the drop down menu select Options. You will get the menu as shown in Fig. No. 49.
    • Fig. No. 49 1. Select Custom Lists if it is not selected, in the Fig. No. 49, it is selected. 2. Click on to Import option, it shows the cell address from where the list is to be imported. You can edit this list by clicking on to it. Now the list is brought to the Custom Lists. This is shown in Fig. No. 50.Fig. No. 50 1. Now Click on to OK. You list is added to the Custom list. You can edit this list before clicking on to OK or later.
    • If you want to edit the list later, go to custom list menu and select the list you want toedit. You will get that list in the ‘List entries’ box, now click in that box and edit theentries as you like.Now if you want to have this list in some other place in the same work sheet or in someother work sheet you can use it by following the steps given below. 1. Type the first value or any one of the values from the list into a cell. 2. Drag the fill handle. Self Assessment Question: 1) Explain the steps to create Custom ListSheet Lay OutAppearance of text or numbers in a cell can be changed to suit our requirement with thefeature provided by Excel.AlignmentThe data at a particular cell can be aligned to Left or Right or Center of the cell.By default the text is aligned at the left hand side of the cell and the number is aligned tothe right hand side of the cell.This can be achieved by following the steps given below. 1. Select a cell or group of cells of which you want to change the alignment of data in them 2. Select the Alignment buttons which are available at the formatting tool bar depending on your requirement.Three buttons are there to align the data: a) Align Right: This will align the data in the selected cell to the right hand side of the cell. b) Align Left: This will align the data in the selected cell to the left hand side of the cell. c) Align Center: This will align the data in the selected cell to the center of the cell.Consider the following example:
    • To align the contents of the group of cells to left hand side of the cell. 1. Select the group of cells as shown below 1. Then click the left mouse button on Align Left button which is on the Formatting toolbar 2. The contents in the selected cells aligned to left as shown in the figure 51(A). Figure 51 shows the selection of cells of which the alignment is required to be made Fig. No. 51 Figure shows the alignment of data in cells A2 to A11 to right hand side of the cell. Fig. No. 51 (A)
    • Similarly alignment can be made to the cells containing text. Let us consider anexample in which cells containing text to be aligned to center.Follow the steps given below: 1) Select the group of cells as shown below 2) Then click the left mouse button on Align center button which is on the Formatting toolbar 3) The contents in the selected cells aligned to center of the selected cells.Figure 52 shows the selection of cellsFig. No. 52Figure shows in cells C1 to C11 the contents are aligned to center.
    • Fig. No. 53Changing the alignment in a cell or group of cells by an angle: This can beachieved by following the steps given below.1) Select the group of cells as shown in Fig. 54.Fig. No. 54 2) Click on the Format option of the Menu bar. Select Cells option from the drop down menu. You will get another menu titled Format cells. 3) Select Alignment button from the Format cells menu. You will get the screen as shown in Fig. 55.
    • Fig. No. 55 4) Now select the degrees by which you want to align the text as shown in the following figure 56.Fig. No. 565) Press OK. You will get the screen as shown in Fig. 57.
    • Fig. No. 57 Self Assessment Question: 1) Why do we require to align the contents of group of cells?Changing the column widthBy default each cell can have 9 characters. However the width of each column can bechanged and different columns in a sheet can have different width.To change the column width follow the steps given below: 1. Select the column of which you want to change the width by placing the mouse pointer on the respective column 2. Click on the Format button which is on the Menu bar 3. In the drop down menu move the mouse pointer over the Column option. You will get a sub menu, now select Width option in that and you will the screen as shown in Fig. 58
    • Fig. No. 58 1. Take the mouse pointer to the box next to Column width which is presently showing 8.43 and Click. Now enter a number which will represent the width of the column. For example 16 is typed and you will get the display as shown in Fig. 59.Note: If you want to decrease the width of the column you can type a number which isless than 8.43.Fig. No. 59
    • 1. Click on OK you will get the width of the column changed as shown in the figure No. 60.Fig. No. 60Similarly you can change the width of more than one column simultaneously by selectingmore than one column and following the steps given above.Changing the height of the rowTo change the height of the Row follow the steps given below: 1. Select the Row of which you want to change the height by placing the mouse pointer on the respective row 2. Click on the Format button which is on the Menu bar 3. In the drop down menu move the mouse pointer over the Row option. You will get a sub menu, now select Height option in that. 4. Take the mouse pointer to the box next to Row height which is presently showing 12.75 and Click. Now enter a number which will represent the width of the column. For example 21 is typed.Note: If you want to decrease the height of the row you can type a value less than 12.75.Formatting the values in CellsThe appearance of the values in the cell can be changed as your requirements. You canrepresent the value in following different formats:
    • You can have your own custom specificationTo format the values according to your requirements follow the steps given below. 1. Select the cell or group of cells you want to change the appearance 2. Click on to Format option on Menu bar 3. From the drop down menu click on to Cells option you will get screen as shown in Fig. 61.Fig. No. 61 1. Now select the required format say for example Currency you will get the screen as shown in Fig. 62, here you can again select the required pattern for currency.
    • Fig. No. 62 1. Click on OK you will get the required format it is also shown in the figure 63.Fig. No. 63Bold, Italic and Underline:Appearance like Bold, Italic and Underlined can be given to the contents of a cell. Followthe steps given below. 1. Select the cell/cells of which you want to change the appearance
    • 2. Click on Bold, Italic or Underlined from Formatting bar depending on your requirement. You can get the screen as shown in Fig. No. 64.Note:You can apply more than one format to the contents of a given cell/cells as shown in Fig.64Fig. No. 64Self Assessment Question:1) How do we format the contents of a cell?DatabaseAn organized collection of data arranged in rows and columns is a database. It is alsocalled an excel list. The columns are called fields, the column labels or headings are fieldnames. Each row in the list below the field name is a record.Auto Filter :Data> Filter> AutoFilterAuto filter helps you to display the records, which meet a particular condition. When thisoption is selected, drop down controls are placed next to each field name. On clicking onthis drop down control, the contents of the field without repetition are displayed.
