Introduction to Information Technology                                       E-528-529, sector-7,                         ...
Introduction to Information Technology      high grades thus ensuring that they are well placed in life.  •   Students are...
Introduction to Information Technology                      Karnataka State Open University(KSOU) was established on 1st J...
Introduction to Information Technology                             Unit1 Computer Fundamentals   •   This unit deals with ...
Introduction to Information TechnologyThe tool known as ABACUS was the age-old tool used by man to count and calculatewas ...
Introduction to Information Technologylot of heat and occupied a large amount of space. These machines used machine andass...
Introduction to Information Technology2) Give example for first generation computersClassification of ComputersComputers a...
Introduction to Information TechnologyNow you can even get computers which can be placed on you palm hence the name PalmTo...
Introduction to Information Technologythe screen follows the movements of the mouse; rolling the mouse left moves the poin...
Introduction to Information Technology               This is another kind of Input device used to play computer games, whi...
Introduction to Information TechnologyMagnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR): This is a device that identifies a characterth...
Introduction to Information Technology1) Impact Printers 2) Non Impact PrintersImpact Printers:These printers print by str...
Introduction to Information TechnologyInk-jet Printers: These printers print characters by spraying electrically charged i...
Introduction to Information TechnologyArithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out thea...
Introduction to Information TechnologyThis is the permanent memory. The data stored in it is permanent. But you can delete...
Introduction to Information Technology                                Optical disks:These disks are different from the mag...
Introduction to Information Technologytransported across a set of magnetic heads and is taken up on another spool. Between...
Introduction to Information Technology· Machine level language· Assembly level language· High level language· Fourth gener...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFORTRAN: Formula Translation, this language is more suited for science, engineeringa...
Introduction to Information TechnologyRelational Database Management System (RDBMS) to store, retrieve, manipulate and tog...
Introduction to Information Technology· Single User: Only one user can access the machine at a time on which this kind ofo...
Introduction to Information Technologyother place computers will do not entries atomically. For example when a sale bill i...
Introduction to Information Technology2) With the block diagram explain the organization of Computers3) Discuss the Advant...
Introduction to Information TechnologyIt is necessary to learn only the 10 basic numerals and the positional notational sy...
Introduction to Information TechnologyIt is necessary to establish a procedure for subtracting a larger digit from a small...
Introduction to Information TechnologyBinary Division:Binary division is, like any number system is very simple.0÷1=01÷1=1...
Introduction to Information TechnologyConversion from Decimal Numbers to BinaryMany methods are available for converting a...
Introduction to Information TechnologyThus 0.875 decimal is represented by 0.111 binary. A much simpler method for longerf...
Introduction to Information Technologyand if the switch for the sign bit is closed, the number represented by the seven sw...
Introduction to Information Technology00101 1 00101Carry is droppedExample 210110 10110– 01110 = + 1001001000 1 01000Carry...
Introduction to Information TechnologyThe following table gives the combinations of input and the output for each of theco...
Introduction to Information Technology0       1       01       1       1In the above table X and Y are the Inputs and Z is...
Introduction to Information Technologyis used in the binary number system as in the decimal system. In the same manner asd...
Introduction to Information Technology                        Unit 3 Introduction to Operating Systems   •   In this unit ...
Introduction to Information TechnologyExamples for operating systems are Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows XP,Micros...
Introduction to Information Technologyb) Single user, Multi-tasking: This is the type of operating system most people use ...
Introduction to Information Technologyother. Some priority can also be set to some jobs so that they can be taken up early...
Introduction to Information TechnologyThis is another operating system brought out by Microsoft for desktop machines.Windo...
Introduction to Information TechnologyIn this menu you will get different options which are discussed below.3.5.1 My Docum...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 43.5.3 My Pictures                   Clicking on this item opens the folder nam...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 63.5.5 My Computer                    Clicking on this gives you access to, and...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 8Fig. 9Now you can go to the required folder or can create a new folder. To cre...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 10Depending on the kind of set up you want to do select the required option. Fo...
Introduction to Information Technology                     Clicking on this displays installed printers and faxes. Also he...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 173.5.9 Search                Clicking on this opens a window as ...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 18For example if you want to search a particular file you can click on to All f...
Introduction to Information TechnologyWhat size it is: Here you can specify the approximate size of the file. Default is D...
Introduction to Information Technologymenu also. For example the Accessories option has sub menu which is shown in figure2...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 24Fig. 253.5.13 Turn Off Computer                     Clicking on this provides...
Introduction to Information Technology1) In Windows XP why control Panel is used?2) Explain the different options availabl...
Introduction to Information Technology4) Now click on to this       icon twice you will reach a menu which displays you wi...
Introduction to Information TechnologySummaryOperating system is system software which acts as an Interface between the us...
Introduction to Information Technology· The saving of the document· The opening of an existing document· The formatting of...
Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 2Basic Units of MS Word1. Title Bar – Displays the application name, file name ...
Introduction to Information TechnologyTo display a toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click the toolbar...
Introduction to Information TechnologyInsert: This can be used to insert page numbers, page breaks, pictures etc.Format: T...
Introduction to Information Technology    Format Painter: This is used to copy character and paragraph formats. Follow the...
Introduction to Information Technology            Zoom: You can “zoom in” to get a close-up view of your document or “zoom...
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
Computer fundamentals & window based application
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  1. 1. Introduction to Information Technology E-528-529, sector-7, Dwarka, New delhi-110075 (Nr. Ramphal chowk and Sector 9 metro station) Ph. 011-47350606, (M) 7838010301-04 www.eduproz.inEducate Anytime...Anywhere..."Greetings For The Day"About EduprozWe, at EduProz, started our voyage with a dream of making higher education available for everyone. Sinceits inception, EduProz has been working as a stepping-stone for the students coming from variedbackgrounds. The best part is – the classroom for distance learning or correspondence courses for bothmanagement (MBA and BBA) and Information Technology (MCA and BCA) streams are free of cost. Experienced faculty-members, a state-of-the-art infrastructure and a congenial environment for learning -are the few things that we offer to our students. Our panel of industrial experts, coming from variousindustrial domains, lead students not only to secure good marks in examination, but also to get an edge overothers in their professional lives. Our study materials are sufficient to keep students abreast of the presentnuances of the industry. In addition, we give importance to regular tests and sessions to evaluate ourstudents’ progress. Students can attend regular classes of distance learning MBA, BBA, MCA and BCA courses at EduProzwithout paying anything extra. Our centrally air-conditioned classrooms, well-maintained library and well-equipped laboratory facilities provide a comfortable environment for learning.Honing specific skills is inevitable to get success in an interview. Keeping this in mind, EduProz has a careercounselling and career development cell where we help student to prepare for interviews. Our dedicatedplacement cell has been helping students to land in their dream jobs on completion of the course.EduProz is strategically located in Dwarka, West Delhi (walking distance from Dwarka Sector 9 MetroStation and 4-minutes drive from the national highway); students can easily come to our centre fromanywhere Delhi and neighbouring Gurgaon, Haryana and avail of a quality-oriented education facility atapparently no extra cost.Why Choose Edu Proz for distance learning? • Edu Proz provides class room facilities free of cost. • In EduProz Class room teaching is conducted through experienced faculty. • Class rooms are spacious fully air-conditioned ensuring comfortable ambience. • Course free is not wearily expensive. • Placement assistance and student counseling facilities. • Edu Proz unlike several other distance learning courses strives to help and motivate pupils to getEDUPROZ Page 1
  2. 2. Introduction to Information Technology high grades thus ensuring that they are well placed in life. • Students are groomed and prepared to face interview boards. • Mock tests, unit tests and examinations are held to evaluate progress. • Special care is taken in the personality development department. "HAVE A GOOD DAY"EDUPROZ Page 2
  3. 3. Introduction to Information Technology Karnataka State Open University(KSOU) was established on 1st June 1996 with the assent of H.E. Governor ofKarnatakaas a full fledged University in the academic year 1996 vide GovernmentnotificationNo/EDI/UOV/dated 12th February 1996 (Karnataka State Open UniversityAct – 1992).The act was promulgated with the object to incorporate an Open University at theState level for the introduction and promotion of Open University and DistanceEducation systems in theeducation pattern of the State and the country for the Co-ordination anddetermination of standard of such systems. Keeping in view the educationalneeds of our country, in general, and state in particular the policies andprogrammes have been geared to cater to the needy.Karnataka State Open University is a UGC recognised University of DistanceEducation Council (DEC), New Delhi, regular member of the Association ofIndian Universities (AIU), Delhi, permanent member of Association ofCommonwealth Universities (ACU), London, UK, Asian Association of OpenUniversities (AAOU), Beijing, China, and also has association withCommonwealth of Learning (COL).Karnataka State Open University is situated at the North–Western end of theManasagangotri campus, Mysore. The campus, which is about 5 kms, from thecity centre, has a serene atmosphere ideally suited for academic pursuits. TheUniversity houses at present the Administrative Office, Academic Block, LectureHalls, a well-equipped Library, Guest HouseCottages, a Moderate Canteen, Girls Hostel and a few cottages providing limitedaccommodation to students coming to Mysore for attending the ContactProgrammes or Term-end examinations.EDUPROZ Page 3
