M arine mammals have always fascinated me.From the enormity of the great whales tothe intelligence of dolphins, marine mammalsare a mystery to many of us.I have had the good fortune to dive with manyspecies of dolphins and whales around the worldand have come to appreciate the fact that they areour counterparts in the sea. From the excitedchatter of spotted dolphins in the Caribbean tothe eerie songs of the humpbacks in Hawaiito the mega pods of killer whales off SouthernCalifornia, marine mammals showcase many complex behaviors that rival our own:communication, recognition of the individual, social structures, hunting skills, and play.But today, many marine mammal populations are in decline, some for unknownreasons. As the only species that can protect all living things, we have a moralobligation to better understand our counterparts in the sea because, deep downinside, we know that if we cannot protect them, we cannot protect ourselves.Thanks to the tireless, hard work of marine mammal scientists around the world,we now have a better understanding of the complexities of many of thesepopulations, their movement patterns, their social structures, and their needfor a productive and clean marine ecosystem.There are success stories to be told of the incredible comeback of some ofthe protected baleen whale populations, like the Eastern Pacific gray whales, whichhave been removed from the Endangered Species List now that their populationis thought to have recovered to their pre-hunting numbers of over 20,000.But we also need to remember, despite over 20 years of protection, many of thebaleen whale populations still remain at less than 25 percent of their originalnumbers, including humpback whales and fin whales, both featured in this film,because of habitat degradation, depleted fish stocks, entanglement, ship collision,heavily contaminated coastal marine habitats, and increased noise pollution.This wonderful Educator’s Resource Guide will take you and your studentson a journey into the world of dolphins and whales with the help of the twelvemarine mammal species featured in the film DOLPHINS AND WHALES 3D.You will learn all about their lifestyle and physical characteristics, and theirvulnerability to an ever-changing environment.There are reasons to be hopeful, though, for the future of marine mammals.Thanks to the spectacular DOLPHINS AND WHALES 3D: Tribes of the Oceanand its outstanding educational materials, we have the resources to better informourselves and help contribute to the well-being of their future. Please join mein spreading the important message that we all need to act responsibly and livea more sustainable life-style to ensure the preservation of the world’s oceanand its inhabitants, including the 80 plus species of marine mammals.In the end, the most crucial partners whales and dolphins have are YOU and ME.L ess than 1% of human beingshave had the incredible opportunityto visit the underwater world. Withthis beautiful adventure projected on toIMAX® 3D screens, viewers can virtuallytouch some of the most incrediblemammals in the world. It is amazinghow much we share with these beautifulcreatures - play, family, education,community, struggles. Unfortunately,because we often are so unaware ofthese underwater tribes and our negativeimpact upon them through slaughterings and uncontrolled humanactivities, they are facing the greatest challenge of all: to survivethe destruction of their habitat and depletion of food resources.DARYL HANNAH
NarratorA lthough each encounter withthese wild creatures was truly.magical and highly emotional,DOLPHINS & WHALES 3D marks oneof the most challenging and epicproductions we have ever taken onas filmmakers. We had to set up twocrews to work in parallel and they oftenfaced daunting sea conditions whilefilming. But locating the pods at a timewhen their populations are dwindlingwas undisputedly the greatest obstacleto overcome. The result, however, is simply spectacular. We haveexceptional footage of cetaceans shown as they really are in theirdaily lives: interacting socially, communicating through their highlycomplex system of sound, playing, feeding, breeding, migratingand perpetually fighting for their survival.JEAN-JACQUES MANTELLODirectorFOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES, VISIT ONLINEDOLPHINSandWHALES3D.com/educationA WORD FROMJEAN-MICHEL COUSTEAUFilm Ambassador““
““This Educators Guide was written by Dr. Elisabeth Mantelloin collaboration with marine biologists fromJean-Michel Cousteaus Ocean Futures Society.Special thanks to :Jean-Michel Cousteau, Dr. Richard Murphy,Holly Lohuis, Aron Bosworth, Dr. Sylvia Earle,Laurence Billiet-Prades, Alexandra Body.Illustrations by Joëlle Baron for 3D Entertainment Ltd.
