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KuhnOracleDatab...
i
Pro Oracle Database 11g
Administration
■ ■ ■
Darl Kuhn
ii
Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration
Copyright © 2010 by Darl Kuhn
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be r...
iii
To Heidi, Brandi, and Lisa.
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Contents at a Glance
■Contents ...........................................................................................
v
Contents
■Contents at a Glance ............................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
vi
Upgrading Oracle Software......................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
vii
Stopping the Database.........................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
viii
Step 2: Copy Files to Directories............................................................................
■ CONTENTS
ix
Adding Online Redo-Log Groups .................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
x
Implementing Virtual Columns. ..................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xi
Enforcing Not Null Conditions .................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xii
Dropping an Index.............................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xiii
Summary......................................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xiv
■Chapter 11: Large Objects....................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xv
Summary........................................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xvi
Summary.......................................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xvii
Excluding Statistics.........................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xviii
■Chapter 14: External Tables ...............................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xix
Creating an Unpopulated Materialized View ....................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xx
Checking Whether MVs Are Refreshing Within a Time Period . ....................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxi
Making a Hot Backup...........................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxii
12. Setting the CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME Initialization Parameter.................................471...
■ CONTENTS
xxiii
Backing up the Spfile.......................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxiv
How the Process Works .......................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxv
Step 4: Source the Required OS Variables......................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxvi
Creating Dataset Files.......................................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxvii
Understanding cron Table Entries............................................................................
■ CONTENTS
xxviii
Handling Temporary Tablespace Issues ......................................................................
xxix
About the Author
■ Darl Kuhn is currently a senior DBA working for Oracle Corporation. He
has coauthored four other b...
■ CONTENTS
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About the Technical Reviewer
■ Bernard Lopuz is a senior technical support analyst at Oracle Corporation
si...
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  1. 1. this print for content only—size & color not accurate 7.5 x 9.25 spine = 1.34375" 720 page count PPI = 534 KuhnOracleDatabase11gAdministration THE EXPERT’S VOICE® IN ORACLE Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration  CYAN  MAGENTA  YELLOW  BLACK   PANTONE 123 C Darl Kuhn Companion eBook Available Effectively manage and safeguard your organization's data BOOKS FOR PROFESSIONALS BY PROFESSIONALS® US $59.99 Shelve in: Databases / Oracle User level: Intermediate–Advanced THE APRESS ROADMAP Troubleshooting Oracle Performance Expert Oracle Practices Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration RMAN Recipes for Oracle Database 11g Beginning Oracle Database 11g Administration www.apress.com Companion eBook See last page for details on $10 eBook version ISBN 978-1-4302-2970-4 9 781430 229704 5 59 9 9 Pro Covers 11g Release 2!Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration is a task-oriented guide to managing complex database environments using Oracle Database 11g. Author Darl Kuhn draws from a well of experience over a decade deep to lay out real-world tech- niques leading to success as an Oracle database administrator (DBA). He gives clear explanations on how to perform critical tasks. He weaves in theory where necessary without bogging you down in unneeded detail. Darl is not afraid to take a stand on how things should be done. He won’t leave you adrift in a sea of choices, showing you three ways to do something and then walking away. Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration condenses and organizes the core job of a database administrator into one volume. You get strong coverage of fun- damentals such as software installation, database and schema creation, backup and recovery, and more. That coverage is informed by the author’s experience of being asked to manage increasing numbers of databases in the same amount of time. For example, Chapter 1 provides excellent coverage of silent installs, enabling you to repeat the same Oracle binary install across many servers with- out having to run the GUI installer interactively each time. Database administration isn’t about passing a certified exam, or about point- ing-and-clicking your way through a crisis. Database administration is about applying the right solution at the right time. It’s about avoiding risk and making robust choices that get you home each night in time for dinner with your fam- ily. If you have “buck stops here” responsibility for an Oracle database, then Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration is the book you need to elevate yourself to the level of Professional Oracle Database Administrator. Darl Kuhn, Author of Linux Recipes for Oracle DBAs RMAN Recipes for Oracle Database 11g Oracle SQL Recipes
  2. 2. i Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration ■ ■ ■ Darl Kuhn
  3. 3. ii Pro Oracle Database 11g Administration Copyright © 2010 by Darl Kuhn All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher. ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-4302-2970-4 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4302-2971-1 Printed and bound in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Trademarked names, logos, and images may appear in this book. Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, logo, or image we use the names, logos, and images only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. President and Publisher: Paul Manning Lead Editor: Jonathan Gennick Technical Reviewer: Bernard Lopuz Editorial Board: Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Jonathan Hassell, Michelle Lowman, Matthew Moodie, Duncan Parkes, Jeffrey Pepper, Frank Pohlmann, Douglas Pundick, Ben Renow-Clarke, Dominic Shakeshaft, Matt Wade, Tom Welsh Coordinating Editor: Anita Castro Copy Editors: Mary Behr and Tiffany Taylor Compositor: MacPS, LLC Indexer: BIM Indexing & Proofreading Services Artist: April Milne Cover Designer: Anna Ishchenko Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC., 233 Spring Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10013. Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax (201) 348-4505, e-mail orders-ny@springer-sbm.com, or visit www.springeronline.com. For information on translations, please e-mail rights@apress.com or visit www.apress.com. Apress and friends of ED books may be purchased in bulk for academic, corporate, or promotional use. eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles. For more information, reference our Special Bulk Sales–eBook Licensing web page at www.apress.com/info/bulksales. The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this work, neither the author(s) nor Apress shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work.