  4. 4. Introduction to Information Technology Unit1 Computer Fundamentals • This unit deals with Generations of Computers. This unit also includes Classification of Computers according to their size and capabilities, the different Input-Output devices used with the computers. It deals with Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit, terms Hardware, Software, computer languages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers are also discussed in this Unit.Today computers have become part of our life. Usage of computers in different fields hasbecome a necessity in the present competitive world. Lot of work and evolutions hastranspired from the initial computer systems to the present day computer systems.Computers are made up of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical components. Computersare just the machines and you must specify the work that is to be carried out by thecomputer. Thus to carry out a specific task series of instructions must be given to theComputer in a particular order.ObjectivesTo Understand· Generations of Computers· Classification of Computers· Organization of Computers· Input-Output devices· Central Processing Unit· Memory Unit- Primary and Secondary Memory· The terms Hardware and Software· Computer Languages· Application of Computers· Advantages and Disadvantages of ComputersHistoryEDUPROZ Page 4
  5. 5. Introduction to Information TechnologyThe tool known as ABACUS was the age-old tool used by man to count and calculatewas designed and developed by Chinese some 5000 years ago.Blaise Pascal designed a working mechanical calculator in 1642. These devices were ableto add and subtract directly, whereas multiplication and division were performed throughrepeated addition and subtraction respectively.Gottfried Von Leibnitz a German, modified Pascal’s calculating machine which couldmultiply numbers directly.In 1833 Charles Babbage an English scientist, designed Analytical Engine using toothwheels so that it could perform all mathematical operations in a predetermined sequenceusing a set of operational instructions, so he is called as Father of modern computers.Lady Ada Lovelace is considered as the first lady Computer Programmer as she hasdeveloped the concept of writing systematic operational instructions for the analyticalengine.In 1850 George Boole an English mathematician proposed logic theory of using thebinary (two) number system. This number system had only two numbers 0 and 1. In thisprocedures all the quantities are represented in terms of o and 1 for example 9 isrepresented as 00001001.Bool proposed a logic popularly known as Boolean algebra. Computer processors aredesigned on this system of logic.A statistician Dr. Herman Hollerith, developed a punched card that would contain datacoded in form of punched holes.Self Assessment Questions:1) Who is the first lady Computer Programmer?2) What is logic proposed by an English mathematician George Bool?Generations of ComputersEvolution of modern computer is commonly considered in terms of Generation ofComputers.First Generation (1940-1956): Vacuum TubesThe computers of this generation were made of vacuum tubes for circuitry and magneticdrums for memory. This made computers bulky and heavy. Punched cards were used tofeed the information. Magnetic tapes were used as external storage devices. They werevery expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated aEDUPROZ Page 5
  6. 6. Introduction to Information Technologylot of heat and occupied a large amount of space. These machines used machine andassembly level language.The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computingdevices.Second Generation (1956-1963): TransistorsThe computers of this generation made up of transistors replacing vacuum tubes. Theseare small in size so the machines occupied a less amount of space. The use transistorsmade the computers work much faster. The transistor was far superior to the vacuumtube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient andmore reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor stillgenerated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vastimprovement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punchedcards for input and printouts for output. The development of higher-level languages likeFORTRAN, COBOL and BASIC was possible.Third Generation (1965-1971): Integrated CircuitsThe computers of these generations were made up of IC (Integrated Circuits). Integratedcircuits mean incorporation of hundred of transistors on a single silicon chip. These werestill smaller than the computers of second-generation machines. Heat generated was alsoless and occupied less space.Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computersthrough keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowedthe device to run many different applications at one time with a central program thatmonitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a massaudience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.Fourth Generation (1971- ): MicroprocessorsThe computers of this generation saw the advent of Large Scale Integration (LSI) andVery Large Scale Integration (VLSI), which incorporated several thousands transistors ina single chip. The main characteristic of this generation computers is the evolution of theuse of Microprocessors. Microprocessors had thousands of integrated circuits were builtonto a single silicon chip.The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer –from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls – on a single chip.Self Assessment questions1) What are the components used in second and third generation computersEDUPROZ Page 6
  7. 7. Introduction to Information Technology2) Give example for first generation computersClassification of ComputersComputers are classified according to their sizes and their capabilities. Broadly, they maybe categorized as personal computers, lap top computers, minicomputers, mainframesand supercomputers.Personal Computers: A microcomputer is the smallest general purpose processingsystem. Functionally it is similar to any other large system. Microcomputers are self-contained units and usually designed for use by one person at a time.Minicomputers: A minicomputer is medium sized computer that is more powerful than amicrocomputer. An important distinction between a microcomputer and a minicomputeris that a minicomputer is usually to serve multiple users simultaneously.Mainframes computers: Computers with large storage capacities and very high speed ofprocessing are known as mainframes. They support a large number of terminals forsimultaneous use by a number of users.Super computers: These have extremely large storage area and computing speeds,which are many times faster than earlier discussed machines. While the speed of earlierdiscussed computers measured in turns of million instructions per second whereas insupercomputers speed is measured as tens of millions of operations per second; anoperation is made of many instruction. These have more than one processor in it and theprocessing is carried out in parallel. The super computers are used in applications includelarge scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines like weatherforecasting, atomic research, space research etc.Lap Top/ Note Book Computers:These are the computers, which are small in size and weigh few Kgs. These computerscan be carried from one place to another easily. The people who are always on the movemostly use these. This has all the capabilities of a Personal Computer. It has an LCDscreen and has rechargeable batteries.EDUPROZ Page 7
  8. 8. Introduction to Information TechnologyNow you can even get computers which can be placed on you palm hence the name PalmTop Computers.Self Assessment Questions:1) Classify the computers according to their size and capabilitiesOrganization of a ComputerA computer is a fast and accurate device, which can accept data, store data, process themand give, desired results as output. The computer is organized into four units as shown inthe following diagram.1.4.1 Input Unit:Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into a computer is known as Inputdevice. Input devices convert data from any convenient external format into binary codesthat a computer can store and manipulate internally. Some of the most common, mostpopularly used devices are discussed below.Mouse: This Input device is categorized as an pointing device because itis used to point and select an option on the monitor. It is small boxlike object that isconnected to the computer by a cable and can be rolled around on the table. A pointer onEDUPROZ Page 8
  9. 9. Introduction to Information Technologythe screen follows the movements of the mouse; rolling the mouse left moves the pointerleft by an equipment amount, rolling the mouse in the right direction moves the pointer inthe right direction, rolling the mouse in the up direction moves the pointer in the updirection, rolling the mouse in the down direction moves the pointer in the downdirection and you can roll the mouse in a angular direction also. In order to select anoption on the computer screen, the user should move the pointer at the desired positionand press the button on the mouse. The mouse can be used to open menus, select texts forediting, move objects on the screen, draw images or diagrams etc.A mouse can be classified on the basis of the number of buttons it has, the technology ituses, and the kind of interface it shares with the computer. A mouse may have one, twoor three buttons. The program that uses the mouse determines the function of each button.A mouse may be classified as a Mechanical mouse and an Optical mouse, on the basis ofthe technology it uses. In a Mechanical mouse, the rubber-coated ball that projectsthrough the bottom surface rotates as the mouse is moved along a flat surface and sendselectrical signals to the system unit by means of switches inside the mouse. This causesthe cursor, or pointer, to move in a corresponding fashion. An Optical mouse uses diodesto emit light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect movement across a speciallypatterned metal pad.Light Pen:This is also categorized into a pointing device, which can be used only with videodisplays. It can be used to select an option by simply pointing at it, or drawing figuresdirectly on the screen. An electron beam that repeatedly scans the display screen from leftto right and from top to bottom produce a video display. Because of this scanning action,each point on the display is illuminated at a slightly different time. The light pen, whichis a pen like device, has a photo detector at its tip. The detector can detect changes in thebrightness of the screen. The light pen is connected to the computer by a cable. When thepen is pointed at a particular spot on the screen, the point is scanned and the photodetector records changes in the brightness and sends electrical pulses to the computer.The computer can find out the exact spot with this information. Light pens are useful formenu-based applications. It is also useful for drawing graphics in Computer AidedDesign software.Touch Screen:Touch screens are normally used when information has to be accessed with minimumeffort. The user need to only touch the appropriate point on the display to point out anitem to the computer. This is again a kind of pointing devices.Joy Stick:EDUPROZ Page 9