    • Data Sort:Sorting is arranging the records in a database, based on one or more fields. (columns)Sort brings the related records together, so that the records in the database are easilyaccessible. Records can be arranged in ascending or descending order.The command is DATA>SORT.Advanced FilterAdvanced filter criteria can include multiple conditions applied in a single column,multiple criteria applied to multiple columns, and conditions created as the result of aformula. Consider the example shown in Fig. 65Fig. No. 65Examples of advanced filter criteria: Advanced filter criteria can include multipleconditions applied in a single column, multiple criteria applied to multiple columns, andconditions created as the result of a formula.Multiple conditions in a single column: If you have two or more conditions for a singlecolumn, type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. For example, thefollowing criteria range displays the rows that contain “Rajesh”, “Suvarni” or “Krithika”in the Name column.Serial No. Name City Phone Rajesh Suvarni KrithikaOne condition in two or more columns: To find data that meets one condition in two ormore columns, enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. For example, thefollowing criteria range displays all rows that contain “Ananth” in the Name column,“Malpe” in the City column, and 2524717 in the Phone column.Serial No. Name City Phone Ananth Malpe 2524717
    • One condition in one column or another: To find data that meets either a condition inone column or a condition in another column, enter the criteria in different rows of thecriteria range. For example, the following criteria range displays all rows that containeither “Ananth” in the Name column, “Udupi” in the City column, or Phone numbersequal to 2524717.Serial No. Name City Phone Ananth Malpe 2524717Now let us consider the criteria of One condition in one column or another and workon the example database given in Fig. 65. Follow the steps given below.1) Type the criteria label, in the rows below the criteria labels, type the criteria you wantto match.2) On the Data menu, point to Filter, and then click Advanced Filter.3) You will get Advanced Filter menu. Here you have got following options and selectrequired ones appropriately.a. To filter the list by hiding rows that don’t match your criteria, click Filter the list, in-place.b. To filter the list by copying rows that match your criteria to another area of theworksheet, click Copy to another location, click in the Copy to box, and then click theupper-left corner of the area where you want to paste the rows.c. In the Criteria range box, enter the reference for the criteria range, including thecriteria labels. To move the Advanced Filter dialog box out of the way temporarily whileyou select the criteria range, click Collapse Dialog4) Click on to OK you will get the filtered table which is shown in Fig. 68.Fig. No. 66
    • Fig. No. 67Fig. No. 687.13.4 SubtotalsMicrosoft Excel can automatically calculate subtotal and grand total values in a list.When you insert automatic subtotals, Excel outlines the list so that you can display andhide the detail rows for each subtotal.To insert subtotals, you first sort your list so that the rows you want to subtotal aregrouped together. You can then calculate subtotals for any column that contains numbers.Let us consider the list given in Fig. No. 69 for using subtotals option.Fig. No. 691. Make sure the data you want to subtotal is in list format: each column has a label in thefirst row and contains similar facts, and there are no blank rows or columns within thelist.
    • 2. Click a cell in the column to subtotal. In the example above, you’d click a cell in theItem column, say column B.3. Click Sort Ascending or Sort Descending. Let us click on to Ascending we will getthe list sorted as shown in Fig. 70.4. On the Data menu, click Subtotals.5. In the At each change in box, click the column to subtotal. In the example above,you’d click the Item column.6. In the Use function box, click the Sum function to calculate the subtotals.7. In the Add subtotal to box, select the check box for each column that contains valuesyou want to subtotal. In the example above, you’d select the Sales column.8. If you want an automatic page break after each subtotal, select the Page breakbetween groups check box.9. If you want the subtotals to appear above the subtotaled rows instead of below, clearthe Summary below data check box.10. Click OK. You will get the list as shown in Fig. 71Fig. No. 70Fig. No. 71
    • Fig. No. 727.13.5 Form: A data form is a dialog box that gives you a convenient way to enter ordisplay one complete row of information, or record, in a list at one time.Before you can use a data form to add a record to a new list, the list must have labels atthe top of each column. Microsoft Excel uses these labels to create fields on the form.Consider the work sheet shown in Fig. 73 and do the following.1. Click a cell in the list you want to add the record to.2. On the Data menu, click Form you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 74.3 Do one or more of the followinga. Add a New Recordb. Change the contents of a Recordc. Delete a RecordFig. 75 shows the addition of new record. You can find even the records in the listdepending on certain criteria. After performing the required action close the form menu.Fig. No. 73
    • Fig. No. 74Fig. No. 757.13.6 Validation: This option can be used to implement data validation feature. Let usconsider the list shown in Fig. 75 and apply data validation feature on the Date column.Follow the steps given below.1) Select the column on which you want to apply the data validation feature, then click onto Data then click on to Validation from the resulting menu, you will get a menu asshown in Fig. 76. Then select Date from Allow list box and fill in the validation criteria.It is shown in Fig. 77.2) Click on to OKFig. No. 76
    • Fig. No. 77You can even give the Input Message to be displayed when you start entering the data inthe validated cell. Follow the steps given below.1) Click on to Input Message tab on the Data Validation menu shown in Fig. 77 and inthe resulting menu enter the Title and Input Message which you want to display whileyou enter the data (It is shown inFig. 78).2) Click on to OK. Fig. 79 shows the implemented feature.Fig. No. 78Fig. No. 79You can even get the error message displayed when the wrong data is entered. Follow thesteps given below to implement this feature.1) Click on to Error Alert tab on the Data Validation menu shown in Fig. 77 and in theresulting menu select the style and enter the Title and Error Message which you want todisplay while you enter the wrong data(Fig. 80).
    • 2) Click on to OK. Fig. 81 shows the implemented feature.Fig. No. 80Fig. No. 81You can even select Warning or Information style.7.13.7 PivotTable and PivotChart Report:A PivotTable report is an interactive table or chart that quickly combines and compareslarge amounts of data. You can rotate its rows and columns to see different summaries ofthe source data, and you can display the details for areas of interest.Follow the steps given below to create these kinds of reports. Consider the list of Fig. No.69.1. Click on to Data, from the drop down menu click on to PivotTable and PivotChartReport you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 82.1. Click on to Next, from the resulting menu select range of data for which you wantcreate the report, click Next then select the option to create the report in the same worksheet or in a new worksheet, then click Finish you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 83.2. Drag the column names to the required place and the report will be ready. One suchreport is shown in Fig. 84. You can also save the report.
    • Fig. No. 82Fig. No. 83Fig. No. 84You can also create the report of different formats by changing the positions of the Fieldlists.Similarly you can also create PivotChart Report. In this case the report will be in thechart form.Self Assessment Question:1) What are criteria in Filtering?2) What are Subtotals?
    • 3) What are PivotTables and PivotChart Report?ChartsCharts are graphical representation of information. Excel has tools to draw different typescharts, they are Bar charts, Area charts, Pie charts, Line charts, Radar charts etc.To create charts consider the following example as shown figure belowFig. No. 85Follow the steps given below to create a chart1) Select the data range of which you want to create the chart as shown in the Figure 86Fig. No. 862) Click on the Chart wizard available on the Standard tool bar you will get thescreen as shown in the Figure 87.
    • Fig. No. 873) Here you can select the kind of chart you want to create. For example as shownBubble, Stock, XY etc. In the specific chart you can select Chart sub –type also. You canalso see the view of the sample chart by pressing the left mouse button and holding itdown. (Let us consider the chart selected above in the figure and discuss).4) Click on to Next you will get the screen as shown in the figure 88.Fig. No. 885) Here you can change the data range if you want (The cell range selected in the firststep can be altered). Here you can go to the previous step and can make any alterations inthe previous step.Here now you can select Series in asa) Columnsb) Rowsa) Columns:6) Click on to Next you will get the screen as shown in Figure 89
    • Fig. No. 897) You can give the title to the chart in Chart title box. For example “Sales Report ofABC Retail”. Then you can give the name to represent X axis for example Products andyou can give a name to represent Y axis for example Rupees.Fig. No. 90Chart title is the title to the chart Click on to Next you will get the screen as shown in Fig. N. 91oFig. No. 919) Now you can select the chart to be displayed in a new sheet or as an object in any ofthe sheets of the work booka. As object in Sheet: You can select it to be the object in Sheet1 or Sheet2 or Sheet3 etc.Then click on to Finish. You will get the screen as shown below.
