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From Selling the City to City Branding. A Critical Perspective

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Lecture on city branding at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands by Eduardo Oliveira. ...

Lecture on city branding at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands by Eduardo Oliveira.
"Cities and mega-cities, rather than countries, are increasingly becoming the principal protagonists between geographical regions. The competition between cities to establish their credentials as the best choice for prospective visitors, investors, business, students and talented people will intensify as places focus on how to convey their competitive edge and relevance" (Baker, 2011).

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  • Nós confundimos a marca eo produto <br /> O problema é a comercialização ou o produto? <br /> Nosso objetivo é criar a única, distinta, a heterogeneidade <br /> Nós realmente criar semelhança, a imitação, a homogeneidade <br /> Mesmas técnicas, as mesmas práticas, as mesmas empresas de consultoria <br /> Soluções universais aplicadas a problemas específicos <br />
  • Planeamento e Ordenamento do Território Ambiente Competitivo <br /> Teoria E Pratica <br />
  • Members of the creative class include scientists, architects, writers, artists and others who create new ideas, technology and creative content. <br />
  • Nós confundimos a marca eo produto <br /> O problema é a comercialização ou o produto? <br /> Nosso objetivo é criar a única, distinta, a heterogeneidade <br /> Nós realmente criar semelhança, a imitação, a homogeneidade <br /> Mesmas técnicas, as mesmas práticas, as mesmas empresas de consultoria <br /> Soluções universais aplicadas a problemas específicos <br />
  • This is Geographical nomenclature - product marketing through places <br /> Este é nomenclatura geográfica - marketing de produto por lugares <br />
  • Branding a city is more complex than branding a product or service. <br />
  • What to put inside… <br /> > Brand <br /> > Destination brand <br /> > Tourism potential <br /> > Place assets <br /> > Plan for Tourism <br /> > DMO’s action plans <br /> > Stakeholders <br />

From Selling the City to City Branding. A Critical Perspective From Selling the City to City Branding. A Critical Perspective Presentation Transcript

  • From Selling the City to City Branding. A Critical Perspective. Eduardo Oliveira e.h.da.silva.oliveira@rug.nl 14 January 2014 University of Groningen
  • Selling Urban planning City Marketing Branding
  • From the idea of branding places… …to place branding and its territorial application...
  • Contents 25’ 25’ different scales (neighbourhood, city, region, country) 90’ 20’ 20’ (destinations, investment, talent, tourist) City branding Evolution of the discourse different scopes Place Branding explained 90’ Critical issues and challenges Real world Examples
  • Bringing a critical perspective…
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Places Brands Place Marketing Place Branding Marketing Countries Cities Regions Destinations Cross-border Spatial Plannning
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Stage - Corporate Branding Stage - Planning instrument Stage - Place Promotion 800 1980 1990 2000
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place promotion Promoting / Selling What? – places (and agricultural activities) 800 mm-dd-yy | 26 1980
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place Promotion 800 mm-dd-yy 1980 City 1910 Objective: Industry Multiple objectives
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place Promotion Objective: Housing 800 1980 Economic Development
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place Promotion Promoting / Selling What? – Cities (and holidays) 800 1980
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place Promotion 800 1980 California, US 1920
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Place Branding? Really? Today
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Planning instrument Expectations / Enhancing Citizens and Communities needs Evolution regarding the failure of traditional planning instruments 1970s – dissatisfaction
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Stage - Corporate Branding Stage - Planning instrument Stage - Place Promotion 800 2000 1980 1990
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Aaker, (1996) In contemporary marketing, branding is central, as it integrates all the strategic elements into one success formula. Corporate branding Trueman et al., (2001) Recognise that there is an urgent need for a robust analysis of the city as a brand and go on to assess that the literature on corporate branding may be relevant.
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Trueman et al. (2004 ); Kavaratzis (2004 ); Rainisto (2003) There are significant similarities between corporate brands and place brands, which bring the two concepts close and provide a starting point for a better understanding of place branding.
