Seneca -de_la_brevedad_de_la_vida[1]

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SOBRE LA BREVEDAD DE LA VIDA. TEXTO QUE REPRESENTA LA HUMANITAS LATINA

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Seneca -de_la_brevedad_de_la_vida[1]

  1. 1. De la brevedad de la vida 3RU 6e1($ 1/40
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  134. 134. De la brevedad de la vida 1LQJXQR GH HOORV WH IRU]DUi D OD PXHUWH WRGRV HOORV WH HQVHxDUiQ D PRULU 1LQJXQR KROODUi WXV DxRV DQWHV WH FRQWULEXLUiQ GH ORV VXRV 1LQJXQD FRQYHUVDFLyQ VXD WH VHUi SHOLJURVD1RVHUiFXOSDEOHVXDPLVWDGQLFRVWRVDVXYHQHUDFLyQ H VX FRPXQLFDFLyQ VDFDUiV HO IUXWR TXH TXLVLHUHV VLQ TXH SRU HOORVTXHGHHOTXHFRQVLJDVPiVFXDQWRPiVVDFDUHV £4XpIHOLFLGDGTXpKRQUDGDYHMH]HVSHUDDOTXHVHSXVRGHEDMR GH OD SURWHFFLyQ GH pVWD 7HQGUi FRQ TXLHQ GHOLEHUDU GH ODV PDWHULDVJUDQGHVSHTXHxDVDTXLHQFRQVXOWDUFDGDGtDHQVXV QHJRFLRV GH TXLHQ RtU YHUGDGHV VLQ LQMXULDV DODEDQ]DV VLQ DGXODFLyQ XQD LGHD FXD VHPHMDQ]D LPLWH 6ROHPRV GHFLU TXH QR HVWXYR HQ QXHVWUD SRWHVWDG HOHJLU SDGUHV KDELpQGRQRVORV GDGR OD IRUWXQD FRQ WRGR HVR KDELHQGR WDQWDV IDPLOLDV GH QRELOtVLPRV LQJHQLRV QRV YLHQH D VHU OtFLWR QDFHU D QXHVWUR DOEHGUtR(VFRJHDFXDOGHHOODVTXLHUHVDJUHJDUWHTXHQRVyOR VHUiV DGRSWDGR HQ HO DSHOOLGR VLQR SDUD JR]DU DTXHOORV ELHQHV TXHQRVHGDQSDUDJXDUGDUORVFRQPDOLJQLGDGEDMH]DVLHQGR GHFDOLGDGTXHVHDXPHQWDQPiVFXDQGRVHUHSDUWHQHQPiV (VWDV FRVDV WH DEULUiQ HO FDPLQR SDUD OD HWHUQLGDG FRORFiQGRWH HQDTXHOODDOWXUDGHODFXDOQDGLHVHUiGHULYDGR6yORHVWHPHGLR KD FRQ TXH H[WHQGHU OD PRUWDOLGDG R SDUD GHFLUOR PHMRU SDUD FRQYHUWLUODHQLQPRUWDOLGDG/DVKRUDVODVPHPRULDVWRGROR GHPiV TXH R SRU VXV GHFUHWRV GLVSXVR OD DPELFLyQ R OHYDQWy FRQIiEULFDVFRQPXFKDEUHYHGDGVHGHVKDFHQRKDFRVDTXH QR GHVWUXD OD YHMH] ODUJD FRQVXPLHQGR FRQ PiV SULVD OR TXH HOOD PLVPDFRQVDJUy 6RODODVDELGXUtDHVDTXLHQQRVH