    • Fig. No. 92b. As a new sheet: You can place the chart in a new sheet by clicking on to the radiobutton adjacent to As new sheet. You will get the figure as shown below.Fig. No. 93Note: You can observe a box containing the meaningof each color in the chart.b) Rows:
    • Fig. No. 9410) Click on to Next. On the screen you get you can give the title to the chart in Charttitle box. For example “Sales Report of ABC Retail”. Then you can give the name torepresent X axis for example “Month” in the Category (X) axis box and you can give aname to represent Y axis for example “Rupees” in Value (Y) axis box .Fig. No. 9511) Click on to Next you will get the as shown in Fig. No. 96Fig. No. 9612) Now you can select the chart to be displayed in a new sheet or as an object in any ofthe sheets of the work book
    • a. As object in Sheet: You can select it to be the object in Sheet1 or Sheet2 or Sheet3 etc.Then click on to Finish. You will get the screen as shown below.Fig. No. 98b. As a new sheet: You can place the chart in a new sheet also(explained)Fig. No. 99Note: You can observe a box containing the meaning of each color as shown in Fig. No.97 in the chart drawn.Fig. No. 97Self Assessment Question:1) What are Charts and how do you use it?Database features of Excel
    • Database is a systematic collection of data arranged in column and rows. Each row iscalled as record and column as field. This database can be quickly retrieved or sorteddepending on certain criteria. If you want to add a new field, add a column to thedatabase. If you want add a record to the database add row to it and enter the data inrespective columns.Data base is shown below.Fig. No. 100Sorting the databaseThe database can be sorted in ascending or descending order. For example if you want tosort the above shown database in alphabetical ascending order according to name fieldfollow the steps given below.1) Select the list which you want to sort in the database as shown below.Fig. No. 1012) Move the mouse pointer to Data option which is on the menu bar and click the leftmouse button. You will get a drop down menu select Sort option from it. You will get thescreen as shown below.
    • Fig. No. 1023) This menu is showing the sort options. Sort by: This option will give you the columnby which you want to sort, in this case if you want to sort according to Name column,select column C and by default radio button adjacent to Ascending is selected and if youwant to arrange the names in descending order you can select the radio button adjacent toDescending. Then by: This helps you to arrange a database in critical situations, such aswhen some details in the primary key is same. In this example Column C is called asPrimary key , because you want to sort the database by name which is in Column C.For example, if you have two same names in Column C of your data base then you canuse ‘Then by’ option to arrange them, say Column E(city). Here again you can selecteither Ascending or Descending.4) Then click OK. You will get the sorted list as shown below.Fig. No. 103Note: You have Two ‘Then by’ option you can use both to have more criteria.Example to use ‘Then by’ option:Consider the following database you have two names as Rajesh but the City to whichthey belong to is different one is belonging to Udupi and another is belonging toMangalore. So now let us see how we are using the ‘then by’ option.
    • Fig. No. 104In Sort menu select Column C in Sort by option and Column E in ‘Then by’ clause asshown an use descending as shown below.Fig. No. 105After clicking OK you will get the screen as shown below.Fig. No. 106In the above figure you can see the Rajesh whose city is Udupi is shown first and thenRajesh whose city is Mangalore because you have selected Descending option for ‘Thenby’ clause. If you would have selected Ascending option here too you would have gotRajesh whose city is Mangalore first and then Rajesh whose city is Udupi.Using the Filter option:
    • If you want to filter the data from the data base you can use the filter option. Let usconsider the database shown below and filter only those records whose city is Udupi.Follow the steps given below.Fig. No. 1071) Select the column by which you want to filter the database as shown above.2) Select Data option from the Menu bar. From the drop down menu select Filter optionthen you will get another menu select Auto filter option you will get the screen as shownbelow.Fig. No. 1083) Click at the arrow mark at the highlighted column you will get a list as shown below.Fig. No. 1094) Select Udupi from it and click on that. You will get only those records whose city isUdupi as shown below.
    • Fig. No. 110Note: You can get back all the records by again clicking at the arrow of the selectedcolumn and from the list which appears select ‘All’ you will get the original database.Now to remove the Filter selection. Select Data from Menu bar then select Filter thenselect again Auto Filter.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the use of ‘Then By’ optionSummaryInstead of using the formulas to do certain calculations functions are provided in Excel.Entering the formulas when many cells involved is difficult so functions are used.Common functions like average(), max(), min() are used find average of numeric valuesamong the range of cells, to find the largest value in the given range of cells, to find thelowest value in the given range respectively. There many functions discussed in this unit.Similarly Logical functions like if() is also used to check certain conditions and to take adecision. You can also prepare a list of commonly used words which can be used in thedifferent work sheets. Appearance and alignment of text or numbers in a cell can bechanged to suit requirement. Column width and row height can also be changed. Theappearance of the values in a cell can also be changed according to the requirement. AnExcel list or Database can be created. The database is made up of Records. The columnsare called as fields. The column heading is a field name. Each row in the list below thefield name is record. Auto filter feature of Excel helps to display the records, which meetcertain conditions. The sorting feature helps in arranging the records in a Database basedon one or more fields. The validation feature helps implement the data validation feature.Excel also has different tools to draw different types of charts; they are Bar charts, Piecharts, Line chart, Radar chart, Area chart etc.Terminal Questions1) Create a worksheet with the following detailsStudent Roll number, Student name, Student Class, Student marks in 4 different subjects.a) Calculate the total marks obtained by each studentb) Decide the result as follows
    • 2) Discuss any four functions3) Give the syntax of if(), sumif(), countif()4) What is custom list?5) What is a Database? Unit 8 MS-POWER POINT • This unit deals with the most important presentation tool Power Point. In this unit creation, editing and saving the presentation is discussed. The formatting of the slides, including the charts, pictures in slides. Making the presentation etc. are discussed.IntroductionMicrosoft PowerPoint is a most widely used utility to create presentation relating to products,organization, research papers etc. This presentation can be created at ease and with immensespeed. This is effective software, which provides techniques for designing the dynamicpresentations. Using this software a slide can be designed, text can be inserted, graphics can beinserted and animation can be given to the slides and the objects within the slide.ObjectivesTo understand • How to start MS- Power Point • Parts of Power Point Window • Creation of Power Point presentation • Saving the Power Point presentation • Including Chart in a slide • Importing Datasheet from a file • Formatting the Slides • Slide transitions • Different views of the presentation
    • 8.2 Starting of Microsoft PowerPointFollowing steps are undertaken to start Microsoft PowerPoint 1. Move the mouse pointer over the Start button present on the extreme left of the task bar and then click the left mouse button. A push up menu appears. 2. Place the Mouse pointer over the Program option inside the push up menu. A second menu gets displayed immediately. 3. Move the mouse pointer over Microsoft PowerPoint option and click the left mouse button. You will get the screen as shown below Fig 1. 4. You can create a new presentation by one of the methods given below. a) AutoContent Wizard b) Design Template c) Blank presentation Each of this presentation method can be selected using the radio button adjacent to each of them. Or You can open an existing presentation.Let us consider Blank Presentation:You can create a blank presentation by clicking on OK of the below shown menu asalready radio button next to Blank presentation is selected.