  10. 10. Introduction to Information Technology This is another kind of Input device used to play computer games, whichis connected to game port.Keyboard:Keyboards are the most widely used input devices. The most popular keyboards are thosethat look, feel, and possibly sound like an ordinary typewriter keyboard. Alternatives areMembrane keyboards, whose keys are merely printed on a plastic membrane. A pressuresensitive two-dimensional keyboard covered with a dust proofed and dirt proofed plasticsheet are useful in dirty environments. Keyboards are of different varieties. Generally akeyboard has 105 keys. It features 12 function keys arranged at the top of the keyboard,and larger Backspace key, a numeric keypad, a cursor movement keypad, toggle lights,Shift keys, Alt keys, Ctrl keys, Caps Lock key, Num Lock key, Spacebar key, Enter key,Alphabetical keys etc.Scanners:These are the eyes of your computer. They can see images or printed text and translatethem into binary code. Most scanners collect data from a page by recording, which areasare light and which areas are dark. They contain a camera, which is made up of thousandsof tiny cells, called charge coupled devices (CCD). Each CCD detects whether a smallpart of the image is either light or dark. It transmits this data to the CPU, which thencreates the image. Some scanners are sensitive enough to tell the difference betweencolors.Many scanners available nowadays are capable of not only scanning texts and graphics,but also integrated text and graphic files. Scanners are used to reproduce photographs onthe computer screen. Businesses use scanners fro storing documents on the computer.Optical Character Readers (OCR): These are another kind of input devices that areused to read any printed text. They can interpret hand made marks, handwrittencharacters, machine printed characters and special symbols and codes. Optical characterreaders scan text character-by-character converts them into machine-readable codes andstore it in the memory. Since they read characters at the rate of around 2600 charactersper second this reduces the organizations the data inputting time.EDUPROZ Page 10
  11. 11. Introduction to Information TechnologyMagnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR): This is a device that identifies a characterthat is written with the ink that contains particles of magnetic material. This device ismainly used to read the Bank cheque.Mark Sense Reader: This device is used to recognize the marks made by a pencil or penon a specially designed paper. These devices are also known as Optical Mark Readers(OMR). These devices are used in competitive exams, to carry out the survey work etc.Bar Code Reader: This is used to read different kind of vertical lines known as barswhich signify some information.1.4.2 Output Unit:Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient externalforms as text and pictures are known as Output devices. Some of the most popularly usedOutput devices are discussed below.Visual Display Unit: The Visual Display Unit is an output device that gives visualrepresentation of data. They are also known as Monitors. They are television screen likedevices used for displaying the output of computers. Computer monitors are often calledCathode Ray Tubes (CRT). Computer users may select from monochrome (black andwhite) or color/graphics monitors. CRT monitors are too bulky for portable computers.Instead they have flat screen monitors. Many of these use Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)screens. An LCD screen is filled with molecules (tiny particles) of a liquid, which reflectsthe light. When the computer scans the screen, some molecules twist to shut out light.The off molecules cause a pixel to go dark, and so form part of image. LCDs are similarto the display those found in calculators and digital watches are widely used in Laptopcomputers and pocket computers.Printer:The Printer is another output device used to store the output for later reference. UsingPrinters, output can be obtained on paper.The Printers can be divided into two categoriesEDUPROZ Page 11
  12. 12. Introduction to Information Technology1) Impact Printers 2) Non Impact PrintersImpact Printers:These printers print by striking the type against the ribbon and the printer. The examplefor this kind of printers is Dot Matrix Printers, Daisy wheel Printers and Line Printers.They can produce carbon copies, if necessary.Dot Matrix Printer: The print head comprises a matrix of tiny needles, usually of sevenrows and five columns. They are electrically driven and punch characters in the form ofpatterns of tiny dots. The pattern of dots for each character is dictated by the informationheld electronically in the printer.Daisy wheel printer: It is a character printer and derives it’s name from the shape of theprint wheel. The daisy shape wheel is made of metal or plastic and holds the characterson its petal. The wheel rotates at a high speed and when the required character ispositioned over the ribbon, a tinny hammer strikes it against the ribbon thus transferringthe character symbol to the paper.Dot matrix and Daisy wheel printers are called as character printers as they can print onlyone character at a time.Line Printers: It prints an entire line at a time and is the fastest printer. It is the fastestprinter as it prints all the characters in the line simultaneously.Non-Impact Printers: These create the images without striking the type against theribbon and paper instead they are practically noiseless and create images only on onecopy. The example for these kind of printers is Ink-jet printers, Laser Printers andThermal printers.EDUPROZ Page 12
  13. 13. Introduction to Information TechnologyInk-jet Printers: These printers print characters by spraying electrically charged inkonto the paper. They are capable of producing characters of various shapes and sizes. Wecan take colored output.Laser Printer: These are high speed, high quality printers. A laser beam is used to burncharacters images on the rotating drum and the heated surface area picks up the tonerparticles, which is sprinkled on the paper.Thermal Printer: These kind of printers use heated dot matrix wires to print the outputon a specially treated paper. The output on a thermal paper fades quickly when exposedto light.Plotters:This is an output device used to create high quality visuals on papers, which cannot beobtained using a printer. It is used to create presentation visuals, charts, graphs, table, andengineering plans. A plotter consists of an arm that moves across the paper on which thediagram or graph needs to be drawn. A pen moves along the arm, and the arm itselfmoves relative to the paper. A combination of the two thus provides movement along thehorizontal and vertical axes. To draw clear, high quality designs, a plotter needs highquality pens with special inks of different colors. A plotter is more software dependentthan any other peripheral and needs much more instructions that the printer for producingoutput.1.4.3 Central Processing Unit:The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the heart of the computer combined with theprocessing system of a computer. The CPU carries out actions with help of Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU). This is done following a detailed set of instructions written in themain memory. It also uses the main memory for temporary storage of information.Through the channels of information “Bus”, the CPU instructs various parts called devicecontrollers to transfer data between secondary memory and the main memory. The CPUaccepts the data from the Input unit processes it and gives the result/output to the outputdevice. The data/result can be stored for the use by storing it in the secondary memory.The total operations of the computer is synchronized and controlled by the CPU.The processing capacity of a computer is measured in terms the amount of data processedby the CPU in one operation. The CPU has three important sub units.1) Arithmetic-Logic unit2) Control Unit3) Memory UnitEDUPROZ Page 13
  14. 14. Introduction to Information TechnologyArithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out thearithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This unitcarries out logical operations like greater than, less than, equal to etc. It performs theoperation on the data provided by the input devices. A comparison operation allows aprogram to make decisions based on its data input and results of the previouscalculations.Logical operations can be used to determine whether particular statement is TRUE orFALSE.The ALU operates on the data available in the main memory and sends them back afterprocessing again to main memory.Control Unit: The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units in thesystem. Its main functions are to control the transfer of data and information betweenvarious units and to initiate appropriate actions by the arithmetic-logic unit.Conceptually, the control unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them, anddirects them to various units to perform the specified tasks.Memory Unit: The main memory is also called primary memory, is used to store datatemporarily. Although, the CPU is the brain behind all the operations in the computer, itneeds to be supplied with the data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what todo. Once the CPU has carried out an instruction, it needs the result to be stored. Thisstorage space is provided by the computer’s memory. Data provided by the input device,and the result of that processed data is also stored in the memory nit. This main memoryis like a scratch pad. The storage capacity of the memory is generally measured inmegabytes.8 Bits = 1 Byte1024 Bytes= 1 Kilobyte (KB)1024 Kilobytes= 1 Megabyte (MB)1024 Megabytes= 1 Gigabyte (GB)Different kinds of primary memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read OnlyMemory (ROM). You can read and write data in RAM but the data is volatile ortemporary that is whenever the power is switched off the contents of RAM is lost so its isrequired to store the data in the secondary memory if the data is required for the futureuse. But you can only read the data from ROM and you can not write any thing into it andthe data is permanent. The manufacturer himself has written the data in it initially.Secondary Memory:EDUPROZ Page 14
  15. 15. Introduction to Information TechnologyThis is the permanent memory. The data stored in it is permanent. But you can delete thedata if you want. There are different kinds of secondary storage devices available. Few ofthem are Floppy disks, Fixed (hard) disks and Optical disks etc.Floppy disk: This is one of the most common storage medium used todayin computers. It is flexible circular plastic disk coated with magnetic material. The diskhas two surfaces and data will be stored/retrieved from both the surfaces. Circular tracksare recorded on each of the surfaces. A track is further subdivided into sectors. Thesetracks, sectors and surfaces of disks are used to identify the place where the data will bewritten/retrieved.The information can be stored or retrieved by inserting the floppy disk in the disk drivepresent in the computer. The above shown floppy disk is 3.5-inch floppy disk, which hasthe capacity of 1.44 MB.Fixed (hard) disk:These are smooth metal plates coated with a thin film of magnetic material. A set of suchmagnetic plates is fixed to a spindle one below the other to make up a set of disks. Thisdisk pack is sealed and mounted on a disk drive. The disk drive consists of a motor torotate the disk pack around its axis at the speed of about 7200 rotations per minute(RPM). The drive also has a set of magnetic heads mounted on arms. The arm assemblyis capable of moving in and out in radial direction. Information is recorded on the surfaceof a disk as it rotates about its axis. Circular tracks are recorded on each of the surfaces.A set of corresponding tracks in all surfaces of disks is called a cylinder. A track isfurther subdivided into sectors. These cylinders, sectors and surfaces of disks are used toidentify the place where the data will be written/read.These have the capacities in 40 Giga Bytes (GB), 80 GB etc.EDUPROZ Page 15