SXHGH KDFHULQMXULDQRODSRGUiERUUDUODHGDGSUHVHQWHQLODGLPLQXLUi OD IXWXUD DQWHV OD TXH YLQLHUH DxDGLUi DOJXQD SDUWH GH YHQHUDFLyQ SRUTXH OD HQYLGLD VLHPSUH KDFH VX PRUDGD HQ OR FHUFDQRFRQPiVVLQFHULGDGQRVDGPLUDPRVGHORPiVUHPRWR 7LHQHSXHVODYLGDGHOVDELRJUDQGHODWLWXGQRODHVWUHFKDQORV WpUPLQRV TXH D OD GH ORV GHPiV pO VROR HV OLEUH GH ODV OHHV KXPDQDV 6tUYHQOH WRGDV ODV HGDGHV FRPR D LRV RPSUHQGH FRQODUHFRUGDFLyQHOWLHPSRSDVDGRDSURYpFKDVHGHOSUHVHQWH GLVSRQHHOIXWXURFRQORFXDOODXQLyQGHWRGRVORVWLHPSRVKDFH TXH VHD ODUJD VX YLGD 6LHQGR PX FRUWD OOHQD GH FRQJRMDV OD GH DTXHOORV TXH VH ROYLGDQ GH OR SDVDGR QR FXLGDQ GH OR SUHVHQWHWHPHQ ORIXWXURFXDQGROOHJDQDVXVSRVWULPHUtDV FRQRFHQWDUGHORVGHVGLFKDGRVTXHHVWXYLHURQRFXSDGRVPXFKR WLHPSRHQKDFHUORTXHHQVtHVQDGD 35/40
  135. 135. De la brevedad de la vida QRWHQJDV SRU VXILFLHQWH DUJXPHQWR SDUDSUREDU TXHWXYLHURQ ODUJD YLGD HO KDEHU DOJXQDV YHFHV OODPDGR D OD PXHUWH $WRUPpQWDORV VX LPSUXGHQFLD FRQ LQFRQVWDQWHV DIHFWRV TXH LQFXUULHQGR HQ OR PLVPR TXH WHPHQ GHVHDQ PXFKDV YHFHV OD PXHUWHSRUTXHODWHPHQ 7DPSRFRHVDUJXPHQWRSDUDMX]JDUODUJDODYLGDHOTXHMDUVHGH TXH VRQ ODUJRV ORV GtDV TXH YDQ HVSDFLRVDV ODV KRUDV SDUD OOHJDU DO WLHPSR VHxDODGR SDUD HO FRQYLWH 3RUTXH VL WDO YH] ORV GHMDQ VXV RFXSDFLRQHV VH DEUDVDQ HQ HO GHVFDQVR VLQ VDEHU FyPROHGHVHFKDUiQRFyPRORDSURYHFKDUiQDVtOXHJREXVFDQ DOJXQDRFXSDFLyQWHQLHQGR SRU SHVDGR HOWLHPSR TXH HVWiQ VLQ HOOD6XFHGLpQGROHVORTXHDORVTXHHVSHUDUHOGtDGHVWLQDGRSDUD ORV MXHJRV JUDGLDWRULRV R SDUD RWUR DOJ~Q HVSHFWiFXOR R ILHVWDV TXH GHVHDQ DVHQ DSULVD ORV GtDV LQWHUPHGLRV SRUTXH UHWDUGD OR TXHHVSHUDQSDUDOOHJDUWLHQHQSRUSUROLMDODGLODFLyQTXHDDTXHO WLHPSR TXH DO TXH OH DPD HV EUHYH SUHFLSLWDGR KDFLpQGRVH PiV EUHYH SRU VX FXOSD SRUTXH VLQ WHQHU FRQVLVWHQFLD HQ ORV GHVHRVSDVDQGHXQDFRVDHQRWUD$pVWRVQRVRQODUJRVVLQR PROHVWRVORVGtDVDOFRQWUDULRWLHQHQSRUFRUWDVODVQRFKHVOR