    • Fig. 1After following the above mentioned steps you will get a screen as shown below Fig. 2.Different parts of the following figure is given belowParts of Power Point Window
    • Fig. 2 1. Title Bar – Display the application name, file name and various window controlled like minimize button, maximize button and close button. 2. Menu Bar – Different options for selection. 3. Standard tool bar – Displayed by default, allows to give common commands like saving the file, opening a file, printing etc. 4. Formatting toolbar – allows the user to give commands related to formatting cells and cell contents like Bold, Underline, Font Style, Font Size, Color etc. 5. The drawing palette: This is used to draw different shapes. 6. View bar: This is used to change the view of the screen.Creation of PowerPoint presentationSlide Layouts:Each PowerPoint presentation can have only one slide or it can have more than one slide.Each of these slides can have it’s own page layout associated with it in the presentation.The page layout decides the position of the various objects like text, picture etc. in theslide. Page layout also specifies the appearance of the text like it’s style, color, size etc.PowerPoint provides 24 different types of page layouts along with a blank page.
    • Steps to create Power Point presentation follow the given steps to create thePowerPoint presentation: 1. Select the slide layout by moving the mouse pointer over the required lay out and click the left mouse button, then click on OK or you can cancel the selection by clicking on to Cancel.Fig. 3Each of these layouts has different names like Title slide, Bulleted List, Table,Organization chart etc. as discussed earlier 24 different layouts are available. On thescreen 12 layouts are visible use scroll bar to see the other layouts.The above selected lay out has the name Bulleted List. On clicking OK you will get thescreen as shown below.
    • Fig. 4 2) To add text to the upper box as given in the box Click the mouse pointer inside the box. Now you can type any text you want. Say for example Sikkim Manipal University. 3) Now to add text to the lower box click inside that box and start typing the text you want to add. You will get the screen as shown below in Fig. 5. 4) Save this presentation. Use Save icon of Standard tool bar or File option of Menu bar. While saving give the name for the presentation. 5) To view the slide show Click on to Slide Show option which is on the Menu bar. You will get a drop down menu. Click on to View Show you will get the slide show presented on the screen Fig. 6.Note: Press function key F5 to see the slide show instead of step 5. To come back fromthe slide show to the PowerPoint menu press Esc key.
    • Fig. 5Fig. 6Adding more slides to an existing presentation:Consider the presentation already created above and follow the steps given below to add moreslides to an existing presentation. 1. Be in the above-created presentation (Fig. 5), Click on to Insert option on the Menu bar. From the drop down menu Click on to New Slide option. Or Press Ctrl and M simultaneously being in the above-created presentation (Fig 5).
    • Or Click on to New slide icon which is on the Standard tool bar being in the above created presentation (Fig 5). 2. You will get the slide layout menu and now you can select a required layout for the slide and enter the text in the slide. Let us assume that we have selected table layouts. It is shown in Fig. 7.Fig. 73) Now Click on OK you will get the screen as shown in Fig. 8.4) Now you can add title in the upper box.5) Now double click on to the lower box. You will get a menu as shown in
    • Fig. 8Fig. 9 6) Here you select the number of rows and columns you want in the table by using small arrows present adjacent to Number of columns and Number of rows box. Then Click which is present in the Insert Table menu. You will get the screen as shown in Fig. 10.
    • Fig. 107) Now you can enter the contents in this table as shown in Fig.11Fig. 11 Save the presentation.9) Run the slide show by pressing F5.Note: When you press F5 it will show the first slide now to go to the second slide pressspace bar key of the keyboard.
    • To add a slide with picture for the existing presentation:Consider the presentation already created above and follow the steps given below to add moreslides to an existing presentation. 1) Be in the above-created presentation (Fig. 11), Click on to Insert option on the Menu bar. From the drop down menu Click on to New Slide option.Or Press Ctrl and M simultaneously being in the above-created presentation (Fig 11).Or Click on to New slide icon which is on the Standard tool bar being in the above created presentation (Fig 11). 2) You will get the slide layout menu and now you can select a required layout for the slide and enter the text and picture in the slide. Let us assume that we have selected layout as shown in fig. 12.Fig. 123) Now click on OK you will get the screen as shown in Fig 13.
    • Fig. 13 4) Add Title to the slide and add text at the left hand box shown. 5) To add the picture at the right box follow the steps given below. a) Double click as instructed in the box, you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 14. b) Now you can select any of the titles among the available ones as shown in Fig 14. For example we have selected “Academic”. Again you will get a menu, Fig. 15, which contains different pictures. Now click on the picture you want to insert and Click on to OK on that menu you will get the slide as shown in Fig 16. c) Save the presentation as discussed earlier.
    • Fig. 14Fig. 15
    • Fig. 16Note: To insert the picture from a file, 1) Execute the step (a) of the above steps. 2) Clickon to Import Clips item you will get Fig.17.
    • Fig. 17 3) Select the file from where you want to insert the file. You can select required drive and required folder. 4) Click on to Import item. You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 18.Fig. 18 5) Click on to OK you will get the menu as shown in Fig. 19.
    • Fig. 19 6) Click on OK you will get the picture inserted in the box of the slide.Self Assessment Question: 1) What are Power Point Presentations? Why they are used? 2) Explain the steps in creating a Power Point presentation.Save the Power Point presentationWe can Save the files in different ways which are discussed in other applications likeMS-Word, MS-Excel etc. The procedure is same.Even performing the tasks like opening of an exiting presentation, or closing apresentation without saving it, is also similar to the process carried out in otherapplications. So you can follow the same procedure.Note: The default extension used for the power point presentation file is pptTo include a chart in the slide follow the steps given below:
    • 1) Follow the steps to insert a New slide as explained earlier and select the chart lay out as shown in Fig. 20 and click OK.Fig. 20 1. Add title to the slide. For example Admission chart. 2. Double click at the chart area, you will get default chart. To have your data you can edit the data sheet according to your needs.