  16. 16. Introduction to Information Technology Optical disks:These disks are different from the magnetic disks by the way the data is recorded andretrieved. In optical disks, a laser beam is used to write and read data on these reflectivedisks. Optical disk have storage capacity much more higher than the magnetic disks.These optical disks are popularly known as Compact disks (CD). To read the contents ofthe CD you are required to place the CD in the CD drive of your computer. But to recorddata on your CD you are required to have CD-Writer drive in your computer. This CD-Writer drive can be used to Read and Record the data on CD.Different forms of CD’s are available they are basically CD, CD-R andCD-RW.CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read Only Memory. On these the data is already recorded andyou are going to use this CD_ROM.CD-R: Compact Disk Recordable. In this the data can be written only once.CD-RW: Compact Disk ReWritable. In this the once stored data can be erased and newdata can be stored.Compact disks with different capacities are available they are 650 MB, 700 MB etc.Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory (DVDROM):This uses the same principle as CD-ROM for reading and writing. But in this the data isstored two layers. On each layer the data is recorded. The distance between successivetracks is less. Thus the capacity can be doubled. The total capacity of DVDROM is 8.5GB. In double-sided DVD two such disks are placed back to back so the recording can bedone at both the sides. Since each side can hold 8.5 GB of data, both sides in total canstore 17GB of data.Magnetic Tape Drives:Magnetic tape memories are similar to the commonly used audio tape recorders. Amagnetic tape drive is made up of spool on which a magnetic tape is wound. The tape isEDUPROZ Page 16
  17. 17. Introduction to Information Technologytransported across a set of magnetic heads and is taken up on another spool. Between thespools heads are mounted which are used store and retrieve the data from the tape. Thestandard size of width of the tape is half an inch. The data is recorded and retrievedsequentially. So the access time in case of tape is large compared to disks.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different kinds of Input devices2) Differentiate between Impact and Non Impact printers3) List out different kinds Optical Disks4) List out different kinds Optical DisksTwo important Computer terminologies:1. Hardware2. SoftwareHardware: This comprises the Electronic, Electrical and mechanical components of themachine. The physical parts, which can be seen, touched and felt about.Software: These are the programs. Program means the set of meaningful instructionswritten in a particular order so as to carry out some task. The program is fed into orstored in the computer. A computer is said to be running or executing a program when itis carrying out programs instructions. Without the software the hardware is of no use. Ascomputers are dumb machines they can work only with the help of software, which tellthem what the machine is required to do. Writing instructions for a computer is known asprogramming, and the persons who writes programs is called as a Programmer. There aredifferent languages and packages to write these instructions.Computer LanguagesA language is a system of communication. A programming language consists of all thesyntaxes (grammar or usage rules) and semantics (meaning) that permit people tocommunicate with the computer. The computer languages must have instructions tomanipulate input/output, text etc. They should have instructions to calculate, do logicaloperations like comparison, storing and retrieval of information etc.These languages are broadly classified asEDUPROZ Page 17
  18. 18. Introduction to Information Technology· Machine level language· Assembly level language· High level language· Fourth generation languagesMachine level language: A program written using binary numbers i.e. 0’s and 1’sspecified for the processor’s operation and absolute binary address is known as themachine language of the computer. The instruction prepared in machine level languagecomprises of two parts. The first part makes the operation code or op code or commandwhich species the function required to be carried out by the processor. The second part ofthe instruction specifies the operand on which the operation is required to be performed.Operand can be data or the location of the data.Assembly level language: This language uses mnemonics or abbreviations to represent aparticular operation. Again the instruction in this language has two parts, first partsrepresenting the operation required to be performed (mnemonic for a operation) and thesecond part representing the operand on which the operation specified in the first part willbe performed. The operand can be data, location for data retrieval/store or label etc. Theoperation code (mnemonic) and operand varies from processor to processor.Ex: Assembly level language instruction for 8086 processor isADC BX, AXEx: Assembly level language instruction for 8085 processor isACI 65HA program written in Assembly level language is converted to its machine level languageby translator software called as Assembler.High-level language: In this language the instructions are written in simple English. Butagain you should use certain specified English words of the particular language, whichrepresent a particular operation. These languages are machine independent and procedureoriented. These languages are easy to understand and write programs. The example forthe higher-level languages is BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C, C++ and Javaetc.BASIC: Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language designed specially for business dataprocessing.EDUPROZ Page 18
  19. 19. Introduction to Information TechnologyFORTRAN: Formula Translation, this language is more suited for science, engineeringand mathematical calculations.Pascal: This language is named after Blaise Pascal an eminent scientist who developedmechanical calculator.C: This is a more efficient general-purpose language.Ex:main(){float i,j,k;i=3.5;j=8.5;k=j-i;printf(“Entered values are i=%f, j=%f, The result of subtraction is k=%f”,i,j,k); }In the above program three variables named as i, j and k are declared to hold real values.Then two values are assigned to variables i and j. Then value of i is subtracted from thevalue of j and the result is stored in k. Then the values of i, j and k are printed withappropriate messages.C++: This language is the extension of C language. This language is object oriented.Java: This language is another general purpose and object oriented language.A program written in Higher-level language is converted to its machine level languageequivalent by translator software. Two different types are translator software areavailable they are Interpreter and CompilerInterpreter: This translator software converts program, one statement at time, andexecutes it immediately.Compiler: This translator software converts entire program at a time and then executes it.Fourth Generation languages: These are the application development tools, whichimprove the efficiency and productivity. A number of tools from different vendors areavailable in the market and these tools are collectively referred to as fourth generationlanguages (4GL). A 4GL tools interacts with Database Management System (DBMS) orEDUPROZ Page 19
  20. 20. Introduction to Information TechnologyRelational Database Management System (RDBMS) to store, retrieve, manipulate and togenerate reports according to the user requirement.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain different categories of Programming languagesTwo kinds of software present are1. System Software: The computer uses this software. This software control and directthe operation of the computer. It coordinates and synchronizes operations of differentunits of the computer. It helps carrying out Input-Output operations, implementing theinstructions given by the user, converting the instructions, which are in higher-levellanguage to machine level language equivalent etc. The examples for the Systemsoftware are Operating System, Compiler, and Interpreter etc.2. Application Software: These are the software used for specific applications such asletter typing, accounting, billing and inventory etc. It acts as an interface between the userand system software. This application software takes the help of system software toprocess the needs of the users.Operating SystemThis is the system software, which acts as an interface between the user and computer.All the computers require operating system without which one cannot work with thecomputer. This control, co-ordinates, synchronizes all the operations of the computer.Whatever the user wants to do with the computer with the help of the applicationsoftware, the operating system will assist the application software to carry out the job. Oreven the user can directly interact with the operating system to get his work done.Different operating systems are available they are Microsoft Disk Operating System(MS-DOS), Microsoft-Windows 98, Microsoft-Windows XP, Microsoft-Windows 2003Server, UNIX, LINUX etc.This operating system resides in the secondary memory and if you want to work with thecomputer it is required to be loaded in the primary memory.BootingThe process of loading the operating system from the secondary memory to primarymemory is called as booting. This is the process carried out first when the computer isturned on. A program called as bootstrap loader, which is stored in the Read OnlyMemory present in the computer, carries out the process of booting.Basically two different kinds of operating system exist they are :EDUPROZ Page 20
  21. 21. Introduction to Information Technology· Single User: Only one user can access the machine at a time on which this kind ofoperating system is loaded. Example is Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS).· Multi User/Multi tasking Operating System: Many users can access the machine onwhich this kind of operating system is loaded simultaneously i.e. through the network.Example: Microsoft-Windows 98, Microsoft-Windows XP, Microsoft Windows-NT,Microsoft Windows 2003 Server, UNIX, LINUX etc.PortWe have discussed different input and output units earlier and these units are required tobe connected to the computer before they are used and these units are connected to theconnector or socket present at the back of a computer. This connector or socket is calledas a port. Instructions and data are allowed to flow between devices and computer.Different kinds of ports are available they are Parallel Port, Serial Port, Keyboard Port,Game Port, Universal Serial Bus (USB), PS2 Port and Monitor Port.Universal Serial Bus is a new type of port that can be used to connect up to 27 differentperipheral devices with single connector. Using this, different devices can be connectedto a unit, which is out side the system unit.Applications of ComputersComputers have a very big impact on our day-to-day life. They can be used for a numberof applications like Business, Education, Research, Office, Accounting, Military, Space,Entertainment, Medical etc. You can use it for any of the applications. Computers arebecoming the integral part of our life, which enhances our efficiency and productivity. Inthis competitive world the usage of computers to carry out day-to-day work will give youan edge over the others.Following are the broad application areas where computers are used extensively· Entertainment: It can be used to make cartoon movies, animation and special effects inmovies, games etc.· Day to day life: It can be used in institution like Collages, Hospitals, Railway andAirline Booking Systems, Shops, Bank etc. to carry out day to day work. For exampletrain ticket bookings can be done with help of computer. If you want to book a ticket to aparticular destination instead of a human being searching for the availability of the ticketsin books or by calling a respective station the computers can do that job as computers ofdifferent station are connected in a networkThe computer without using paper does most of the jobs done by the human beings withthe help of paper. if an entry is to be made in many place in the case of not using thecomputers humane being are required to make entrees in all the places whereas thecomputers are used than the human beings are required to do entries in our place in all theEDUPROZ Page 21
