Master Class in Branding Places at Boğaziçi University


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Master Class in Branding Places at Tourism Administration Department, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey by Eduardo Oliveira

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  • Our Western society is facing major developments, challenges and opportunities that
    are affecting our cities and regions directly or indirectly:
  • Master Class in Branding Places at Boğaziçi University

    1. 1. Master class Branding Places Why How ? Why not What for Eduardo Oliveira 9th of April Boğaziçi University Tourism Administration Dept. Istanbul, Turkey
    2. 2. Envisioning better futures About me I born in Braga, Portugal in 1982.  I studied Geography and Planning at the University of Minho (2000-2004).  I completed a post-degree in Tourism and Regional Development at the Portuguese Catholic University (2006),  I completed a M.Sc. in Marketing and Strategic Management from the School of Economics and Management, University of Minho and University Sains Malaysia (2008-2010). Currently I am a Ph.D. researcher at the Department of Spatial Planning & Environment, University of Groningen (2012-2015). My research is focused in place branding and destination branding in strategic spatial planning
    3. 3. Contents 15’ 15’ 60’ 15’ 15’ From theory… What is place branding? Branding places Setting the scene Open up new perspectives 60’ …to practice What is destination branding? Tourism destination Challenges Strategy & development Instruments Does it work? Case studies In Place branding In Destination branding
    4. 4. Branding places Individuals       Investors Students Tourists Citizens You Me We face challenges and changes Time - Uncertainty
    5. 5. Branding places Taksim Square Places       Countries Cities Regions Towns Neighbourhoods Destinations 1932 They are facing challenges and multiple issues 2012
    6. 6. Branding places People Places Change(s) 1950 Braga 2012
    7. 7. Branding places Places often emphasise the historical, social, human, and cultural assets, features…
    8. 8. Branding places Identity Image Enhance Perceptions Strengthen
    9. 9. Branding places The growing complexity The persistently uneven development The rise of new technologies The financial and economic crisis The changes in production processes The globalisation of culture and the economy The ageing of the population The environmental issues Albrechts, 2010 de Roo & Rauws, 2012
    10. 10. Branding places Examples about what I am talking about?
    11. 11. Branding places Unemployment rates, European Union (Eurostat, Nov, 2012) European Union - 10.7% Portugal – 16.3%
    12. 12. Branding places Gross Domestic Product 2012: -3.5% 2013: -1.9% 2014: 1.3% Portugal Bank,
    13. 13. Branding places Gross Domestic Product Economic growth feeble or negative – after 2008 Source: Portugal Bank,
    14. 14. Branding places Despite the importance of economic indicators – real problems Low purchasing power Minimum Wage in some EU countries Relocation / Bankrupt Companies that close the doors (search) 4.480 Google entrances
    15. 15. Branding places Places such as countries, regions, cities aspire to a promising future. Places are facing challenges (e.g. economic; social) Responses - Actions Grasp the momentum Places assets and strengths. What tools/instruments? Which direction?
    16. 16. Branding places
    17. 17. Branding places
    18. 18. Branding places
    19. 19. Branding places Achieve wide cooperation Why How Why not What for Competitive & attractive image Development & competitiveness Environment & Sustainability Community engagement & social justice Economic regeneration Improve local values & inclusive development Planning tool & place management
    20. 20. Before place branding Ashworth & Kavaratzis, (2010) The application of marketing techniques and the adoption of a marketing philosophy in order to meet operational and strategic goals of places have been well established both in practice and in theory. Places Organizations Places have long felt a need to differentiate themselves from each other in order to assert their individuality and distinctive characteristics in pursuit of various economic, political or socio- psychological objectives.
    21. 21. Before place branding Trueman et al., (2004 ); Kavaratzis, (2004 ); Rainisto, (2003) There are significant similarities between corporate brands and place brands, which bring the two concepts close and provide a starting point for a better understanding of place branding.