    • Fig. 21: Data sheet is edited 1. You can change the type of the plot, style etc. Right click on to the chart area and edit it.You can import a data sheet from a file for example from Excel. To do so, follow thesteps given below. 1) Double click at the chart area, you will get default chart. Click on to the Import File icon present on the standard tool bar and select the data sheet, which you want to import, according to which you want to draw the chart. 2) You can change the type of the plot, style etc. To do so, right click on to the chart area and edit it.Fig. 22Self Assessment Question:1) How do you import a Data Sheet from Excel?Formating Options
    • Font Style: Font style of the text can be changed by selecting the text of which you want tochange the font style and clicking on to the required font style icon available on the formattingtool bar. Fig. 23 shows the selection of the text. (take the cursor on character say “C” of “CourseDetails” and hold down the left mouse button and drag the mouse till “s” and release the leftmouse button Fig. 23).Fig. 23Similarly Font and their Size can be changed. Select the text and use the required icons respectively.Aligning text: After selecting the text, use required icons depending on whetheryou want to Align the text Left, Center or Right respectively.To have Numbers or Bullets use the following icons respectively.Background of the slides:The background of the slides can be changed according to our needs to give an attractivelook to the slide. Follow the steps given below to change the Background of the slide. 1. Click on to Format option on the menu bar. From the drop down menu click on the Background option. You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 24.
    • Fig. 24 2. To select the required Background click on the arrow mark as shown above. You will get different colors on the resulting menu as shown in Fig. 25, select the required color for the Background. For example assume that you have selected Grey color as Background color then you will get the color applied to the sample slide in the menu as shown in Fig. 26.Fig. 25
    • Fig. 26 1. You can apply this Background color to all the slides in the presentation by selecting Apply to All option or you can select Apply option to apply the Background color only to the current slide in the presentation. Or you can cancel this menu by clicking on the Cancel option. You can click on to Preview option to see the new Background color on the slide without actually applying it to the slide and if you did not like it you can select a different Background color. Note: *All the options discussed above are available in Menu shown in Fig. 24. *Current slide is the slide, which is highlighted when you have selected the Format option of Menu bar. Fig. 27 shows the application of the Background color to one slide.Fig. 27
    • More Colors: If you are not satisfied with the available colors, then you can click on toMore colors option. This option is available in menu shown in Fig. 25. You will get amenu as shown in Fig. 28.Fig. 28Now select the required color by clicking on your required color, you will get the displayof your selected color in the box titled “New” at the right bottom corner of the menu asshown in Fig. 29. Now click OK. You will get the Color applied on sample slide asshown in Fig. 30 and now you can apply this color to all the slides or current slide.
    • Fig. 29Fig. 30Fill Effects: You can have different kinds of Background color fill effects. Follow thesteps given below. 1. After selecting the required colors click on the arrow as shown in Fig. 30. In the resulting menu select Fill Effects as shown in Fig. 31. You will get a menu as shown in Fig. 32.
    • Fig. 31 2. You can use Gradient according to your taste Fig. 32 3. You can select the Texture Fig. 33 4. You can select Pattern Fig. 34 5. You can select Picture Fig 35Fig. 32
    • Fig. 33Fig. 34
    • Fig. 35Note: Try all the options.Applying Design Templates: You canapply different design templates to the slides to improve the appearance of the slides. Todo so, follow the steps given below. 1. Click on to Format option present in the Menu bar you will get the screen as shown in Fig. 36. Fig. 36
    • 1. Click on Apply Design Template option of the drop down menu. You will get another menu as shown in Fig. 37 2. You can select any of the templates available in the list by clicking on it and clicking on the Apply option in that menu. The template will be applied on the slides of the presentation. You can also cancel this menu By clicking Cancel option present. Note: Right side box present in the Apply Design Template menu (Fig. 37) will display the application of the selected Design Template on the sample slide; so by looking at that you can choose the correct template.Example: Let us select Fire Ball design template Fig. 38 and apply it to the slides Fig.39.Fig. 37
    • Fig. 38Fig. 39Self Assessment Question:1) What do you mean by Background of a slide and how do you change it?2) What are design templates?
    • Slide TransitionDuring the slide show if you want to give different kinds of transition to the slides followthe steps given below. 1. Click on to Slide Show option present on the Menu bar you will get a drop down menu as shown in Fig. 40. 2. Click on to Slide Transition option you will get a menu as shown in Fig. 41. This menu has different options let us see each of these options. a) Effect: By default it is No Transition. You can select different kinds of effects for transition by clicking on the arrow as shown in Fig. 41 and clicking on the required effect. The effect of your selection is shown in the box of the menu immediately (Fig. 41). The effect can be made Slow, Medium or Fast. b) Advance: This is used to move from one slide to another slide in a presentation during slide show. You can select the option On mouse click or Automatically after. You can select both the options also. (Fig. 41) On mouse click: When you select this option you are required click the mouse button to advance to the next slide. Automatically after: When you select this option after certain amount of time as you have selected, the next slide will be displayed on the screen. When you select both the options, the slides will be advanced either by mouse click or automatically whichever is first. c) Sound: You can select different kinds of sounds during the appearance of the slide. To do so click at the sound option of Slide Transition menu and select the required type of sound (Fig. 41). Note: Now you can apply this Slide Transition feature to all the slides(Apply to All) of the presentation or the current slide (Apply). You can also cancel the menu (Cancel) Fig.41.
    • Fig. 40
    • Fig. 41Fig. 42 Application of different transition featuresSelf Assessment Question:1) What do you mean by Slide Transition feature? How do you apply it?Different views of the presentationYou can have the different views of your presentation.
    • Fig. 43: Normal view1. Normal View: Click on this you will get normal view.2. Outline View: Click on this to get Outline view as shown Fig. 44
    • Fig. 443. Slide View: Click on this to get a view as shown in Fig. 45.
    • Fig. 454. Slide Sorter view: Click on this to get the view as shown in Fig. 46Fig. 465. Slide show: This takes you to the slide show.SummaryPower Point provides 24 different types of page layouts along with a blank page. APower Point presentation can include one or more slides. You can even add more slidesto the existing presentation. The default extension used for the Power Point presentationfile is ppt. A chart can be included in a slide. A Data sheet can also be imported from afile say from Excel. The appearance of the text in the slides can be changed to suit therequirement. Attractive looks can be given to slides by changing the Background. Youcan also have the required kind of transitions for the slides in the Power Pointpresentations.Terminal Questions1) Explain different basic parts of Power Point Window.2) Discuss slide transition3) What are the different views of presentation?