TXH ODV SDVDQ HQWUH ORV ODVFLYRV DEUD]RV GH VXV DPLJDV R HQ OD HPEULDJXH] GH TXH WXYR RULJHQ OD ORFXUD GH ORV SRHWDV TXH DOHQWDURQ FRQ IiEXOD ODV FXOSDV GH ORV KRPEUHV ILQJLHQGR TXH -~SLWHU HQYLFLDGR HQ HO DGXOWHULR GH $OHPHQD KDEtD GDGR GXSOLFDGDVKRUDVDODQRFKH(OKDFHUDXWRUHVGHORVYLFLRVDORV GLRVHV ¢TXp RWUD FRVD HV VLQR DQLPDU D HOORV GDU D OD FXOSD XQDGLVFXOSDEOHOLFHQFLDFRQHOHMHPSORGHODGLYLQLGDG¢$pVWRV TXH WDQ FDUDV FXHVWDQ ODV QRFKHV SRGUiQ GHMDU GH SDUHFHUOHV FRUWtVLPDV3LHUGHQHOGtDHVSHUDQGRODQRFKHODQRFKHFRQHO WHPRU GHO GtD D~Q VXV PLVPRV GHOHLWHV VRQ WHPHURVRV GHVDVRVHJDGRVFRQYDULRVUHFHORVHQWUDQGRHQPHGLRGHOJXVWR DOJ~QFRQJRMRVRSHQVDPLHQWRGHORSRFRTXHGXUD H HVWH DIHFWR QDFLy HO OORUDU ORV UHHV VX SRGHUtR VLQ TXHOD JUDQGH]DGHVXIRUWXUDORVDOHJUDVHOHVSXVRWHUURUHOILQTXHOHV HVSHUDED ([WHQGLHQGR HO LQVROHQWtVLPR UH GH ORV SHUVDV VXV HMpUFLWRVSRUODUJRVHVSDFLRVGHWLHUUDVLQSRGHUFRPSUHQGHUVX Q~PHUR QL PHGLGD GHUUDPy OiJULPDV FRQVLGHUDQGR TXH GHQWUR GH FLHQ DxRV QR KDEtD GH KDEHU YLYR DOJXQR GH WDQ IORULGD MXYHQWXG VLHQGR HO PLVPR TXH ORV OORUD HO TXH OHV KDEtD GH DSUHVXUDUODPXHUWHKDELHQGRGHFRQVXPLUHQEUHYHWLHPSRD XQRV HQ WLHUUD D RWURV HQ PDU D XQRV HQ EDWDOODV D RWURV HQ KXLGDVSRQtDHOWHPRUHQHOFHQWpVLPRDxR 36/40
  136. 136. De la brevedad de la vida 6RQ SXHV VXV JXVWRV FDUJDGRV GHUHFHORVSRUTXH QRHVWULEDQ HQIXQGDPHQWRVVyOLGRVDVtFRQODPLVPDYDQLGDGTXHOHVGLR SULQFLSLR VH GHVKDFHQ ¢XiOHV SXHV MX]JDUiV VRQ DTXHOORV WLHPSRVDXQ SRU VX PLVPDFRQIHVLyQ PLVHUDEOHVSXHVDXQ ORV HQTXHVHOHYDQWDQVREUHSXMDQGRHOVHUGHKRPEUHV¢VRQSRFRV VHUHQRV/RVPDRUHVELHQHVVRQFRQJRMRVRVQXQFDVHKDGH GDUPHQRVFUpGLWRDODIRUWXQDTXHFXDQGRVHPXHVWUDIDYRUDEOH 3DUD FRQVHUYDUQRV HQ XQD EXHQD GLFKD QHFHVLWDPRV GH RWUD GHKDFHUYRWRVSDUDTXHGXUHQORVEXHQRVVXFHVRVSRUTXHWRGR ORTXHYLHQHGHPDQRGHODIRUWXQDHVLQHVWDEOHORTXHVXELy PiV DOWR HVWi HQ PDRU GLVSRVLFLyQ GH FDtGD VLQ TXH FDXVH GHOHLWHORTXHDPHQD]DUXLQDDVtHVIRU]RVRTXHQRVyORVHD EUHYtVLPD VLQR PLVHUDEOH OD YLGD GH DTXHOORV TXH FRQ JUDQ WUEDMRDGTXLHUHQORTXHHQPDRUKDQGHSRVHHURQVLJXHQFRQ VXVXGRUORTXHGHVHDQSRVHHQFRQDQVLDVORTXHDGTXLULHURQ FRQWUDEDMRFRQHVWRQRFXLGDQGHOWLHPSRTXHSDVDQGRXQD YH]MDPiVKDGHYROYHU$ODVDQWLJXDVRFXSDFLRQHVVXVWLWXHQ RWUDVGHQXHYRXQDHVSHUDQ]DGHVSLHUWDDRWUDXQDDPELFLyQ DRWUDDPELFLyQQRVHEXVFDHOILQGHORVWUDEDMRVSHURP~GDVH ODPDWHULD 1XHVWUDV KRQUDV QRV DWRUPHQWDQ SHUR PiV WHPSR QRV FRQVXPHQODVDMHQDVDFiEDVHHOWUDEDMRGHQXHVWUDSUHWHQVLyQ FRPHQ]DPRV HO GH ODV LQWHUFHVLRQHV HMDPRV OD PROHVWLD GH VHU ILVFDOHV FRQVHJXLPRV OD GHV VHU MXHFHV DFDEyVH OD MXGLFDWXUDSDVDDFRQWDGRUPDRUHQYHMHFLyVLHQGRPHUFHQDULR SURFXUDGRU GH KDFLHQGDV DMHQDV KiOODVH HPEDUD]DVR FRQ OD SURSLDHMyD0DULR OD PLOLFLD RFXSyOH HO FRQVXODGR 6ROLFLWD 4XLQFLR HO KXLU GH OD GLFWDGXUD VDFDUiQOH SDUD HOOD GHVGH HO DUDGR,Ui(VFLSLyQDODVJXHUUDVGHÈIULFDVLQPDGXUDGHHGDG SDUD WDQ JUDQGH HPSUHVD YROYHUi YHQFHGRU GH $QtEDO GH $QWLRFRVHUiKRQRUGHVXFRQVXODGRILDGRUGHOGHVXKHUPDQR VLpOQRORLPSLGLHUHOHKDUiQLJXDOD-~SLWHUDpVWHTXHHUD HO DPSDUR GH OD SDWULD DFRVDUiQ FLYLOHV VHGLFLRQHV DO TXH VXSR HQ OD MXYHQWXG GHVHFKDU ORV GHELGRV KRQRUHV OH GHOHLWDUi HQODYHMH]ODDPELFLyQGHXQSHUWLQD]GHVWLHUUR1XQFDKDQGH IDOWDU FDXVDV GH FXLGDGR RUD IHOLFHV RUD LQIHOLFHV FRQ ODV RFXSDFLRQHVVHFLHUUDODSXHUWDGHVHiQGRVHVLHPSUHVLQOOHJDUD FRQVHJXLUVH 37/40
  137. 137. De la brevedad de la vida HVYtDWH SXHV 2+ FODUtVLPR 3DXOLQR GHO YXOJR UHFyJHWH D PiV VHJXUR SXHUWR QR VHD FRPR DUURMDGR SRU OD YHMH] $FXpUGDWHGHORVPDUHVTXHKDVQDYHJDGRODVWRUPHQWDVSURSLDV TXH KDV SDGHFLGR ODV TXH VLHQGR S~EOLFDV KDV KHFKR WXDV 6XILFLHQWHVPXHVWUDVKDQGDGRWXYLUWXGHQLQTXLHWDVWUDEDMRVDV RFDVLRQHV([SHULPHQWDDKRUDORTXHKDFHHQODTXLHWXG-XVWR HVKDDVGDGRDODUHS~EOLFDODPDRUPHMRUSDUWHGHODHGDG WRPDWDPELpQSDUDWLDOJXQDSDUWHGHWXWLHPSRQRWHOODPRD