  22. 22. Introduction to Information Technologyother place computers will do not entries atomically. For example when a sale bill ismade in shop the entry is made in the Ledger, Cash/Bank book, Stock book etc.automatically.· Communication: Nowadays Internet is becoming integral part of life to gatherinformation about different topics or to send and receive emails etc.· Scientist: It can be used for research purposes, space programs, nuclear programs etc.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the application area of computersDisadvantages· Computers cannot think by themselves and they require human direction to performspecific tasks.· If the data given is wrong then it gives the wrong result. For example if you want to addtwo numbers say 900 and 760, (here 900 and 760 are data) instead of typing 900 and 760if you give the data as 900 and 780 then the result what you get will be wrong.· Instructions given also should be correct that is instead of addition if you ask it tomultiply it will multiply.· It will not work without electricity.· Investment and maintenance in this equipment is also required.SummaryCharles Babbage is known as the Father of modern computers. Lady Ada Lovelace isconsidered as first lady computer programmer. George Boole proposed the binarynumbers system. The First generation computers are made of Vacuum tubes, the Secondgeneration computers made of Transistors, the Third generation machines are made up ofIC’s and Fourth generation machines are made up of VLSI technology. Computers areclassified according to their sizes and capacities. Computers are organized into four partsand they are Input Unit, Output Unit, Central Processing Unit and Memory Unit.Hardware is nothing but the combination of Electrical, Mechanical and Electroniccomponents. Software is nothing but the series of instruction written in a particular orderto carry out a specific task. Computers have application in all the walks of life that is inBusiness, Education, Research, Science, Entertainment etc.Terminal Questions1) Explain different generations of ComputersEDUPROZ Page 22
  23. 23. Introduction to Information Technology2) With the block diagram explain the organization of Computers3) Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers Unit 2 Number Systems • This unit deals with Generations of Computers. This unit also includes Classification of Computers according to their size and capabilities, the different Input-Output devices used with the computers. It deals with Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit, terms Hardware, Software, computer languages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers are also discussed in this Unit.IntroductionAny quantity is measured in some system. The quantity measured is represented in somenumbers. There are different number systems. In each number system different symbolsare used to represent the numbers. The different number systems are Decimal, Octal,Binary etc.Objectives:To understand· Decimal Number System· Binary Number System· Binary Addition and Subtraction· Binary Multiplication And Division· Conversion From Decimal Numbers To Binary· Negative Numbers· Representing Negative Numbers Using Complements· Complements In Binary Number System· Gates: OR, AND, NOTDecimal Number SystemIn this ten symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it is Decimal number system.The ten symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. These are called Arabic numerals.EDUPROZ Page 23
  24. 24. Introduction to Information TechnologyIt is necessary to learn only the 10 basic numerals and the positional notational system inorder to measure any desired quantity or to count any required figure. After memorizingthe addition and multiplication tables and learning a few simple rules, we can perform allarithmetic operations.For example let us represent the quantity 127. The actual meaning of the number 127 canbe seen more clearly if we notice that it is said as “one hundred and twenty seven”Basically, the number is a contraction of 1 x 100 + 2 x 10 + 7. The important point is thatthe value of each digit is determined by its position. For example, the 3 in 300 has adifferent value than the 3 in 30. We show this verbally by saying “three hundred” and‘thirty” Different verbal representations have been invented for numbers from 10 to 20(eleven, twelve, . .), but from 20 upward we break only at powers of 10 (hundreds,thousands, lakhs, crores etc.). Written numbers are always contracted, however, and onlythe basic 10 numerals are used, regardless of the size of the integer written.The base, or radix, of a number system is defined as the number of different digits whichcan occur in each position in the number system. The decimal number system has a base,or radix, of 10. Thus the system has 10 different digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 , …9), any one ofwhich may be used in each position in a number.Binary Number SystemIn this number system two symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it is binarynumber system. The two symbols are 0 and 1.The same type of positional notation isused in the binary number system as in the decimal system.Although the same positional notation system is used, the instead of powers of 10 as usedin decimal number system the binary system uses powers of 2. As was previouslyexplained, the number 127 actually means 1 ×102 + 2 × 101 + 7 × 100. In the binarysystem, the same number (127) is represented as 1111111, meaning 1 × 26 + 1× 25+ l ×24+1×23+ l × 22 + l × 21 + l × 20.Binary Addition and SubtractionIn the same manner as decimal addition is performed Binary addition is also carried out.The table for binary addition is as follows:“Carry-overs” are performed in the same manner as in decimal arithmetic. Since 1 is thelargest digit in the binary system, any sum greater than 1 requires that a digit be carriedover. For example, 010 plus 010 binary requires the addition of the two 1’s in the secondposition to the left, with a carry-over. Since 1 + 1 = 0 plus a carry-over of 1, the sum of010 and 010 is 100. Here are three more examples of binary addition:EDUPROZ Page 24
  25. 25. Introduction to Information TechnologyIt is necessary to establish a procedure for subtracting a larger digit from a smaller digitin subtraction. The only case in which this occurs with binary numbers is when 1 issubtracted from 0. The remainder is 1, but it is necessary to borrow 1 from the nextcolumn to the left. This is the binary subtraction table.0–0=01–0=11–1=00 – 1 = 1 with a borrow of 1A few examples will make the procedure for binary subtraction clear:Binary Multiplication and DivisionBinary Multiplication:The table for binary multiplication is also given below.0x0=01x0=00x1=01xl=1The following examples of binary multiplication show the simplicity of each operation. Itis only necessary to copy the multiplicand if the digit in the multiplier is 1 and to copy all0s if the digit in the multiplier is a 0.The following two examples of binary multiplication illustrate the simplicity of eachoperation. If the digit in the multiplier is 1 then copy multiplicand and copy all 0s if thedigit in the multiplier is a 0.EDUPROZ Page 25
  26. 26. Introduction to Information TechnologyBinary Division:Binary division is, like any number system is very simple.0÷1=01÷1=1Division by zero is not done in any number systemFollowing are the examples of division:To convert the quotient obtained in the second example from binary to decimal, wewould proceed as follows:Therefore, 10.011010101 binary equals approximately 2.416 decimal.Self Assessment question:1) With example explain when the Carry or a Borrow is generatedEDUPROZ Page 26
  27. 27. Introduction to Information TechnologyConversion from Decimal Numbers to BinaryMany methods are available for converting a decimal number to a binary number.In first method simply subtract all powers of 2, which can be subtracted from the decimalnumber until nothing remains. The highest power of 2 is subtracted first, then the secondhighest, etc. To convert the decimal integer 14 to the binary number system, first thehighest power of 2, which can be subtracted from 14, is found. This is 23 = 8. Then 14 – 8= 6. The highest power of 2, which can be subtracted from 6, is 22, or 4 so 6-4=2. Nowsubtract 21 , that is 2 from 2 so the remainder of subtraction is 0The binary representation for 14 is, therefore, 1110.But this is a laborious method for converting numbers and is convenient for smallnumbers, but for larger numbers it may be difficult. So in the second method, the decimalnumber is repeatedly divided by 2, and the remainder after each division is used toindicate the coefficients of the binary number to be formed. The binary number derived iswritten from the bottom up.The binary representation of 123 is, therefore,1111011. Checking this result givesBut this method will not work for mixed numbers. If similar methods are to be used, firstit is necessary to bifurcate the number into its whole and fractional parts; that is, 121.567would be divided into 121 and 0.567. The binary representation for each part is found,and then the two parts are added.The conversion of decimal fractions to binary fractions may be accomplished usingseveral techniques. Again, the most obvious method is to subtract the highest negativepower of 2, which may be subtracted from the decimal fraction. Then the next highestnegative power of 2 is subtracted from the remainder of the first subtraction, and thisprocess is continued until there is no remainder or to the desired precision.So let us consider the following example where 0.875 will be converted to it’s binaryequivalent.EDUPROZ Page 27
  28. 28. Introduction to Information TechnologyThus 0.875 decimal is represented by 0.111 binary. A much simpler method for longerfractions consists of repeatedly “doubling” the decimal fraction. If a 1 appears to the leftof the decimal point after a multiplication by 2 is performed, a 1 is added to the right ofthe binary fraction being formed. If after a multiplication by 2, a 0 remains to the left ofthe decimal point of the decimal number, a 0 is added to the right of the binary number.This process can be continued till you get 0 after the decimal point after themultiplication other wise for as number of precision you want. The following exampleillustrates the use of this technique in converting 0.3475 decimal to the binary system:BINARY REPRESENTATIONThe binary representation of 0.3475 is, therefore, 0.01011000Negative NumbersFor writing negative numbers a standard convention adopted and it consists of placing asign symbol before a number that is negative. For example, negative 27 is written as -27.If – 27 is to be added to + 45, we write+45 + (–27) = 18But if a negative number is subtracted from a positive number, for example the aboveexpression can be written as +45 – (– 27) = + 45 + 27 = 72(- and – becomes +).In binary machines each of the binary digit is represented by a switch which can be usedto represent two values but one at a time either ON or OFF.As an example, given a set of six switches, any number from 000000 to 111111 may berepresented by the switches if we define a switch with its contacts closed as representinga 1 and a switch with open contacts as representing a 0. If we desire to increase the totalrange of numbers that we can represent so that it will include the negative numbers from000000 to – 111111, another bit (or switch) will be required. We then treat this bit as asign bit and place it before the magnitude of the number to be represented.The convention is adopted generally is that when the sign bit is a 0, the numberrepresented is positive, and when the sign bit is a 1, the number is negative. Let usconsider the previous example where we have used six switches to represent the quantityand now to specify the sign of the quantity whether positive or negative one more switchwill have to be used. When the contacts of this seventh switch is open, the number will bea positive number equal to the magnitude of the number stored in the other six switches;EDUPROZ Page 28