    • Unit 9 Multimedia • Different components of multimedia are discussed in this unit. The application of multimedia the advantages of multimedia are also included in this unitIntroductionTechnology has grown in such a way that it has touched almost every industry. It hasbecome vital to advertise your products, and services to the world at large and theelectronic media has become larger than all other prevailing media like newsprint,television, radio, movies etc.Multi Media makes electronic advertising as interesting as the television and movies byincorporating sound and video clips into the computer presentation.People communicate with each other through different mediums; verbally, visually andsometime using symbols. The word Multi Media simply means being able tocommunicate in more than one way for better communication. Thus execution of text,sound, graphics and animation simultaneously is Multi Media. Hence the basiccomponents of Multi Media are text, sound, graphics and video. A Multi Media basedcomputer must have all the necessary hardware and software required to combinethese components. For example, sound requires an additional add-on card the ’soundcard’ and additional software called drivers, which recognize and allow the usage of thesound card. To this sound card speakers can be connected. This sound card may be anadd on card or it may be built within the computer motherboard.A computer with Multi Media can do many things:1) It can produce large amount of textual information2) It can recreate and remix the sounds of musical instruments.3) It can play back recorded sounds. Like playing the songs etc.4) It can show pictures and movies on the monitor.All the multimedia information can be stored in any of the secondary devices like CD,Hard disks, and Floppy disks etc.Objectives:To Understand • What is multimedia • What a computers with multimedia can do
    • • Which computers can have multimedia • Animation • Sound Card • Multimedia ApplicationsWhich computers can have Multi Media?Any modern day computer can have multimedia. To have multimedia they must have asound card. Since most of the multi media information are in Compact Disk a CompactDisk drive. Sufficient RAM. A graphic accelerator card if required to produce goodquality of pictures with a faster rate without making the much use of the CPU time.Color monitor or a monitor, which support graphics with proper graphics adapter.Speakers to have the sound heard to all around. Instead of speakers you can even haveheadphones so that others need not be disturbed. A microphone can also be used to recordsomething.The Computers can be used to present text, graphics, video, animation and sound inintegration. Long touted as the future revolution in computing, multimedia applicationswere, until the mid-90s, uncommon due to the expensive hardware required. Withincreases in performance and decreases in price, however, multimedia is nowcommonplace. Nearly all PCs are capable of displaying video, though the resolutionavailable depends on the power of the computer’s video adapter and CPU.Self Assessment Question:1) What are the components a Computer must have to run Multimedia?TextWords, sentences, paragraphs. This book, for example, consists of text. Text processingrefers to the ability to manipulate words, lines, and pages. Typically, the term text refersto text stored as ASCII codes (that is, without any formatting). Objects that are not textinclude graphics, numbers (if they’re not stored as ASCII characters), and program code.GraphicsRefers to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displayingand manipulating pictures. The term also refers to the images themselves. For example,laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit the computer tooutput pictures. A graphics monitor is a display monitor that can display pictures. Agraphics board (or graphics card) is a printed circuit board that, when installed in acomputer, permits the computer to display pictures.Many software applications include graphics components. Such programs are said tosupport graphics. For example, certain word processors support graphics because they let
    • you draw or import pictures. All CAD/CAM systems support graphics. Some databasemanagement systems and spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let youdisplay data in the form of graphs and charts. Such applications are often referred to asbusiness graphics.The following are also considered graphics applications:Paint programs: Allow you to create rough freehand drawings. The images are stored asbit maps and can easily be edited.Illustration/design programs: Supports more advanced features than paint programs,particularly for drawing curved lines. The images are usually stored in vector-basedformats. Illustration/design programs are often called draw programs.Presentation graphics software: Lets you create bar charts, pie charts, graphics, andother types of images for slide shows and reports. The charts can be based on dataimported from spreadsheet applications.Animation software: Enables you to chain and sequence a series of images to simulatemovement. Each image is like a frame in a movie.CAD software: Enables architects and engineers to draft designs.Desktop publishing: Provides a full set of word-processing features as well as finecontrol over placement of text and graphics, so that you can create newsletters,advertisements, books, and other types of documents.In general, applications that support graphics require a powerful CPU and a large amountof memory. Many graphics applications – for example, computer animation systems –require more computing power than is available on personal computers and will run onlyon powerful workstations or specially designed graphics computers. This is true of allthree-dimensional computer graphics applications.In addition to the CPU and memory, graphics software requires a graphics monitor andsupport for one of the many graphics standards Most PC programs, for instance, requireVGA graphics. If your computer does not have built-in support for a specific graphicssystem, you can insert a video adapter card.The quality of most graphics devices is determined by their resolution – how many pointsper square inch they can represent – and their color capabilities.Self Assessment Question:1) What are graphic applications?Video
    • A recording produced with a video recorder (camcorder) or some other device thatcaptures full motion.AnimationA simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames. Cartoonson television are one example of animation. Animation on computers is one of the chiefingredients of multimedia presentations. There are many software applications thatenable you to create animations that you can display on a computer monitor.Note the difference between animation and video. Whereas video takes continuousmotion and breaks it up into discrete frames, animation starts with independent picturesand puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion.IntegratedA popular computer buzzword that refers to two or more components merged togetherinto a single system. For example, any software product that performs more than one taskcan be described as integrated.Increasingly, the term integrated software is reserved for applications that combine wordprocessing, database management, spreadsheet functions, and communications into asingle package.ApplicationA program or group of programs designed for end users. Software can be divided intotwo general classes: systems software and applications software. Systems softwareconsists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. Thisincludes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resourcesIn contrast, applications software (also called end-userprograms) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Figurativelyspeaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to runwithout the operating system and system utilities.HardwareRefers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens,keyboards, printers, boards, and chips,. In contrast, software is untouchable. Softwareexists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance.Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words,sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer withoutsoftware is like a book full of blank pages — you need software to make the computeruseful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.
    • Sound CardAn expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds. Soundcards are necessary for nearly all CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modernpersonal computers. Sound cards enable the computer to output sound through speakersconnected to the board, to record sound input from a microphone connected to thecomputer, and manipulate sound stored on a disk.Nearly all-sound cards support MIDI, a standard for representing music electronically. Inaddition, most sound cards are Sound Blaster-compatible, which means that they canprocess commands written for a Sound Blaster card, the de facto standard for PC sound.Sound cards use two basic methods to translate digital data into analog sounds:FM Synthesis mimics different musical instruments according to built-in formulas.Wavetable Synthesis relies on recordings of actual instruments to produce sound.Wavetable synthesis produces more accurate sound, but is also more expensive.Graphics Accelerator CardA type of video adapter that contains its own processor to boost performance levels.These processors are specialized for computing graphical transformations, so theyachieve better results than the general-purpose CPU used by the computer. In addition,they free up the computer’s CPU to execute other commands while the graphicsaccelerator is handling graphics computations.The popularity of graphical applications, and especially multimedia applications, hasmade graphics accelerators not only a common enhancement, but a necessity. Mostcomputer manufacturers now bundle a graphics accelerator with their mid-range andhigh-end systemsAside from the graphics processor used, the other characteristics that differentiategraphics accelerators are:MemoryGraphics accelerators have their own memory, which is reserved for storing graphicalrepresentations. The amount of memory determines how much resolution and howmany colors can be displayed. Some accelerators use conventional DRAM, but othersuse a special type of video RAM (VRAM), which enables both the video circuitry and theprocessor to simultaneously access the memory.Bus
    • Each graphics accelerator is designed for a particular type of video bus. As of 1995, mostare designed for the PCI bus.RegisterwidthThe wider the register, the more data the processor can manipulate with eachinstruction. 64-bit accelerators are already becoming common, and we can expect 128-bit accelerators in the near future.Video Capture CardConverting analog video signals, such as those generated by a video camera, into a digitalformat and then storing the digital videoon a computer’s mass storage device. Video capture from analog devices requires aspecial video capture card that converts the analog signals into digital form andcompresses the data. There are also digital video devices that can capture images andtransfer them to a computer via a standard serial or parallel interface.Multimedia applicationMulti media technology has a lot of potential and can be used in a variety of sectorsEducation, Entertainment, Simulation etc.EntertainmentMany software are developed on lots of real life like games by including text, graphics,sound and animation. Virtual reality has made computer games more adventurous. MultiMedia games allow children to experience the joy of driving cars of different type andmodel, ride motor bikes, fly aircraft, play any musical instrument, play golf, play cards,play some concentration improving games and so on. Many movies also incorporateanimation to have good effects. With animation you can get real time effect in movies.These animations are mostly used in English Movies.Education and TrainingMulti Media software with a focus on education is available. Few subjects can be taughtusing CD’s for example Windows98 tour etc. Virtual reality has been used in simulators,which creates a real life imaging. Showing of carrying out an experiment of Physics,Chemistry etc. These are used in training centers. In Air force or Air training institutescandidates are trained to control an aircraft using flight simulators.Medical colleges use to train students perform operation on a non-existing human being,instead of taking risk on a living human being.