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Simões & Dibb, (2001) The brand is expressed through the company’s mission, core values, beliefs, communication, culture and overall design. A place/city brands “expresses” – place/city Knox & Bickerton, (2003) A corporate brand is the visual, verbal and behavioural expression of an organisation’s unique business model. Corporate branding draws on the traditions of product branding, in that it shares the same objective of creating differentiation and preference.
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Aaker, (1996) A brand is a multidimensional assortment of functional, emotional, relational and strategic elements that collectively generate a unique set of associations in the public mind. Hankinson & Cowking, (1996) Relationship between the brand and the consumer, such that there is a close fit between the consumer’s own physical and psychological needs and the brand’s functional attributes and symbolic values.
  • Place Branding da teoria à prática e à essência…
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse Florida’s fashionable, albeit US- based, approach regarding the existence of a ‘creative class’ (Florida, 2002).
  • Bayliss, 2007; Healey, 2004; Hospers, 2003; Ooi, 2008 The popularization of the concept of the creative city owes much to the work of Florida (2002, 2005). Richard Florida, recommends that city policy makers could attempt to attract ‘the creative class’ - as residents in order to galvanize local economies. A considerable proportion of the city branding literature particularly in the urban and regional studies domain is devoted to the concept of the creative city
  • Critical perspective… Questioning Richard Florida Existence of a ‘creative class’ within a city automatically leads to the development of a vibrant local economy? Or even does it lead to a vibrant cultural life in the city? Is necessary a holistic approach to urban planning, rather than relying exclusively on the presence of the creative class within a city…
  • Place Branding: Evolution of the discourse The discourse on place branding was influenced by the evolution of the mainstream Marketing Social Marketing Nonprofit Marketing
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Place Marketing Corporate Branding Creative city Urban studies Place Branding Countries Regions Cities Destinations
  • Place Branding Cities City Branding Branding (strategic, 1st) Marketing (eventually)
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Hankinson, (2010) From the genesis till consolidation as a concept
  • Place Branding: different scales : Google imagens
  • Place Branding multi-objectives Strategic networks Synergies Development & Competitiveness Local Values & Inclusive Attractive and competitive image Structural change Environment & Sustainability Strategic Spatial Planning Instrument Social Justice & Participation Place Management Plan-React-Proact
  • Critical perspective? Theory Practice
  • Do you know what I mean?
  • Place Branding (City Branding) mm-dd-yy | 50 Why?
  • Places often emphasise the historical, social, human, and cultural assets, features…. However…
  • Places are complex entities The growing complexity The persistently uneven development The rise of new technologies The financial and economic crisis The changes in production processes The globalisation of culture and the economy The ageing of the population The environmental issues Albrechts, 2010;2013
  • Place Branding and Place Brands: Theory without facts I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. (Sherlock Holmes)
  • Place Branding (if applied to cities is city branding) Oliveira (2014) Is not a magical solution Does not work instantly Ashworth (2011) The paradox at the heart of place branding is that it has been widely embraced by place management authorities world-wide as a panacea for a bewildering diversity of economic and social ailments.
  • Place Branding and Place Brands: Communities 1st Place branding has the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody
  • Place Branding and Place Brands: Communities 1st Topophilia (love of place) v.s. Topophobia (repulsive feelings a place creates)
  • Place Branding and Place Brands: Communities 1st
  • Place Branding and Place Brands: Experience
  • Not only sense of place, the place should also make sense – as a place (a living entity)
  • Place Branding from theory to practice Do all place’s need place branding? Google Images
  • Place Branding from theory to practice Do all place’s need place branding?
  • Place Branding from theory to practice This is Geographical nomenclature - product marketing through places Create advantage, or Make it difficult…
  • Place Branding from theory to practice Negative perceptions  We confuse the brand and the product;  Negative image;  Does not represent values, identities. Takes time to change minds
  • Place Branding from theory to practice Nearly a third of the travellers were at least somewhat influenced by comments from people in their online social network when making travel purchase decisions. More than two thirds are at least slightly influenced by travellergenerated ratings
  • Place Branding from theory to practice Challenges? Polish Nurse Takes time to change perceptions Polish Plumber
  • What is Place Branding?
  • What is Place Branding?
  • Action Passion Development
  • What is Place Branding?
  • What is Place Branding?
  • What is Place Branding?
  • http://www.forbes.com/
  • http://www.forbes.com/
  • Place Branding realistic and honest What is place branding
  • Place Branding - brandingpainful truth What is place telling the
  • What is Place Branding? Hankinson, (2010) After years of separate development, there has recently been a convergence between the academic domains of urban policy, tourism and mainstream branding This the paradigm of place branding. resulting innew emergencemeans that ambitious cities must proactively shape and influence what the world thinks of them and Urban & Planning position and market themselves with strategic intent. In the urban policy domain, the focus is on the economic development of towns and cities based not only on tourism, but also on other areas such as retailing, financial and cultural services.
  • Place Branding: Evolution of do discurso Marcas Territoriais: Evoluçãothe discourse Kalandides, Kavaratzis & Ashworth, 2010 If BRANDING is a part of marketing, then branding is:  Communication tool;  A task for advertisers and graphic designers;  Disconnected from the place's identities;  Apolitical;  Ineffective in creating sense/pride of place;  Ineffective in attracting investment;  Effective in attracting visitors. If BRANDING is WIDER than marketing, then branding is:  A strategic development tool;  A task for local authorities and stakeholders; planners;  Connected to the place's identities;  Effective in creating sense/pride of place;  Effective in attracting investment;  Effective in attracting visitors;  Effective in attracting talent people / researcher ’s;
  • What is Place Branding? Baker, (2012) Branding Marketing
  • What is Place Branding? Baker, (2012) Strategic toolkit
  • What is Place Branding? Baker, (2012) Out of marketing dep.
  • What is Place Branding? Mix of disciplines
  • What is Place Branding? Baker, (2012) Place Brand Place Branding
  • What is Place Branding? Hankinson & Cowking, (1993) Place branding is a process which attempts to influence how people interpret and develop their own sense about a place. A place brand is made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality, which comprises a unique combination of functional attributes and symbolic values’
  • What is Place Branding? Ashworth & Kavaratzis, (2009) This process is the same as that followed in the formation of images of other entities like products or corporations, which have long been managed as brands. (…) branding has only recently been used to describe the process (…) (…) the process of place branding (…) (…) place branding is a strategic process contributing to urban/regional development and urban/regional competitiveness (…)
  • What is Place Branding? Pasquinelli, (2013) Cooperate Networks
  • What is Place Branding?
  • What is Place Branding? Ashworth, (2010) Place branding can be used as at least part of policies aimed at:  To fostering economic restructuring;  Community participation;  Political engagement;  To secure visibility, create value; To reinforce local identity;  To reinforce the well-being of citizens; To achieve competitive advantage (e.g.): To increase inward investment; To increase tourism revenues; Efficient tool in pursuit of objectives that relate to the place management and spatial planning
  • What is Place Branding? Smyth, (2005) One of the purposes of place branding process is to create strategies to position the place for several activities (…) for living, working, researching, playing, visiting and dreaming… Exchange relationships between other geographical unities Enhance their strengths Earn competitive advantage Achieve progress Multisectorial development Co-opetion (Pasquinelli, 2013)
  • What is Place Branding? Hankison, (2010) The process of place branding is usually carried out by a partnership between the public and private sector stakeholders who are involved in the place product delivery. Rainisto, (2003) Cooperation between various place players will become more frequent in the future than earlier.
  • The way forward
  • What is Place Branding? Place branding as a long-term strategic activity. Anholt, (2003) A place brand strategy is a plan for defining the most realistic, most competitive and most compelling strategic vision for the place.
