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  • 1 – Piaget, Jean, “Lógica e ConhecimentoCientífico” Volume 1, LivrariaCivilização – Editora, Porto, 1980, pág. 17
  • A acomodaçãoé a atividadepeloqualosesquemas de ação e do pensamento se modificamemcontacto com o objeto. Podeserespontânea no caso de se tratar de um esquemareflexoouautomatizado, oupodeservoluntária, dirigida e refletida/ The accommodation is the activity by which patterns of action and thought are modified in contact with the object. It can be spontaneous if it is a reflection scheme or automated, or may be voluntary, directed and reflected.A assimilaçãoé a incorporação dos elementos do meionosesquemasque o sujeitodispõe e a ação do sujeitosobreosobjetos e sobre o mundo. Consisteemintegrarosobjetosemestruturasprévias, istoé, a incorporação da informação no própriosujeito. / Assimilation is the incorporation of elements from the environment in the schemes the subject has and his action over the objects and the surroundings.In accommodation there are mental changes in the subject but in assimilation there aren’t.Example of accommodation: a child is sequent adapting his/her crying through time in order to call the attention over his/her needs, until no more crying is made but other resource is used (there has been a change in the resource); Example of assimilation: to grab an object is a resource maintained during the entire life although in the same resource there is adaptation depending on the object that needs to be grabbed.
  • A acomodaçãoé a atividadepeloqualosesquemas de ação e do pensamento se modificamemcontacto com o objeto. Podeserespontânea no caso de se tratar de um esquemareflexoouautomatizado, oupodeservoluntária, dirigida e refletida/ The accommodation is the activity by which patterns of action and thought are modified in contact with the object. It can be spontaneous if it is a reflection scheme or automated, or may be voluntary, directed and reflected.A assimilaçãoé a incorporação dos elementos do meionosesquemasque o sujeitodispõe e a ação do sujeitosobreosobjetos e sobre o mundo. Consisteemintegrarosobjetosemestruturasprévias, istoé, a incorporação da informação no própriosujeito. / Assimilation is the incorporation of elements from the environment in the schemes the subject has and his action over the objects and the surroundings.In accommodation there are mental changes in the subject but in assimilation there aren’t.Example of accommodation: a child is sequent adapting his/her crying through time in order to call the attention over his/her needs, until no more crying is made but other resource is used (there has been a change in the resource); Example of assimilation: to grab an object is a resource maintained during the entire life although in the same resource there is adaptation depending on the object that needs to be grabbed.
  • A acomodaçãoé a atividadepeloqualosesquemas de ação e do pensamento se modificamemcontacto com o objeto. Podeserespontânea no caso de se tratar de um esquemareflexoouautomatizado, oupodeservoluntária, dirigida e refletida/ The accommodation is the activity by which patterns of action and thought are modified in contact with the object. It can be spontaneous if it is a reflection scheme or automated, or may be voluntary, directed and reflected.A assimilaçãoé a incorporação dos elementos do meionosesquemasque o sujeitodispõe e a ação do sujeitosobreosobjetos e sobre o mundo. Consisteemintegrarosobjetosemestruturasprévias, istoé, a incorporação da informação no própriosujeito. / Assimilation is the incorporation of elements from the environment in the mental schemes the subject has and his action over the objects and the surroundings.In accommodation there are mental changes in the subject but in assimilation there aren’t.Example of accommodation: a child is sequent adapting his/her crying through time in order to call the attention over his/her needs, until no more crying is made but other resource is used (there has been a change in the resource); Example of assimilation: to grab an object is a resource maintained during the entire life although in the same resource there is adaptation depending on the object that needs to be grabbed.
  • A acomodaçãoé a atividadepeloqualosesquemas de ação e do pensamento se modificamemcontacto com o objeto. Podeserespontânea no caso de se tratar de um esquemareflexoouautomatizado, oupodeservoluntária, dirigida e refletida/ The accommodation is the activity by which patterns of action and thought are modified in contact with the object. It can be spontaneous if it is a reflection scheme or automated, or may be voluntary, directed and reflected.A assimilaçãoé a incorporação dos elementos do meionosesquemasque o sujeitodispõe e a ação do sujeitosobreosobjetos e sobre o mundo. Consisteemintegrarosobjetosemestruturasprévias, istoé, a incorporação da informação no própriosujeito. / Assimilation is the incorporation of elements from the environment in the mental schemes the subject has and his action over the objects and the surroundings.In accommodation there are mental changes in the subject but in assimilation there aren’t.Example of accommodation: a child is sequent adapting his/her crying through time in order to call the attention over his/her needs, until no more crying is made but other resource is used (there has been a change in the resource); Example of assimilation: to grab an object is a resource maintained during the entire life although in the same resource there is adaptation depending on the object that needs to be grabbed.