    • CommerceMany advertisements and corporate presentation incorporating Multi Media videoconferencing are created. Many advertisements are created using computer animation tohave a real time effect.Self Assessment Question: 1) How Multimedia can be used in Education sector to impart knowledge in a efficient way?SummaryMulti Media means being able to communicate in more than one way for bettercommunication. The execution of text, sound graphics and animation simultaneously iscalled as Multimedia. To have multimedia in a computer they must have a sound card,proper graphics adapter. Speakers to have the sound heard all around. A microphone canalso be used to record something.Multimedia technology has a lot of potential and can be used in a variety of sectorsEducation, Entertainment, Commerce etc.Terminal Questions 1) What is a Sound card? How important it is in Multimedia along with Graphics card? 2) Discuss the application of Multimedia. Unit 10 Internet • The basic terminologies related to Internet are discussed in this Unit. Different Internet tools, connected to Internet, search engines etc are also dealt with in this unit.IntroductionInternet is a network of computers and related devices, a mechanism to transfer data fromone computer to the other computers. In a nutshell the Internet can be defined as a global
    • “Network of Networks.” Internet means an Interconnection of Networks. Internet hasmade the globe a small village.Internet is popularly known as “Net”. Internet is a huge repository of information onalmost every topic imaginable. People all over the world can search the net forinformation; add new information and exchange views on different topics. The Internet isan electronic web that connects people and businesses that have access to networks andallows them to send and receive E-mail and to participate in a number of other activities,around the clock. In fact, the Internet is so huge, with a wide variety of features in it.ObjectivesTo Understand • What is Internet • Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet • Different Internet tools • File transfer protocols, Gopher • E-mail, telnet, Usenet • World Wide Web • Information Search tools • Web Browser, Web page, Web site • Internet Service Provider • Connecting and disconnecting to Internet • Search enginesAdvantages of Internet • Reaches potential customers in a quick and inexpensive manner. • To sell products and services online • Leverage advertising and promotion expenses • Reduce customer servicing costs • Improve public relations. • Streamline information distribution to employees. • Test market new services and products, conduct market research. • Tip specialized markets internationally • Making business information available • Selling Products and services • Business round the clock • Quick information updates • Feedback • Enhancing customer service. • Research activities can be carried out • Education • Banking • Communication (e-mails and telephony)
    • Disadvantage of InternetOne of the main disadvantages of Internet is its inadequate security. The dishonest peoplecan misuse the vast information available on the net. The net can even be used for theunproductive use.Internet toolsInternet has many popular tools, which is used to make the efficient use of the Net. • Information retrieval tools • Communication tools • Multimedia Information tools • Information search toolsInformation retrieval tools:File transfer protocol (ftp):This tool allows user to move files, such as text, graphics, sound etc. from one computerto another. This works on the basis of client-server architecture. The user first uses thesoftware on his/her machine, called client (client means requester of a service), to gainaccess to the remote machine called as server( server means provider of the service). Theusers client program communicates with a program on the remote computer to upload(send) or down load (receive) certain requested files from it.Gopher: This is menu-based interface that provides easy access to information residingon servers. By selecting an item on the Gopher menu, users can move, retrieve or displayfiles from remote sites.Communication tools:E-mail: Electronic mail is a fast, easy and economical way to send messageselectronically to anyone having an Internet account. Through this most widely usedfeature on Internet you can exchange messages with your family, friends and businessassociates around the world. Along with the messages, one can also send pictures, audioand animation. Even in an organization it is possible to implement the E-mail facility.E-mail uses a protocol called as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive themessages.To send and receive e-mails you are required to have an e-mail id. You can have your e-mail id’s from e-mail service providers like yahoo, rediff, hotmail, gmail etc. You neednot have to pay any amount to these e-mail service providers if you are using the limitedsecondary storage offered by them. But if you want more space then you are required topay some amount to these e-mail service providers. For the common users the free space
    • provided by these e-mail service providers is sufficient. To send the mail to other personyou should have your mail id and you must know the mail id of the person to whom youwant to send the mail and the Internet connectionFor example a user’s E-mail id will look like this vish_pai@yahoo.comTelnet: This is a protocol which is used to establish an on line connection with theremote machine and this protocol is implemented with a software. Then the user cancommunicate with the remote machine. The user can type commands for the remotemachine from his machine and get the response on his machine.Usenet: This is a worldwide network that provides forum to discuss on specific topics. Auser can post an article to a chosen newsgroup on the Usenet, where each newsgroup isdevoted to particular topics such as computers, politics, economics etc. The articles aresent only to those sites, which have an interest in receiving the information on the topic.People interested in a particular topic can subscribe to that newsgroup. Each articleposted to a news group is delivered to all subscribers of that group.For example a news group may discuss the technical problems related to computernetworks. A subscriber may discuss a problem and ask solution from other subscribers.His message is sent to all the subscribers of that group and whoever wants to givesolution can give it and again this solution is sent to all the subscribers of that newsgroup.Multimedia Information tools:WWW: World Wide Web this is hypertext based application which will allow toretrieve the document, audio and video from the interlinked web pages. These interlinkedpages may be spread across different servers. The user can click on to a link and getrequired information.Each Web page is document created using HTML tags, XML etc. One Web page may belinked to another Web page. Thus the interlinked web pages form a Web site. These linksare known as hyperlinks.Example of web site name:www.manipalu.com this is called as URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the site.Home page of a website is the first page displayed when you go to a web site. Thisgenerally contains the contents of whole site. By clicking on to the required content youcan reach the web page which has information about that content.Information Search Tools:These are the tools used to search particular information on Internet. It can be file, data or website.