    22. 22. Before place branding Knox & Bickerton, (2003) “A corporate brand is the visual, verbal and behavioural expression of an organisation’s unique business model”. “Corporate branding draws on the traditions of product branding, in that it shares the same objective of creating differentiation and preference”. Simões & Dibb, (2001) “The brand is expressed through the company’s mission, core values, beliefs, communication, culture and overall design.”
    23. 23. Before place branding Aaker, (1996) “In contemporary marketing, branding is central, as it integrates all the strategic elements into one success formula”. Corporate branding Place Branding Trueman et al., (2001) “Recognise that there is an urgent need for a robust analysis of the city as a brand and go on to assess that the literature on corporate branding may be relevant.”.
    24. 24. Before place branding Aaker, (1996) “A brand is a multidimensional assortment of functional, emotional, relational and strategic elements that collectively generate a unique set of associations in the public mind”. Hankinson & Cowking, (1996) “Relationship between the brand and the consumer, such that there is a close fit between the consumer’s own physical and psychological needs and the brand’s functional attributes and symbolic values”.
    25. 25. Before place branding Allen, (2007)
    26. 26. Before place branding Baker, (2012) Branding & Marketing
    27. 27. Before place branding This is Geographical nomenclature - product marketing through places Create advantage, or Make it difficult…
    28. 28. Before place branding Create advantage, or We confuse the brand and the product. Where is the problem? Make it difficult…
    29. 29. Before place branding Do all place’s need place branding? Google Images
    30. 30. Before place branding Do all place’s need place branding?
    31. 31. What is place branding?
    32. 32. What is place branding Hankinson, (2010) After years of separate development, there has recently been a convergence between the academic domains of urban policy, tourism and mainstream branding resulting in the emergence of a new domain of place branding. Tourism In the tourism domain, places are represented as places to visit – or tourism destinations.
    33. 33. What is place branding Hankinson, (2010) Urban & Planning In the urban policy domain, the focus is on the economic development of towns and cities based not only on tourism, but also on other areas such as retailing, financial and cultural services. Marketing From a marketing perspective, place branding can be applied to any one or all types of locations and activities.
    34. 34. What is place branding Hankinson, (2010)
    35. 35. What is place branding Mix of disciplines
    36. 36. What is place branding Baker, (2012) Place Brand Place Branding
    37. 37. What is place branding Hankinson & Cowking, (1993) In general terms, branding is a process which attempts to influence how consumers interpret and develop their own sense of what a brand means. A brand is a product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality, which comprises a unique combination of functional attributes and symbolic values’ Place Branding Place Brand
    38. 38. What is place branding Ashworth & Kavaratzis, (2009) This process is the same as that followed in the formation of images of other entities like products or corporations, which have long been managed as brands. (…) branding has only recently been used to describe the process (…) (…) the process of place branding (…) (…) place branding is a strategic process contributing to urban/regional development and urban/regional competitiveness (…)
    39. 39. Branding places Investment Tourism Living Studying
    40. 40. What is place branding
    41. 41. What is place branding Smyth, (2005) “One of the purposes of place branding process is to create strategies to promote the place for several activities and, in some cases, to “sell” parts of the place (country, region, city) for living, consuming and productive activities.” Exchange relationships between other geographical unities Enhance their strengths Earn competitive advantage Achieve progress Multisectorial development
    42. 42. What is place branding : Google imagens
    43. 43. What is place branding
    44. 44. What is place branding Ashworth, (2010) “Place branding can be used as at least part of policies aimed at:  To fostering economic restructuring;  Community participation;  Political engagement;  To secure visibility, create value; To reinforce local identity;  To reinforce the well-being of citizens; To achieve competitive advantage (e.g.): To increase inward investment; To increase tourism revenues”; Efficient tool in pursuit of objectives that relate to the place management and spatial planning
    45. 45. What is place branding Hankison, (2010) “Place branding as a long-term strategic activity” “The process of place branding is usually carried out by a partnership between the public and private sector stakeholders who are involved in the place product delivery.” “In most cases, the objective of place branding is to reposition a place in the mind of the place consumer and to establish a point of differentiation with respect to other places attempting to dominate the same market space”.