Whaling depleted oceans of many greatwhale species. Great whales were heavilyhunted for their oil, blubber, baleenand meat. It was a prosperous and lucrativeactivity as whale products hadmany uses and were inhigh demand. Whale oilwas used as fuel forlamps, a lubricant formachinery and glycerinefor explosives, as well asfor cosmetics, soaps,detergent and margarine.Baleen plates were greatlyused in the women’sclothes industry forcorsets, hoop skirts, bustlesand collars.Measures to protect great whalestocks and populations started as farback as the 1930’s, but the whalingindustry went on exterminating them atan incredible rate until the 1986 moratoriumon whaling. Between 1904 and1986 whaling was responsible for morethan 2 million great whale deaths in thesouthern hemisphere alone. Between1964 and 1974 a quarter of a millionsperm whales were killed. The numberof Antarctic whales is estimated at lessthan 10 percent of what it was beforewhaling began.Thanks to the increasing involvement ofenvironmental groups and people worldwide,the International WhalingCommission (IWC, founded in 1946)passed a moratorium on commercialwhaling that took effect in 1986.(Unfortunately, too many countries keptparticipating in commercial whalingactivities, some under hiding behindfalse scientific purposes.) Some animalsthat were on the brink of extinction havesince been able to recover somewhat.According to the International WhalingCommission IWC Scientific Committee(May 2007) the Blue whale is slowlyrecovering from commercial whaling.However, the Blue whales of theAntarctic are still lessthan 1 percent of theiroriginal abundancedespite 40 years of completeprotection.Humpback and spermwhales are returning toviable levels but theirstocks are far from returning
to their original numbers.Some species maynever recover and will belost forever.The recovery of some great whalespecies has led pro-whaling countries toask for the 1986 ban to be lifted in orderto resume the commercial hunting. Antiwhalingadvocates and countries arguethat resuming whaling will only leadonce again to the very situation thatnecessitated the ban as whale populationscannot biologically withstand thepressure of commercial whaling. Theycannot recover quickly once endangered,even when the cause of danger isremoved.Japanese efforts to stop the 1986 moratoriumhave stirred up the on-going controversybetween whaling supportersand opponents. However, at the 59thIWC conference (Anchorage, May2007) Japan’s proposition was opposedby an anti-whaling voting majority andthe whaling ban remains valid for now.But for how long?The plight of small cetaceans did notattract real attention leading to protectionmeasures until the 1970s. Today themany regulations to protect smallcetaceans are difficult to enforce andillegal captures and trades are reported.The main cause for concern for smallcetaceans is by-catch (being incidentallycaught with other species) and directcatch followed by pollution, habitatdegradation, overfishing (food depletion,starvation), culling and noise pollution.(See: Review of small cetaceans, 2004.)Tens of thousands of small cetaceansare killed year round for their meat,their oil or for use as bait, fertilizer,shark bait and livestock feed. Japanalone kills approximately from 17,000to 20,000 small cetaceans a year mainlyfor their meat. Orcas and other smallercetaceans are sometimes deliberatelykilled by industrial fishermen who viewthem as competition for fish stocks(culling).Aboriginal whalers in the Arctic regionshave the right to harvest around 2000belugas, 1000 narwhals and numerousdolphins for their oil and meat. Manyindigenous communities are harvestingbelugas sustainably and working withscientists to do so. They have highincentive for long-term resource managementin that they depend on thespecies for subsistence.
Whaling, an infamous threatToday a few countries are still huntingwhales. In 2005 Japanese whalerscaught 853 minke whales and 10 finwhales in the Antarctic, and 220minke, 100 sei, 50 bryde’s and 10sperm whales in the North Pacific. InDecember 2007, Japan announced itwill postpone the whaling of 50humpbacks in the Antarctic for one totwo years, but still plans on killingaround 1,000 whales, including theendangered fin whale, in 2008 underthe pretext of “scientific research”,while whale meat ends up in Japanesesupermarkets.Norway caught between 200 and 600minke whales in the 1990’s, 639 in2005, and “only” 592 (they hadplanned to catch more than a thousand)in 2007 due to low market demand.Iceland has been catching 39 minkewhales per year since 2003. It hadresumed commercial whaling in 2007,but is stopping because of low marketdemand for whale meat.