    • Self Assessment Question:1) How Internet is useful in day to day life?Web BrowserThis is a software, which acts as an interface between the user and the Internet. This isused to navigate through the web site. When you click on to a hyper link it will fetch youthe information present in the linked page.Browsers have numerous features, which make the navigation of web site easier. It hasthe features like going to the previous page, going to the next page or going directly tothe home page of the site. Pages can also be saved on to the disk or printed. Many optionsare also available to control the screen layout and user preferences.Example for Browsers: Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator etc.Thus without the Browser one can not browse or surf the Internet.Hardware and Software to make the connectionHardware: Computer with a faster CPU, Sound Card, minimum 32 MB RAM, a pair of speakers,headset, Microphone and Modem. If the RAM is increased then the Internet access will befaster.Software: Operating systems like Windows 98/XP/2000/2003, Linux, and NovellNetware etc. with a browser software like Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator etc.What is a Web Page?Web page is a document created using HTML, XML etc. These can contain text, images,sound and videos.What is a Web Site?Website is a vast network of web pages. This is referred by some domain name for examplewww.mgmudupi.orgWho is an Internet Service Provider (ISP)?ISP is an organization with whose help we can get connected to the Internet. For example BSNL,Satyam etc.Where are the websites placed?Web sites are placed in a computer, which is accessible to public all the time. These machinesare called as servers. That is whenever you want to access a particular web site your request is
    • routed to the server on which that particular web site is placed (hosted) and the serverprocesses your request and the response is sent to your machine. We have Internet ServiceProviders (ISP) to provide us connection to the Internet.What are the search engines?These are the sites through which one can search the Internet for the information on a specifictopic. The popular search engines are google.com, msn etc.What are the prerequisites to have a connection to Internet? • Have an Internet accountOne can obtain an Internet account from ISP’s like BSNL, Air Tel, Satyam etc. • Create a tool to connect to ISPFollow the steps given below to create Connection tool to ISP. 1) Double click on to My Computer icon available on the desktop of the computer 2) In the resulting menu double click on to Dial-Up Networking as shown in Fig. 1Fig. 1 3) In the resulting menu double click on to Make New Connection as shown in Fig. 2 and follow the wizards and you can have a tool to connect to your ISP.Fig. 2How to connect to the Internet?Once the tool to connect to your ISP is ready, you have to enter your user name, password givenby the ISP and telephone number of ISP and click on to Connect as shown in Fig. 3. Once you getconnected to the ISP you can access Internet. Make sure that the telephone line is connected toyour modem and modem is switched on.
    • Fig. 3Nowadays instead of Dial up most of the people are using Broadband connectivitybecause it is faster. The Internet Service Providers (ISP) like BSNL, Air Tel etc, willprovide this connectivity.How to access the (surf) Internet?To start using the Internet, double click the mouse pointer on the blue esymbol on the desktop. This will start the Internet Explorer.If you learn just a few basic things about browsing the Web, such as how to use the buttons onthe Internet Explore (IE) toolbar, you’ll find that browsing the web is very easy.A page known as Home page appears on your screen when you start the InternetExplorer.If the default Home page is already set in as say for example www.manipalu.com thenwhenever you start with Internet Explorer you will get the home page of the sitewww.manipalu.com. You can even set it as blank also so that each time you start InternetExplorer you will get blank page and in the address bar of the Internet Explorer you cantype the URL of the site which you want to visit. Fig 4 shows that, you have given theaddress of the Home page as www.manipalu.com.
    • Fig. 4You can get into here by right clicking the mouse button on IE and then click on toInternet Properties option. You can notice that at the Address space we have givenwww.manipalu.com.If you want to visit some other web site say www.mgmudupi,org you should click theStop button present on the IE menu. And enter www.mgmudupi,org at the address barand click on the Gobutton or press Enter key. Now you will get the home page of www.mgmudupi,org asshown in Fig 5.
    • Fig. 5While your request to access a web site is being processed you can click minimize button and the minimized page sits on the task bar and again double click on . Nowtype the address of the web site you want to access say www.google.com. on the addressBar and click on the Go button. Now to go back to the previous web site that iswww.mgmudupi.org, minimize the current page and click the minimized page from thetask bar. Like this you can open up many web sites at a time and switch between them.To end the browsing session click on the Closebutton.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the different components of IE which is useful in Browsing?Link from one page to another
    • You can see whether an item on a page is a link by moving the mouse pointer over theitem. If the pointer changes to a hand shape, it means that the item is a link, a picture, a 3-d image or coloured text (usually underlined). If you click on to the link then that pagerelated to the link will be displayed on your screen. These links are called as hyperlinks.You can see the Home page of www.manipalu.com as shown in Fig. 6Fig. 6As shown in the diagram you can see the Hyperlink for the topic Distance Learning asshown in Fig. 7
    • Fig. 7When you clicked on to the SMU link from the Distance Learning link you will get thepage as shown in Fig. 8
    • Buttons to browse a Web Site in IE :Go or Enter : To start accessing a web site after typing the address of the web site onthe address bar click the Go button or press Enter key.Address Bar : To go to a Web page, type the internet address – for example,www.mgmudupi.org in the address bar, and then click the Go button.Back : To return to the last page you viewed, click the Back button.
    • Forward : To view a page you viewed before clicking the Back button, click theForward button.Last few pages: To see a list of the last few pages you visited, click the small downarrow beside the Back or Forward buttonHome : To return to the page that appears each time you start Internet Explorer, clickthe Home button.Favorites: To select a Web page from you list of favorites, click the Favorites button.History : To select a web page from the list of those you visited recently, click theHistory button. The history list also displays previously viewed files and folders on yourcomputer.Search : Click the search button to find a web page containing specific information,you can fill in the item to be searched in the box provided and again click searchMinimise Button : you can click Minimise Button to minimize a pageClose Button : To end the browsing session, click the Close button.What to do if a Web page isn’t workingStop : If a page you are trying to view is taking too long to open, click the Stopbutton.Refresh : If you get a message that a Web page cannot be displayed, or you want tomake sure you have the latest version of the page, click the Refresh button.How to disconnect from Internet?
    • Double Click on to the Internet Connection icon present at the status bar. You will get adialog box as shown in figure 9 now click on to the Disconnect option and the Internetwill be disconnected.SummaryInternet is interconnection between different networks. There are lot of advantages anddisadvantages of Internet. But we are looking at the positive part of it. Internet has madethe World a global village. Different tools like Information retrieval tools,Communication tools, Multimedia Information tools, Information Search tools areavailable. File transfer protocols are used to move files from one place to another. e-mailshave become the fastest and efficient, economical communication tool. World Wide Webis hypertext based application which will allow retrieving the document, audio and videofrom the interlinked Web pages. Web Browser is software which acts as an Interfacebetween the user and Internet. ISP’s are the organization which help you get connected toInternet.Terminal Questions1) Discuss getting connected to Internet2) Discuss different Internet tools
    • 3) Definea) Web Pageb) Web Sitec) Web Browserd) Search enginese) Internet Service Provider References : 1. V. Rajaraman “Fundamentals of Computers” 2. P. K. Sinha “Computer Fundamentals” 3. Sanjay Saxena “MS Office 2000 (and Above Edition) For everyone ” Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. 4. Microsoft Office Product Mannual 5. Suresh K. Basandra “Computers Today “