    46. 46. What is place branding Kalandides, Kavaratzis & Ashworth, 2010 If branding is a part of marketing, then branding is: If branding is wider than marketing, then branding is:  Communication tool;  A task for advertisers and graphic designers;  Disconnected from the place's identities;  Apolitical;  Ineffective in creating sense/pride of place;  Ineffective in attracting investment;  Effective in attracting visitors.  A strategic development tool;  A task for local authorities and stakeholders; planners;  Connected to the place's identities;  Effective in creating sense/pride of place;  Effective in attracting investment;  Effective in attracting visitors;  Effective in attracting talent people / researcher ’s;
    47. 47. What is place branding  “It is accepted that place marketing can be treated as an instrument of place management undertaken in pursuit of objectives that relate to the management of the place.” Anholt, (2003)  “A place brand strategy is a plan for defining the most realistic, most competitive and most compelling strategic vision for the place.”
    48. 48. What is place branding Anholt, (1996) Since 1996, when Simon Anholt coined the term 'nation branding' and gave birth to this important field of place branding – he has been working with governments to help them plan the policies, strategies, investments and innovations which lead their countries toward an improved profile and reputation. A Consistent Framework for City-To-City Comparisons Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index
    49. 49. What is place branding Anholt, (2003) The Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index “This framework has been developed as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of branding but it is a particularly helpful tool for guiding the branding effort”
    50. 50. What is place branding Anholt, (2003) The Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index  Analytical ranking of the world's city brands.  Working with an innovative set of tools that helps to assess, develop and implement brand strategies .  Provide the global and local insights needed to move a city’s reputation forward and increase the success of Business - Trade - Tourism EFFORTS
    51. 51. What is place branding Anholt, (2003) The Presence refers to the city’s international status and standing – how familiar people are with the city. The Place component refers to the physical aspects of the city – how beautiful and pleasant or otherwise the city is. The Potential considers the opportunities the city has to off er in terms of economic or educational activities.
    52. 52. What is place branding Anholt, (2003) The Pulse examines the existence of a vibrant urban lifestyle - how exciting people think the city is. The People component examines the local population in terms of openness and warmth and also looks at safety issues in the city. The Prerequisites deal with the basic qualities of the city; the standards and price of accommodation and public amenities.
    53. 53. What is place branding Anholt, (2000)
    54. 54. What is place branding
    55. 55. What is place branding
    56. 56. Some controversial thoughts Baker, (2012) Strategic toolkit
    57. 57. Some controversial thoughts Baker, (2012) Out of marketing dep.
    58. 58. Place branding as planning & management tool Place Branding Vision Country Region City Tourism destination Goals Measures Preeminent tool for urban and regional development, planning and place management As strategy to support economic & social changes
    59. 59. Place branding & regional dynamics Place Branding Regional dynamic Select strategies Strategic networks Determine goals While many destinations depend almost exclusively on natural resources others are forced to develop manmade facilities. facilities Develop places and enhance the attractiveness and competitiveness of destinations. Implement new dynamic
    60. 60. Strategy & Development Challenges Places Specific problems Place Branding Strategy Strategic Spatial Planning Place Branding Strategy
    61. 61. Strategy & Development Albrechts, (2010; 2012) Kunzmann, (2000) Healey, (1997, 2006) 4 different types of response Reactive  Rear-view mirror Inactive Going with the flow Pre-active Preparing for the future Pro-active Designing the future – making it happen Creative thinking about possible futures
    62. 62. Strategy & Development
    63. 63. Strategy & Development Albrechts, (2010; 2012) PLACE BRANDING could be used as STRATEGIC SPATIAL PLANNING instrument to support a STRATEGIC CHANGE in direction of places, such as tourism destinations Image – Position - to engage – (…) about that ‘place’ dynamics (…)
    64. 64. Strategy & Development … As response to challenges at economic and social level. …what a place is and what it might become. Determining the strengths and weaknesses e t t he r e w to g Ho ? A run for specified goals Where do we want to go? Designing the future. Prepare a response. Enabling change. Friedmann, 1982; Throgmorton, 1996; Kotter, 1996; Innes & Booher, 1999; Kunzmann, 2000; Hillier, 2002; Healey, 2007; Albrechts, 2010; 2012.