  4. 4. iii To Heidi, Brandi, and Lisa.
  5. 5. iv Contents at a Glance ■Contents .......................................................................................................... v ■About the Author.........................................................................................xxix ■About the Technical Reviewer......................................................................xxx ■Acknowledgments.......................................................................................xxxi ■Introduction................................................................................................xxxii ■Chapter 1: Installing the Oracle Binaries ........................................................ 1 ■Chapter 2: Implementing a Database............................................................ 25 ■Chapter 3: Configuring an Efficient Environment.......................................... 51 ■Chapter 4: Tablespaces and Datafiles ........................................................... 71 ■Chapter 5: Managing Control Files and Online Redo Logs............................. 91 ■Chapter 6: Users and Basic Security........................................................... 111 ■Chapter 7: Tables and Constraints .............................................................. 133 ■Chapter 8: Indexes ...................................................................................... 171 ■Chapter 9: Views, Synonyms, and Sequences............................................. 193 ■Chapter 10: Data Dictionary Basics............................................................. 213 ■Chapter 11: Large Objects........................................................................... 243 ■Chapter 12: Partitioning: Divide and Conquer............................................. 269 ■Chapter 13: Data Pump ............................................................................... 307 ■Chapter 14: External Tables ........................................................................ 345 ■Chapter 15: Materialized Views .................................................................. 361 ■Chapter 16: User-Managed Backup and Recovery...................................... 413 ■Chapter 17: Configuring RMAN.................................................................... 457 ■Chapter 18: RMAN Backups and Reporting................................................. 487 ■Chapter 19: RMAN Restore and Recovery ................................................... 509 ■Chapter 20: Oracle Secure Backup.............................................................. 545 ■Chapter 21: Automating Jobs...................................................................... 569 ■Chapter 22: Database Troubleshooting ....................................................... 595 ■Index ........................................................................................................... 637
  6. 6. v Contents ■Contents at a Glance ............................................................................................iv ■About the Author.............................................................................................. xxix ■About the Technical Reviewer........................................................................... xxx ■Acknowledgments............................................................................................ xxxi ■Introduction..................................................................................................... xxxii ■Chapter 1: Installing the Oracle Binaries ..............................................................1 Understanding the Optimal Flexible Architecture ...........................................................1 Oracle Inventory Directory .....................................................................................................................3 Oracle Base Directory ............................................................................................................................3 Oracle Home Directory...........................................................................................................................3 Oracle Network Files Directory ..............................................................................................................4 Automatic Diagnostic Repository...........................................................................................................4 Installing Oracle..............................................................................................................4 Step 1. Create the Operating System Group and User...........................................................................5 Step 2. Ensure That the Operating System Is Adequately Configured ...................................................6 Step 3. Obtain the Oracle Installation Software.....................................................................................7 Step 4. Unzip the Files ...........................................................................................................................7 Step 5. Configure the Response File, and Run the Installer...................................................................8 Step 6. Troubleshoot Any Issues..........................................................................................................11 Installing with a Copy of an Existing Installation ..........................................................12 Step 1. Copy the Binaries Using an Operating System Utility ..............................................................13 Step 2. Attach the Oracle Home...........................................................................................................14
  7. 7. ■ CONTENTS vi Upgrading Oracle Software...........................................................................................15 Reinstalling After Failed Installation .............................................................................16 Applying Interim Patches..............................................................................................17 Installing Remotely with the Graphical Installer ...........................................................18 Step 1. Install X Software and Networking Utilities on the Local PC ...................................................19 Step 2. Start an X Session on the Local Computer ..............................................................................19 Step 3. Copy the Oracle Installation Media to the Remote Server .......................................................20 Step 4. Run the xhost Command..........................................................................................................21 Step 5. Log In to the Remote Computer from X ...................................................................................21 Step 6. Ensure that the DISPLAY Variable Is Set Correctly on the Remote Computer..........................21 Step 7. Execute the runInstaller Utility.................................................................................................22 Step 8. Troubleshoot............................................................................................................................22 Summary.......................................................................................................................23 ■Chapter 2: Implementing a Database..................................................................25 Setting Operating System Variables .............................................................................25 A Manually Intensive Approach............................................................................................................26 Oracle’s Approach to Setting OS Variables ..........................................................................................26 My Approach to Setting OS Variables ..................................................................................................27 Creating a Database......................................................................................................29 Step 1. Set the Operating System Variables ........................................................................................29 Step 2: Configure the Initialization File ................................................................................................30 Step 3: Create the Required Directories...............................................................................................32 Step 4: Create the Database ................................................................................................................32 Step 5. Create a Data Dictionary..........................................................................................................36 Configuring and Implementing the Listener..................................................................37 Creating a Password File ..............................................................................................39 Starting and Stopping the Database.............................................................................40 Understanding Authentication..............................................................................................................41 Starting the Database ..........................................................................................................................41
  8. 8. ■ CONTENTS vii Stopping the Database.........................................................................................................................43 Using a Response File to Create a Database ................................................................45 Dropping a Database.....................................................................................................46 How Many Databases on One Server?..........................................................................47 Summary.......................................................................................................................50 ■Chapter 3: Configuring an Efficient Environment................................................51 Customizing Your Operating System Command Prompt...............................................52 Customizing Your SQL Prompt......................................................................................54 Creating Shortcuts for Frequently Used Commands.....................................................55 Using Aliases........................................................................................................................................55 Using a Function ..................................................................................................................................56 Rerunning Commands Quickly......................................................................................57 Scrolling with the Up and Down Arrow Keys .......................................................................................58 Pressing Ctrl+P and Ctrl+N..................................................................................................................58 Listing the Command History...............................................................................................................58 Searching in Reverse...........................................................................................................................59 Setting the Command Editor.........................................................................................59 Developing Standard Scripts ........................................................................................60 dba_setup ............................................................................................................................................60 dba_fcns ..............................................................................................................................................61 tbsp_chk.bsh .......................................................................................................................................62 conn.bsh ..............................................................................................................................................64 filesp.bsh .............................................................................................................................................65 login.sql................................................................................................................................................66 top.sql ..................................................................................................................................................66 lock.sql.................................................................................................................................................67 users.sql ..............................................................................................................................................67 Organizing Scripts.........................................................................................................68 Step 1: Create Directories....................................................................................................................68
  9. 9. ■ CONTENTS viii Step 2: Copy Files to Directories..........................................................................................................69 Step 3: Configure the Startup File........................................................................................................69 Summary.......................................................................................................................70 ■Chapter 4: Tablespaces and Datafiles.................................................................71 Understanding the First Five.........................................................................................72 Understanding the Need for More.................................................................................72 Creating Tablespaces....................................................................................................73 Renaming a Tablespace................................................................................................76 Controlling the Generation of Redo...............................................................................76 Changing a Tablespace’s Write Mode...........................................................................77 Dropping a Tablespace .................................................................................................78 Using Oracle Managed Files .........................................................................................80 Creating a Bigfile Tablespace .......................................................................................81 Displaying Tablespace Size ..........................................................................................81 Altering Tablespace Size...............................................................................................82 Toggling Datafiles Offline and Online............................................................................83 Renaming or Relocating a Datafile ...............................................................................85 Summary.......................................................................................................................90 ■Chapter 5: Managing Control Files and Online Redo Logs ..................................91 Managing Control Files .................................................................................................91 Viewing Control File Names and Locations..........................................................................................93 Adding a Control File............................................................................................................................94 Moving a Control File ...........................................................................................................................96 Removing a Control File.......................................................................................................................97 Managing Online Redo Logs .........................................................................................98 Displaying Online Redo-Log Information............................................................................................100 Determining the Optimal Size of Online Redo-Log Groups ................................................................102 Determining the Optimal Number of Redo-Log Groups......................................................................103