  • 1 – Piaget, Jean, “Lógica e ConhecimentoCientífico” Volume 1, LivrariaCivilização – Editora, Porto, 1980, pág. 17

Transcript

  • 1. Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 2. LOGIC - “logic is, in a first approach, the studyof the conditions of truth”1However, as the truth implies a relation(structure) between subject and object, onemight need a clearer approach: “logic is thestudy of the formal conditions of truth” –performing a deductive or inductivevalidation of the relations independently ofthe real subject and object: for example:2+2=4 is a valid assumption although notuniversally based on the “experience” of areal subject and object.Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 3. The Piaget’s Learning Theory based on theobservation of children, conducted to theunderstanding of the notions ofAccommodation and Assimilation as structuresfor knowledge and to the establishment of the 4stages theory of learning.Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 4. AccomodationThe accommodation is the activity by whichpatterns of action and thought are modified incontact with the object. It can be spontaneous ifit is a reflection scheme or automated, or maybe voluntary, directed and reflected.Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 5. Assimilation:Assimilation is the incorporation of elements fromthe environment in the mental schemes thesubject has and his action over the objects andthe surroundings.Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 6. In accommodation there are mental changesin the subject but in assimilation there aren’t.Example of accommodation: a child is sequentadapting his/her crying through time in order tocall the attention over his/her needs, until nomore crying is made but other resource is used(there has been a change in the resource);Example of assimilation: to grab an object is aresource maintained during the entire lifealthough in the same resource there isadaptation depending on the object thatneeds to be grabbed.Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 7. Piaget’s 4 Stages Theory of Cognitive Development:1st - Sensorimotor stage (0-2 yo)(reflexive, instinct and beginning of creativity (or symbolic thought)2nd – Preoperational stage (2-7 yo)(mentally acting on objects; representations: drawings, images,words)3rd – Operational stage (7-11 yo)(beginning of the appropriate use of logic through several processbut only real object concerned – not abstractions)4th – Formal stage (11yo and beyond)(use of logical reasoning by incorporating abstracting thinking andachieve conclusions from the information available – application tohypothetical situations)Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 8. Adults Cognitive Functioning = Learning = Self-Poiesis / Constructivism1. – Critical thinking (including self-thinking)2. - Development of knowledge based on activity/experience3. - Autonomy (self-regulation; self- orientation)4. - Emotional Reasoning (emotional management)Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 9. 1. – Critical thinking (including self-thinking): a). Meta-cognitive reasoning and Capacity of Abstract Thinking b). Deductive and Inductive Thinking (and Abductive Thinking) c). Judgments of valueLogic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 10. 1.a)Capacity of Abstract Thinking: - Dialectical Thinking - Reciprocal ThinkingLogic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 11. 1.b)Deductive, Inductive (and Abductive) reasoningare, accordingly, the assumption of the formalconditions of truth as valid. They do not createknowledge, they only organize and expandpreviously achieved knowledge!Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 12. Deductive conclusions are necessarily truth onceboth its premises are also truth; Deduction is,accordingly, the application of a Truth alreadyconfirmed within a whole relation to only a partof that same relation.all the project partners are European Institutions(whole relation); Radar B is a project partner(partial relation); deduction states that Radar B isa European Institution (true partial relationachieved by deductive thinking).In such cases, as the part belongs to the whole,the truth relation for the whole will always bevalid for the part.Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 13. Induction is, on contrary, the application of aTruth only confirmed for the part, to the whole ofa relation (very common in Statistics). It is,accordingly more fallible, since not all the termsof the relation were confirmed.Radar B is a project partner (true partial relation);Radar B is a European Institution (true partialrelation); all the project partners are EuropeanInstitutions (true whole relation);Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 14. In such cases, as the whole is made of verifiedbut also non-verified parts, there is a risk ofobtaining a false result.Radar B is a project partner (true partial relation);Radar B is a French Institution (true partialrelation); all the project partners are FrenchInstitutions (false whole relation)Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 15. Abductive reasoning allows a perspective oftruth for the “cause” based on the knowledgeover the “effect”.All the project partners are European Institutions.[effect][Most probably] Being a European Institution iscompulsory for joining in the partnership for theproject [cause].Logic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 16. Key Elements:- Accommodation- Assimilation- Deduction- Induction- Formal RelationsLogic Reasoning The theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education
  • 17. Thank you!!Logic ReasoningThe theories of Jean Piaget – topics for a discussion focused on adult education