    65. 65. Strategic thinking towards a place branding strategy Place Branding Highlight assets Strategic Planning Links? Communication message The national program for spatial planning Envisioning -Visions Common objectives Common engagement Create identity Inclusiveness Radical change spatial context Dynamic creative process
    66. 66. How can a place branding strategy contribute to the development General Development Well-being of citizens Enhance the regional competiviveness More control of environment Nature & landscape Enhance regional identity
    67. 67. Place Branding Strategy – does it work? Zineldin, 2002; Rainisto, 2003; Ashworth & Kavaratzis, 2010; Hankinson, 2010 Integrated in a wide strategy Functional, physical attributes Clear The national program for spatial planning focus on limited objectives Select the right strategies Engage stakeholders Analyse of existing images
    68. 68. Instruments of Place branding Oliveira, (2012) The concept of place branding is thought to provide valuable tools for places to differentiate themselves, by managing their opportunities and transforming them into competitive advantages, thus gaining brand value and strengthening their global market position. Ashworth, (2009)  Signature buildings and design  Flagship building  Signature Design  Signature Districts  Personality association  Event Hallmarking Reputation Local planning instruments are widely used by places in order to pursuit local or regional objectives Stimulate development Attracting visitors & capital
    69. 69. Instruments of Place branding Personality association Flagship building Signature districts Gaudi Barcelona
    70. 70. Instruments of Place branding Event hallmarking
    71. 71. Instruments of Place branding  “Places organise and sponsor temporary events in order to obtain a wider recognition that they exist but also to establish specific brand associations”. Ashworth, (2009)  “Cultural events are favoured largely because of there visibility and wide acceptability of cultural products as merit goods adding value and desirable brand attributes to a place”. “Hallmark events alone are unlikely to have much impact upon a place brand” “Effective as instruments in a strategic policy”
    72. 72. Can we do place branding with the events? Conceptualization: If the hallmark events can be the catalysts triggering existing processes, making trends and create conditions that already at least potentially existed. Place branding becomes a valid, necessary and highly effective form of place management. Events  Are most significant at the level of strategic reorientation.  Alone are unlikely to have much impact upon a place brand.  Relatively small and have little lasting promotional impact.
    73. 73. Celebrating success, or on the way to fail? The arguments To attract tourists and visitors. Attract no tourists, but visitors from the same place. Events and tourism can be mutually beneficial. Interaction between event planning and destination planning is needed. To capture attention and promote attractions and infrastructures. Most events are small, with a limited duration in time and create minor impacts. Events in big cities are more prepared to achieve success. More modestly sized places have achieved notable successes. Events hallmarking Successful stories?! Many Failures?!
    74. 74. Celebrating success, or on the way to fail? Events hallmarking 6 ways for success  The need for local community support;  The need for a good strategic and cultural fit with the place – have to reflet the local spirit;  The need for an event to be differentiated from others;  The longevity or tradition of the event at the destination;  Cooperative planning among key players;  Media support for the event.
    75. 75. But Eduardo, we want to know something about Tourism
    76. 76. What is destination branding Morgan, Pritchard & Piggott, (2003) “Tourism has often been seen a key element in the development of places and destinations, which are adopting branding strategies - meant to gain a competitive position and assert their identity - in their communication with potential tourists” Kavaratzis & Ashworth, (2010) “Destination branding is the most researched area in place branding”.
    77. 77. What is destination branding Tourism destinations Hall, (2000); Davidson & Maitland, (1997) “Traditionally, destinations are geographical areas, such as a country, a region, a city, or an island”. Buhalis, (2000) “A destination can be recognised as a perceptual concept, which can be interpreted subjectively by consumers, depending on their travel itinerary, cultural background, purpose of visit, level of studies and past experience”.