  10. 10. ■ CONTENTS ix Adding Online Redo-Log Groups ........................................................................................................105 Resizing Online Redo-Log Groups......................................................................................................105 Adding Online Redo-Log Files to a Group ..........................................................................................106 Removing Online Redo-Log Files from a Group .................................................................................107 Moving or Renaming Redo-Log Files .................................................................................................107 Summary.....................................................................................................................108 ■Chapter 6: Users and Basic Security.................................................................111 Understanding Schemas vs. Users .............................................................................111 Managing Default Users..............................................................................................112 Creating Users ............................................................................................................115 Choosing a User Name and Authentication Method...........................................................................115 Assigning Default Permanent and Temporary Tablespaces ..............................................................116 Modifying Passwords..................................................................................................118 Enforcing Password Security......................................................................................119 Logging On as a Different User...................................................................................120 Modifying Users ..........................................................................................................122 Dropping Users ...........................................................................................................122 Enforcing Password Security and Resource Limits ....................................................123 Implementing Password Security ......................................................................................................124 Limiting Database Resource Usage ...................................................................................................126 Managing Privileges....................................................................................................128 Assigning Database System Privileges..............................................................................................128 Assigning Database Object Privileges................................................................................................129 Grouping and Assigning Privileges .............................................................................130 Summary.....................................................................................................................131 ■Chapter 7: Tables and Constraints ....................................................................133 Understanding Table Types ........................................................................................133 Creating a Table..........................................................................................................135 Creating a Heap-Organized Table ......................................................................................................135
  11. 11. ■ CONTENTS x Implementing Virtual Columns. ...........................................................................................................138 Making Read-Only Tables ....................................................................................................................140 Understanding Deferred Segment Creation ........................................................................................141 Allowing for Parallel SQL Execution. ...................................................................................................142 Compressing Table Data......................................................................................................................143 Avoiding Redo Creation........................................................................................................................144 Creating a Table from a Query . ...........................................................................................................146 Modifying a Table .......................................................................................................146 Obtaining the Needed Lock. ................................................................................................................147 Renaming a Table ................................................................................................................................147 Adding a Column..................................................................................................................................147 Altering a Column.................................................................................................................................148 Renaming a Column.............................................................................................................................149 Dropping a Column ..............................................................................................................................149 Displaying Table DDL ..................................................................................................150 Dropping a Table . .......................................................................................................151 Undropping a Table . ...................................................................................................152 Removing Data from a Table ......................................................................................153 Using DELETE.......................................................................................................................................153 Using TRUNCATE..................................................................................................................................153 Viewing and Adjusting the High-Water Mark ..............................................................154 Tracing to Detect Space Below the High-Water Mark ........................................................................155 Using DBMS_SPACE to Detect Space Below the High-Water Mark. ..................................................156 Creating a Temporary Table .......................................................................................159 Creating an Index-Organized Table ............................................................................161 Managing Constraints .................................................................................................161 Creating Primary-Key Constraints. ......................................................................................................162 Enforcing Unique Key Values ...............................................................................................................163 Creating Foreign-key Constraints . ......................................................................................................164 Checking for Specific Data Conditions. ...............................................................................................165
  12. 12. ■ CONTENTS xi Enforcing Not Null Conditions ............................................................................................................16