  29. 29. Introduction to Information Technologyand if the switch for the sign bit is closed, the number represented by the seven switcheswill be a negative number with a magnitude determined by other six switches.Let us consider the following example when seven switches are used– 37 = 1100101The seventh switch represents the negative sign, which is 1+37 = 0100101The seventh switch represents the positive sign, which is 0Representing Negative Numbers Using ComplementsThe negative numbers can be represented in complement form so that a machine can bemade to add and subtract, using only circuitry for adding.2.5.1 Complements in Binary Number SystemThere are two types of complements in this and they are 2’s complement and 1’scomplement.The 2s complement of a binary number is formed by simply subtracting each bit of thenumber from the radix minus one and adding a 1 to the least significant bit. Since theradix in the binary number system is 2, each bit of the binary number is subtracted from1. The application of this rule is actually very simple; every 1 in the number is changed toa 0 and every 0 to a 1. Then a 1 is added to the least significant bit of the number formed.The 2’s complement of 10110 is formed by the following stepsSo the 2s complement of 10010 is 01010.Similarly the 2s complement of 10010 is 01110. Subtraction using the 2s complementsystem involves forming the 2s complement of the subtrahend and then adding thiscomplement to the minuend. For instance,Example 1:11001 11001– 10100 = + 01100EDUPROZ Page 29
  30. 30. Introduction to Information Technology00101 1 00101Carry is droppedExample 210110 10110– 01110 = + 1001001000 1 01000Carry is droppedSubtraction using the 1s complement system is also straightforward. The 1s complementof a binary number is formed by changing each 1 in the number to a 0 and each 0 in thenumber to a 1. For instance, the 1s complement of 11101 is 00010, and the 1scomplement of 00011 is 11100.When subtraction is performed in the 1s complement system, any end-around carry isadded to the least significant bit. For instance,Note: Observe the difference in 2’s and 1’s complement subtraction for the samequantity.Self Assessment Question:1) Explain the concept of 1’s and 2’s complement2.6 GatesA gate is an electronic circuit which operates on one or more input signal to produce anoutput signal. There are different gates like OR, AND, NOT etc.OR Gate:EDUPROZ Page 30
  31. 31. Introduction to Information TechnologyThe following table gives the combinations of input and the output for each of thecombinations. This table is also called as truth table of OR gate.Inputs OutputXY Z0 0 01 0 10 1 11 1 1In the above table X and Y are the Inputs and Z is the Output. As shown in the tablewhen both the Inputs are 0 then the Output is 0. If any one of the Input or both the Inputsare 1 then the Output is 1.Logical addition table0+0 00+1 11+0 11+1 1OR gate is used to realize the logical addition operation.AND Gate:The following table gives the combinations of input and the output for each of thecombinations. This table is also called as truth table AND gate.Inputs OutputXY Z0 0 01 0 0EDUPROZ Page 31
  32. 32. Introduction to Information Technology0 1 01 1 1In the above table X and Y are the Inputs and Z is the Output. As shown in the abovetable the Output is 1 only when both the Inputs are 1 and in all other cases the output is 0.Logical multiplication table0.0 00.1 01.0 01.1 1AND gate is used to realize the logical multiplication operationNOT GateSingular or unary operations define an operation on a single variable. The familiarexample of unary operation is -, so we can write -7, -9 or –Z, that means we are to takethe negative of these values. The operation complementation means inversion of aquantity and this operation is defined by the following table.Input Output X Z 0 1 1 0The above table gives the output for each input. This table is also called as truth tableNOT gate. The operation complementation or inversion of a quantity can be realized bythe help of NOT gateSelf Assessment Question:1) Differentiate between OR, AND and NOT gateSummaryIn Binary number system two symbols are used to represent the numbers hence it isbinary number system. The two symbols are 0 and 1.The same type of positional notationEDUPROZ Page 32
  33. 33. Introduction to Information Technologyis used in the binary number system as in the decimal system. In the same manner asdecimal arithmetic is performed Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisionis also carried out. The negative numbers are represented in complement form so that amachine can be made to add and subtract, using only circuitry for adding. There are twotypes of complements in this and they are 2’s complement and 1’s complement.A gate is an electronic circuit which operates on one or more input signal to produce anoutput signal. There are different gates like OR, AND, NOT etTerminal Questions1) Convert the following from Binary to Decimala) 11111b) 10110c) 11001d) 001012) Perform the following Arithmetic operations in Binarya) 11011 + 11110b) 11.01 + 101.11c) 1110 – 1100d) 1001 – 0101e) 1011 * 110f) 111* 101g) 1111÷ 111h) 111 ÷ 113) Perform the following subtraction using 1’s and 2’s complement systema) 11101 – 11110b) 11001 – 100114) Write the truth table of OR, AND, NOT gatesEDUPROZ Page 33
  34. 34. Introduction to Information Technology Unit 3 Introduction to Operating Systems • In this unit we deal with different terminologies with reference to Operating System and various flavors of Operating System. This unit also includes the main functions of Operating system. We discuss various features of Windows XP in specific in this unit.IntroductionOperating System is systems software. This software acts as an Interface between theuser and the computer. It also controls and coordinates different operations of computer.As computer understands machine language and it is difficult for us to understand themachine language, we issue commands in our language say in English. But the computerdoes not understand our language as it knows only machine language so this softwareaccepts the commands given by us in the language known to us say in English andconverts that command into equivalent machine level language command for theexecution by the computer.So without operating system we can not work with the computer. It is similar to asituation where two people of different languages speaking to each other with the help ofan interpreter who knows both the languages.To work with any of the software it has to be present in the Primary memory i.e. RandomAccess Memory (RAM) of the computer. But we know that when we switch off themachine whatever is present in the RAM will be lost. So how the OS will be brought tothe RAM? When we switch on the machine after Power On Self Test (POST) process theoperating system will be loaded into the computer’s memory with the help of certaininstructions (Bootstrap program) present in the ROM. The process of loading theOperating System into computer’s memory is known as Booting. Once the OperatingSystem is loaded into the memory of the computer we can work with the computer.Thus the main functions of Operating System are1) To act as an interface between the user and the computer2) To monitor the use of the resources of computers (Resources can be hardware orSoftware)3) To control and coordinate Input and Output devices4) To manage the program and data files i.e. to store, to retrieve, to delete files5) To help the application programs execute commands given by the userEDUPROZ Page 34
  35. 35. Introduction to Information TechnologyExamples for operating systems are Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows XP,Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows 2003, UNIX, Linux, Novell Netware,Solaris etc.Operating system is a general term and the above mentioned examples are the names forthe product given by different Organizations which have developed this Operating systemsoftware.Objectives:To understand· Different types of operating systems· Features of Windows XP· Options available in the Start button after Windows XP Installation· Copying of files/Folders· Restoring the deled files/folders· Windows media playerDifferent types of Operating SystemsLet us categorize the Operating System as follows1) Single User2) Multi User3) Batch Processing4) Multi Processing5) On Line and Real TimeSingle usera) Single user, Single Task: As the name implies, this operating system is designed tomanage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The PalmOS for Palm handheld computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-taskoperating system. When you are using MS-DOS it is a single user single task operatingsystem.EDUPROZ Page 35
  36. 36. Introduction to Information Technologyb) Single user, Multi-tasking: This is the type of operating system most people use ontheir desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s MacOSplatforms are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have severalprograms in operation at the same time. For example, it’s entirely possible for a Windowsuser to write a letter and at the same time the printing of another letter can be done or atthe same Internet browsing can be done.So in Single user operating systems there is one keyboard and one monitor that youinteract with.Consider a typical home computer. There is a single keyboard and mouse that acceptinput commands, and a single monitor to display information output. There may also be aprinter for the printing of documents and images.In essence, a single-user operating system provides access to the computer system by asingle user at a time. If another user needs access to the computer system, they must waittill the current user finishes what they are doing and leaves.Multi-userA multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of thecomputer’s resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that therequirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they areusing has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn’t affectthe entire community of users. Unix, VMS and mainframe operating systems areexamples of multi-user operating systems.A multi-user operating system lets more than one user access the computer system at onetime. Access to the computer system is normally provided via a network, so that usersaccess the computer remotely using a terminal or other computer.These terminals nowadays are generally personal computers and use a network to sendand receive information to the multi-user computer system. Examples of multi-useroperating systems are UNIX, Linux and mainframes such as the IBM AS400.The multi user operating systems must manage and run all user requests, ensuring they donot interfere with each other. Devices which can only be used by one user at a time, likeprinters and disks must be shared amongst all those requesting them so that all the outputdocuments are not jumbled up. If each user tried to send their document to the printer atthe same time, the end result would be garbage. Instead, documents sent are placed in aqueue, and each document is printed in its entirety before the next document to be printedis retrieved from the queue. It is similar to a situation where in you are waiting for yourturn in a ticket counter to get a ticket. The ticket issuer issues the ticket when your turncomes. Here also all the printing jobs wait in a queue and jobs are printed one after theEDUPROZ Page 36