    78. 78. What is destination branding Kavaratzis, (2010) “Efficient destination branding depends upon a strong, visionary leadership, a brand oriented organisational culture, departmental coordination and process alignment, consistent communications across a wide range of stakeholders and strong, compatible partnerships”. Pritchard & Morgan, (1996) “ Destination branding is thus a highly complex activity that is further complicated by the reality that a destination or territory is not ‘created’ by marketers - is an existing, living reality that evolves and is based on communities, histories, cultures and identities”.
    79. 79. What is destination branding The players Stakeholder partnerships Relationships between compatible organisations in terms of their goal, their power. Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO).
    80. 80. What is destination branding – building process Morgan & Pritchard (2002) a) the market investigation (competitors and consumers trends); b) the development of the brand identity; c) the communication of the vision; d) the brand implementation; and e) the feedback process.
    81. 81. What is destination branding Tasci, (2011) Product Price Place Promotion Communication
    82. 82. What is destination branding Alvarez, (2012) “Today’s environment of intense competition is affecting destinations as they are striving to develop themselves as attractive places for tourism and differentiate themselves from competing alternatives”. In this ‘endeavour’ - destinations are facing many challenges / key issues (next slide) “In parallel to the current trend towards decentralization of governance in destinations, there is also a tendency towards more collaborative forms of destination management that include the local community in the decision making”.
    83. 83. What is destination branding Horner & Swarbrooke, (2004)
    84. 84. But Eduardo, we want to know something about challenges – in practical terms
    85. 85. What is destination branding Digital challenge Digital? Coherence / authenticity / strategy
    86. 86. What is destination branding Digital challenge
    87. 87. What is destination branding Digital challenge
    88. 88. What is destination branding Retirement tourism City tourism Medical tourism Education tourism
    89. 89. What is destination branding The colours & logo challenge
    90. 90. What is destination branding The slogan challenge Country slogans Significance No specific message Geographical significance Geographical significance
    91. 91. What is destination branding Country slogans Significance No specific message Fun Geographic significance Everything for all
    92. 92. What is destination branding Country slogans Significance Everything for all Fun No specific message
    93. 93. What is destination branding City-Region The Edinburgh Inspiring Capital Brand draws its strength from the people and organisations who embrace it. Inspiring Capital This brand began with the project team taking a good look at the Edinburgh city region Enjoy Edinburgh As the city is the main economic driver of the region, the brand is naturally focused on Edinburgh itself but reflects the strengths of the wider city region.
    94. 94. What is destination branding Essence Is Inspiring Capital. This means that Edinburgh is a dramatic city bursting with ideas and life. There is a drama and magical quality to the city for many people, and it is a place that stimulates the senses and imagination. Personality Edinburgh as a world influencer in science, education, the arts and business, whose stunning physical beauty and magical atmosphere always inspires.
    95. 95. What is destination branding Values  Inventive visionary  Rich diversity  Striving for excellence  Sincere warmth  Understated elegance Brand Pyramid
    96. 96. What is destination branding Objectives  To develop a brand which would represent a cohesive image of city region  To ensure a more joined up and effective approach to city promotion  To create a brand which would allow economies of scale as public, private and voluntary sectors  To develop and enhance Edinburgh’s reputation as a successful and dynamic world class city region  To highlight the attractions of the city region as a place to live, invest, visit and study  To contribute to improving the economic and social prosperity
    97. 97. Case studies Country//Nation Konecnik, (2010) Developing its brand identity to enhance the nation’ s brand value 89 and contribute towards building a modern and strong national economy. Slovenian Tourist Board For Slovenia to truly reflect the image of the country where we feel connected with the natural environment, pleasantly enthusiastic about life itself and continuously in touch with nature, it is essential to ensure continuing internal and external communication of the Slovenia brand - I Feel Slovenia
    98. 98. Case studies
    99. 99. Future seminar
    100. 100. Future seminar
    101. 101. Book recommendation
    102. 102. Book recommendation
    103. 103. Book recommendation
    104. 104. The national program for spatial planning The national program for spatial planning Thank you. (References upon request)