SHUH]RVR KROJD]iQ GHVFDQVR QL SDUD TXH VHSXOWHV WX EXHQD LQFOLQDFLyQHQVXHxRQLHQGHOHLWHVHVWLPDGRVGHOYXOJRTXHHVR QR HV DTXLHWDUVH +DOODUiV UHWLUDGR VHJXUR RFXSDFLRQHV PiV LPSRUWDQWHVGHODVTXHKDVWDDKRUDKDVWHQLGR $GPLQLVWUDQGR W~ ODV UHQWDV GHO LPSHULR FRQ PRGHUDFLyQ GH VHU DMHQDV FRQ OD PLVPD GLOLJHQFLD TXH VL IXHUDQ SURSLDV FRQ OD UHFWLWXGGHVHUS~EOLFDVFRQVLJXHVDPRUGHXQRILFLRHQTXHQR HV SHTXHxD KD]DxD HYLWDU HO RGLR 3HUR FUpHPH TXH HV PiV VHJXURHOHVWDUHQWHUDGRGHODFXHQWDGHWXYLGDTXHGHODVGHO GHSyVLWR GHO WULJR S~EOLFR 5HGXFH D WL HVH YLJRU GH iQLPR FDSDFtVLVPRGHJUDQGHVFRVDVDSiUWDOHGHHVHPLQLVWHULRTXH DXQTXH HV PDJQtILFR QR HV DSWR SDUD YLGD SHUIHFWD SHUVXiGHWH TXH WDQWRV HVWXGLRV FRPR KDV WHQLGR GHVGH WX SULPHUD HGDG HQ ODV FLHQFLDV QR IXHURQ D ILQ GH TXH VH HQWUHJDVHQDWXFXLGDGRWDQWRVPLOODUHVGHIDQHJDVGHWULJRGH FRVDVPDRUHVPiVDOWDVKDEtDVGDGRVHVSHUDQ]DV1RIDOWDUiQ SDUD HVD RFXSDFLyQ KRPEUHV GH HVFRJLGD FDSDFLGDG GH FXLGDGRVD GLOLJHQFLD 3DUD OOHYDU FDUJDV PiV DSWRV VRQ ORV WDUGRVMXPHQWRVTXHORVQREOHVFDEDOORVFXDJHQHURVDOLJHUH]D ¢TXLpQ KD TXH OD RSULPD FRQ SHVR JUDYH 3LHQVD DVLPLVPR GH FXiQWR IDVWLGLR VHD HO H[SRQHUWH D WDQ JUDQGH FXLGDGR 7X RFXSDFLyQ HV FRPR ORV HVWyPDJRV KXPDQRV TXH QL DGPLWHQ UD]yQ QL VH PLWLJDQ FRQ HTXLGDG SRUTXH HO SXHEOR KDPEULHQWR QRVHDTXLHWDFRQUXHJRV 3RFRV GtDV GHVSXpV TXH PXULy DOtJXOD D TXLHQ GHEtD SHVDU PXFKR VL HV TXH H[LVWH VHQWLPLHQWR HQ HO LQILHUQR PRULUL YLYLHQGR D~Q HO SXHEOR URPDQR TXHGy 5RPD FRQ SURYLVLRQHV SDUDVLHWHXRFKRGtDV PLHQWUDV pO FRQVWUXtD SXHQWHV FRQ QDYtRV MXJDED FRQ ODV IXHU]DVGHO,PSHULRSUHVHQWyVHHO~OWLPRGHORVPDOHVDXQDUD ORV VLWLDGRV OD HVFDVH] GH DOLPHQWRV (O TXHUHU LPLWDU D XQ IXULRVRUHH[WUDQMHURFRQLQIHOLFLGDGVREHUELROHKXERGHFRVWDU ODSpUGLGDHOKDPEUHORTXHDHOODVHVLJXHTXHHVODUXLQD 38/40

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