  37. 37. Introduction to Information Technologyother. Some priority can also be set to some jobs so that they can be taken up earlyaccording to some priority.Batch Processing Systems:In these kinds of systems the user feeds his job into the computer and waits for thecompletion of his job. New job can not be started until the old job is not completed. Thusthe jobs required to be processed are kept in ready state and whenever one job iscompleted the next job is automatically taken and executed.Multi Processing:We are considering the system with more than one processor. When we are having morethan one processor in the system then different tasks can be actually run simultaneouslyon different processors. For example if we have two processors in a system and two tasksto run then these two different tasks can be run on two different processorssimultaneously. The operating systems used in such systems are called Multi Processingoperating systems. Multi Processing is achieved in different ways.On Line and Real Time Systems:In these kinds of systems the information should be retrieved quickly whenever neededand updated immediately once a transaction is complete. There should not be any delayin the process. Such systems are called On Line Systems. The example for these kinds ofsystems are ticket reservation systems may it be Air line or Railway. In such system, theresponse time should be very short because a customer’s reservation is to be done whilehe waits. So the information about a particular route and status about the reservationshould be obtained without any delay and similarly when ticket is issued that informationis also be updated immediately.In few of the applications computers are used to control the operations of physicalsystem. A factory floor in which, the machines are controlled by the computers. Forexample the rotation speed of lathe, controlling the temperature of furnace, controllingthe placement of space crafts in the correct orbits etc. In such an application the operationis in real time that is the control has to be exercised during the actual functioning of thesystem. Real time operating systems have to work within strict limits of a critical job.Self Assessment Question:1) Differentiate between Multi tasking in single processor system and Multi processingIntroduction to Windows-XPEDUPROZ Page 37
  38. 38. Introduction to Information TechnologyThis is another operating system brought out by Microsoft for desktop machines.Windows XP features friendly new screens, simplified menus, and a whole lot more.Discover the fresh, streamlined design of Windows XP.Following are the features of Windows XPSafe and Easy personal computing: Windows XP makes personal computing easy andenjoyable. Power, performance, a bright new look, and plenty of help when you need it.Windows XP has it all, along with unmatched dependability and security.World of Digital media: A lot of working with digital media at home, at work, and onthe Internet. Enjoy photography, music, videos, computer games, and more.Connected Home and Office: Share files, photos, music, even a printer and Internetconnection – all on a network that is private and secure.Best for Business: With Windows XP, you get the proven dependability of MicrosoftWindows 2000, enhanced for high-speed performance and even greater reliability.Installation of Windows XPOnce Windows XP is installed on your computer you will get a desktop as shown in fig.1.Now you can click on to start button available at the left hand corner of the screen. Youwill get menu as shown in Fig. 2.EDUPROZ Page 38
  39. 39. Introduction to Information TechnologyIn this menu you will get different options which are discussed below.3.5.1 My Documents Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Documents asshown in Fig. 3 and you can store a file in this or you can open an already existing file.Fig. 33.5.2 My Recent Documents This folder contains the recently opened documents asshown in figure 4. When you move the cursor on this you will get another menu whichcontains the recently opened documents.EDUPROZ Page 39
  40. 40. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 43.5.3 My Pictures Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Pictures as shownin Fig. 5 and you can store digital photos, images and graphic files or retrieve that kind offile from this folder.Fig. 53.5.4 My Music Clicking on this item opens the folder named as My Music as shown inFigure 6 and one can store and retrieve music and audio files.EDUPROZ Page 40
  41. 41. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 63.5.5 My Computer Clicking on this gives you access to, and information about the diskdrives, cameras, scanners and other hardware devices connected to your computer asshown in figure 7.Fig. 7From the menu of figure 7 you can go to any of the secondary devices installed. Forexample if you want to work with C drive double click on that drive and the drive isopened and you can get the contents of the drive as shown in figure 8.EDUPROZ Page 41
  42. 42. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 8Fig. 9Now you can go to the required folder or can create a new folder. To create a new folder,follow the steps given below.1) Bring the mouse pointer to the blank area of desk-top then right click the mousepointer you will get a menu as shown in figure 9.2) Now click on the folder icon the new folder is created with name of the folder as NewFolder.3) Later you can change the name of the folder. To do this, right click on the folder ofwhich you want to change the name. From the resulting menu click on to Rename option.Now it allows you to change the name of the folder and you can type the new name forthe folder.3.5.6 Control Panel Clicking on this item provides option for you to customize theappearance and functionality of your computer, Add or Remove programs and set up network connections and user accounts. The menu is shown in figure 10.EDUPROZ Page 42
  43. 43. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 10Depending on the kind of set up you want to do select the required option. For example ifyou want to change the desktop of your computer, follow the steps given below.1) Click on to Appearance and Themes you will get a menu as shown in figure 11.2) Now click on to Change the desktop background. You will get a menu as shown infigure 12. Now you can select the required background as shown in figure 13 and clickon to Apply and then on OK. The new desktop will be applied. You can even havedesktop designed by you. To do that click on to Customize Desktop option and follow thesteps shown in the resulting menu.Fig. 11Fig. 123.5.7 Printers and FaxesEDUPROZ Page 43
  44. 44. Introduction to Information Technology Clicking on this displays installed printers and faxes. Also helps inadding new ones. This menu is shown in figure 13. To add a printer you can click on toAdd a printer option and follow the steps shown in menus.Fig. 133.5.8 Help and Support Clicking on this item opens a central location as shown in figure 14for help topics, tutorials, troubleshooting and other support services. For example if youare not able to copy a file from your hard disk to your floppy disk there may be someproblems and you want to know what the problem is and want to fix the problem. Youclick on to the option Fixing a problem and in the resulting menu as shown in figure 15type the text My floppy drive is not working and click on to . You will get a menu asshown in figure 16 which shows the search result. Now you can click on to any of theoption available for example click on to search result Copy a file or folder to floppy disk.You will get menu as shown in figure 17 and follow the steps given.Note: You can even type the searching text in the menu shown in figure 14 also.Fig. 14EDUPROZ Page 44
  45. 45. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 173.5.9 Search Clicking on this opens a window as shown in figure 18 where you canpick search options and work with search results.EDUPROZ Page 45
  46. 46. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 18For example if you want to search a particular file you can click on to All files andfolders option and you will get a menu as shown in figure 19.Fig. 19Here you have different criteria using which you can search. Following are the differentcriteria’s.All or part of the file name: Here you can type the complete name of the file name orpartial name with the help of wild card characters.Ex: test.doc or te*.doc ( this will search for all the files which starts with te and hasextension as doc) or t*.* (this will search for all the files which starts with t and havingany type of extension). Using wild card characters will be useful when you don’t knowthe exact name of the file.A word or phrase in a file: You can type in a particular word or phrase which you knowis present in the file which you are searching for.Look in: Here you can specify the place (drives or folders) where you think file ispresent. Default is all drives.When was it modified: Here you can specify the tentative date of modification of thefile which you want to search? Default is Don’t remember.EDUPROZ Page 46
  47. 47. Introduction to Information TechnologyWhat size it is: Here you can specify the approximate size of the file. Default is Don’tremember.You can make use of the advanced options also.3.5.10 Run Clicking on this opens a window as shown in figure 20 where you cantype the name of the folder, program, document or Internet resource, it will be opened.Fig. 20Here you can type the name of the program which you want to execute. You can use theBrowse option to select the file which you want to execute. Then click on to OK.For example you want to got to DOS prompt you can type in command and click on toOK. You will get a menu as shown in figure 21. Now to go back to Windows XP againyou can type in exit at the prompt and press Enter key.Fig. 213.5.11 All Programs Moving the cursor on this gets you a menu which shows the programsinstalled in the computer which is shown in figure 22. From this menu you can select theprogram which you want to execute. Move the mouse pointer over the program whichyou want to execute and click on that. Some of the options shown in figure may have submenu also, so it will be displayed and you can select the required program from thatEDUPROZ Page 47
  48. 48. Introduction to Information Technologymenu also. For example the Accessories option has sub menu which is shown in figure23. Presence of sub menus is identified by the symbol in front of the option.Fig. 22Fig. 233.5.12 Log Off Clicking on this provides option for closing your programs and logging offor for leaving your programs running and switching to another user.If different users are created you can switch between the users. Click on to Log off youwill get a menu as shown in figure 24. Then to know the different users click on toSwitch User you will get a menu as shown in figure 25. Here you can select the user towhich you want to switch to or you can come back to the same user by clicking on thatuser.EDUPROZ Page 48
  49. 49. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 24Fig. 253.5.13 Turn Off Computer Clicking on this provides the option for turning off or restarting thecomputer, or for activating standby or Hibernate modes as shown in figure 26.Fig. 26If you want to switch off the computer you can click on to Turn Off option. If you wantrestart the computer you can click on to Restart option.Self Assessment Question:EDUPROZ Page 49
  50. 50. Introduction to Information Technology1) In Windows XP why control Panel is used?2) Explain the different options available in Search tool of Windows XP?Copying of Files/FoldersFiles/Folders can be copied/moved from one location to another location. To do thisfollow the steps given below.For example you want to copy a file named Internet from mahalasa subdirectory of whichis in D drive to a folder named swarnalakshmi in C drive.1) Click on to Start, from the resulting menu click on to My Computer (figure 29).2) Double click on to D drive, in the resulting menu double click on to mahalasa folder itwill display the contents of the folder.3) Right click on to the file named Internet. From the resulting menu as shown in figure27, click on to Copy option if you want to copy this file to another location. Click on toCut option if you want to move this file to another location.Fig. 27Fig. 28Note: if you want to copy this file to floppy disk, click on to Send option and you will getanother sub menu as shown in figure 28, then click on to 3 ½ Floppy (A:) option. Makesure that floppy disk is inserted in the floppy drive.EDUPROZ Page 50
  51. 51. Introduction to Information Technology4) Now click on to this icon twice you will reach a menu which displays you withall the drive option as shown in figure 29. Double click on to the drive C and in theresulting menu double click on to swarnalakshmi folder and now right click the mousepointer. You will get a menu; click on to Paste option. The file will be copied or moveddepending on the option which you had selected in step 2.Fig. 29Recycle BinWhen ever you deleted a file or folder it will be stored in Recycle Bin. You can evenrestore the deleted file or permanently delete the file or empty the Recycle Bin.To restore or permanently delete a file/folder:Right click on to Recycle Bin icon from the resulting menu click on to Explore option. Inthe resulting menu right click on to file which you want to restore or permanently delete.From the resulting menu click on to Restore if you want to restore the file or click on toDelete if you want permanently delete it.To empty the Recycle Bin:Right click on to Recycle Bin icon from the resulting menu click on to Empty RecycleBin option.Windows Media PlayerThis tool is used to play the digital media like music, Video, CD, DVD and Internetradio. To start this tool Click on to Start, from the resulting menu click on to WindowsMedia Player icon. Using the resulting menu you can select the files which you want toplay.EDUPROZ Page 51
  52. 52. Introduction to Information TechnologySummaryOperating system is system software which acts as an Interface between the user andcomputer. There are different types of Operating systems like Single User, Multi user,Batch Processing, Multi Processing, On Line and Real Time. Windows XP is theOperating System for the Desktop machines brought out by Microsoft. Windows XP isSafe and Easy for personal computing, can be used to connect to the Network easily.Terminal Questions1) Discuss different types of Operating systems2) Explain different features of Windows XP Unit 4 MS-WORD-I • This Unit deals with most widely used Microsoft tool Word, which is used to create and edit document. This unit deals with the basic parts of Word. How you can create, save and close a new document. It also deals with formatting of the document. Working with table is also discussed. The header, footers and Page setup is also discussed in this.IntroductionIn an organization lot of documents to be prepared, for example letters to be written tosuppliers, customers, banks, authorities. Similar letters may have to be written again andagain. For all these, the letter may be typed once and it can be stored in the computer.When the same or similar letter is needed then it can be retrieved and changes can bemade to it if needed. Thus lot of time is saved in typing and the efficiency is increased.So Microsoft Word is such software which can be used to create, format, store, retrieve,edit and print the document.Microsoft Corporation developed this software. This software is used to create, edit, layout, save, print, mail merge etc. a document.ObjectivesTo Understand· The steps to start Microsoft Word· Basic units of Microsoft Word· The creation of a documentEDUPROZ Page 52
  53. 53. Introduction to Information Technology· The saving of the document· The opening of an existing document· The formatting of a document· Editing of a document· Numbering· Inserting of symbols, pictures, tables in the document· The printing of document4.2 Starting MS-WORDFollowing steps are undertaken to start Microsoft Word1. Move the mouse pointer over the Start button present on the extreme left of the taskbar and then click the left mouse button. A push up menu appears.2. Place the Mouse pointer over the Program option inside the push up menu. A secondmenu gets displayed immediately.3. Move the mouse pointer over Microsoft Word option and click the left mouse buttonas shown in Fig.1. A blank document file named Document1 gets displayed on thescreen instantly Fig. 2. Now the text/data can be entered in the file Document1 appeared.Fig. 1EDUPROZ Page 53
  54. 54. Introduction to Information TechnologyFig. 2Basic Units of MS Word1. Title Bar – Displays the application name, file name and various window controls likeminimize button, maximize button and close button.2. Menu Bar – Different options for selection.3. Standard tool bar – Displayed by default, allows to give common commands likesaving the file, opening a file, printing etc.4. Formatting toolbar – Allows the user to give commands related to formattingtext/data like Bold, Underline, Font Style, Font Size, Color etc.5. Editing area - Here you can type and edit the text.6. Scroll Bars – Used to scroll through different parts of current document.7. Drawing Tool Bar – This is used to draw different shapes, arrows, etc.8. Status Bar –The Status bar, which is a horizontal area at the bottom of the document window inMicrosoft Word, provides information about the current state of what you are viewing inthe window and any other contextual information.To display the status bar, click on the tools menu then click on to Options then click theView tab, and then select the Status bar check box under ShowNote: ToolbarEDUPROZ Page 54
  55. 55. Introduction to Information TechnologyTo display a toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click the toolbar youwant. If the button you want doesn’t appear, click More Buttons on that toolbar. For Helpon an option, press SHIFT + F1, and then click the option.Now let us discuss in detail each of these units.Title Bar: Fig. 31. Title Bar: Displays the application name, file name and various window controlledlike minimize button, maximize button and close button.a. Minimize button : This is used for changing a window/ document into a buttonb. Maximize button : This is used for enlarging window/ document after it has beenminimized or restored. When a document is maximized then to bring it back to theoriginal size use Restore button.c. Close button : This is used to close a window/documentMenu Bar:This has different options for selections (which is discussed in detail below). In additionto minimize and close button(described above) it has a restore button which is used forbringing a window/sheet to its original size and adjusting the size of awindow/Document.Fig. 4File: This helps in creating a new file; opening an existing file; saving a file; printing;print preview; setting up of print area; page setup; sending the page to MS-PowerPointetc; closing the Document; exiting MS Word etc.Edit: This helps in copying, cutting, deleting a range of text. Pasting a text which hasbeen copied or cut from some other location. Clearing the content at a particular location.Finding the particular text and Replacing it with new text in the Document etc.View: This helps in enabling and disabling certain tools in the word window. This is alsoused to add Header and Footer to the document.EDUPROZ Page 55
  56. 56. Introduction to Information TechnologyInsert: This can be used to insert page numbers, page breaks, pictures etc.Format: This helps in changing the Font of the textTools: This helps with the spell checker, protection of documents by providing thepassword The document can be customized according to one’s specification etc.Table: This is used to insert, delete, select, and draw table.Window: This is used to hide/unhide the work book. To create new window, to split thepane etc.Help: This can be used to get any help about MS Word.Standard tool bar:Fig. 5 New: This is used to create a new Document Open: This is used to open an existing file Save: This is used to save the file Print: This is used to take the print out of the file Preview : This is used to see the printing document before printing Spelling checker: This is used to check the spelling and grammatical errors in thefile Cut: This is used to move a selected block from one location to another. Copy: This is used to copy a selected block we want from one location to another Paste: This is used to make appear the block selected during the copy or cutoperation at a certain location.EDUPROZ Page 56
  57. 57. Introduction to Information Technology Format Painter: This is used to copy character and paragraph formats. Follow thesteps given below to use Format painter.To copy paragraph formatting, select the paragraph – including the paragraph mark – thathas the formatting you want to copy.To copy character formatting, select the text that has the formatting you want to copy.On the standard tool bar, click Format Painter and then select the paragraph or textyou want to apply the formatting to.To copy the selected formatting to several locations, double click Format Painter. Clickthe button again when you’re finished, or press ESC. Undo: This is used to retain any modifications made to a file Redo: This is used to repeat the last action. Insert Hyperlink: Hyperlink can be used to move to a specific location in the samedocument or other document. Tables and Borders: This is used to draw a table with the drawing tool. The borderof the table can also be set to required design. Insert Table: This is used to insert a table with required number of Rows andColumns. The border of the table can also be set to required design. Insert Worksheet: A work sheet with required number of cells can be inserted inyour document and you can work with that work sheet. Columns: Changing the pages into columns. Drawing: This is used to toggle between enable/disable of Drawing tool bar. Document Map: The Document Map is a separate pane that displays a list ofheadings in the document and keeps track of your location on it. When you click aheading in the Document Map, Word jumps to the corresponding heading in thedocument, displays it at the top of the window, and highlights the heading in theDocument.EDUPROZ Page 57
  58. 58. Introduction to Information Technology Zoom: You can “zoom in” to get a close-up view of your document or “zoomout” to see more of the page at a reduced size. Close: To close all open documents without exiting the program. Find: This is used to find a text or find a text and replace it by the required text.Formatting Tool BarFig. 6Font: This helps in changing the style of the text typed in the documents. You can selecta required font from the available font list and change the style of the text which is insidethe selected block.Font Size: This helps in changing the size of the text. You can select a required size forthe font from the available list and change the size of the text which is inside the selectedblock.Bold: This helps in make the selected block look bolder than the other textItalic: This helps to make the text in the selected block look tilted or slanted.Underline: This helps in getting an underline to the selected text.Align Left: This helps in aligning the contents in the selected block to the left edge of thepage.Center: This helps in aligning the contents of the selected block to the center of the page.Align Right: This helps in aligning the contents of the selected block to the right edge ofthe page.Justify: The contents of the document can be aligned from the left edge to the right edgeof the page.Numbering: Automatic numbering can be generated when you want number certainpoints that you are typing.Increase Indent and Decrease Indent: These can be used to set the position of Text inrelation to the left and right margins and spacing is used to set the amount of spacebetween lines and paragraphs.EDUPROZ Page 58

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