  • What is Place Branding? Strategic Thinking
  • Dinnie, (2011) Introduction to the Theory of City Branding  interest in city branding (…) a wider recognition that cities can benefit from implementing coherent strategies with regard to managing their resources, reputation and image. Cities compete globally to attract tourism, Investment, talent, entrepreneurs, ME, YOU… Applied in pursuit of urban development, regeneration and quality of life…
  • From the genesis till consolidation as a concept Marcas Territoriais: Evolução do discurso Hankinson, (2010) City Branding
  • Kavaratzis & Ashworth, (2005) City branding: an effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick?  Place branding has become a commonplace activity of CITIES, regions and countries.  There is a recognisable gap in the literature with regard to the branding process of cities in general (Hankinson 2001) and real case studies in particular (Anholt 2002; Rainisto 2003). From selling the city to city branding
  • Kavaratzis & Ashworth, (2005) From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands  City branding practice (…) exclusive use of promotional tools such as slogans and logos or, advertising campaigns (…)  This is a simplification of the very complex processes that determine the way in which CITIES are seen, felt, evaluated, and ultimately co-created. An example might be useful here #traps on place/city branding The application of logos
  •  The report states that the ‘logo is a brand that brings citizens together under a common goal and at the same time attracts business and investment’ (p. 6);  The ways in which the logo and the slogan might bring citizens together under a common goal, what this goal might be, and how the whole might help attract business and investment remain unclear.
  • Dinnie, (2011) Introduction to the Theory of City Branding  Part of the complexity of city brands derives from their obligation to address the needs of a spectrum of fundamentally different target audiences.  While it might be unrealistic to satisfy the demands and desires of all residents, they are instrumental in building the city brand, as they ‘live and breathe’ the city’s brand identity.  Create preference and loyalty to the city among the various segments which cities serve.
  • City branding centres on people’s perceptions and images and puts them at the heart of orchestrated activities, designed to shape the city and its future. Cities depend on their residents for economic, social, cultural and Cities depend on their residents diverse, skilled, and environmental vibrancy. Maintaining afor economic, social, cultural and environmental vibrancy. satisfied residential population is vital for aa diverse, skilled, and satisfiedcould Maintaining city since their disenchantment trigger residential population is vital for a city since their a disenchantment could trigger a vicious downward spiral.
  • Cities depend on their residents for economic, social, cultural and environmental vibrancy. Maintaining a diverse, skilled, and satisfied residential population is vital for a city since their disenchantment could trigger a
  • Successful city brands follow a progression of creating a distinctive (city) appeal Cities depend on their residents for economic, social, cultural and environmental vibrancy. Maintaining a diverse, skilled, and satisfied residential population is vital for a city since their disenchantment could trigger a This appeal only evolves into a powerful brand if a coherent strategy is acted upon and consistently communicated…
  • City Branding Highlight assets Strategic Planning Links? Envisioning -Visions Communication message Common objectives The national program for spatial planning Common engagement Create identity Inclusiveness Radical change spatial context Dynamic creative process Strategic thinking towards a city branding strategy
  • Instruments of Place Branding also applied by cities? Oliveira, (2012) The concept of place/city branding is thought to provide valuable tools for places to differentiate themselves, by managing their opportunities and transforming them into competitive advantages, thus gaining brand value and strengthening their global market position. Ashworth, (2009)  Signature buildings and design  Flagship building  Signature Design  Signature Districts  Personality association  Event Hallmarking Reputation Local planning instruments are widely used by places in order to pursuit local or regional objectives Stimulate development Attracting visitors & capital
  • Instruments of Place Branding also applied by cities? Personality association Gaudi Barcelona Flagship building Signature districts
  • Instruments of Place Branding also applied by cities? Event hallmarking
  • Instruments of Place Branding also applied by cities? Places organise and sponsor temporary events in order to obtain a wider recognition that they exist but also to establish specific associations. Ashworth, (2009) Cultural events are favoured largely because of there visibility and wide acceptability of cultural products as merit goods adding value and desirable attributes to a place. Hallmark events alone are unlikely to have much impact upon a place/city brand Effective as instruments in a strategic policy
  • Can we design a city brand with the events? Conceptualization: If the hallmark events can be the catalysts triggering existing processes, making trends and create conditions that already at least potentially existed. A city branding becomes a valid, necessary and highly effective form of management the city. Events  Are most significant at the level of strategic reorientation.  Alone are unlikely to have much impact upon a place/city brand.  Relatively small and have little lasting promotional impact.
  • Celebrating success, or on the way to fail? To attract tourists and visitors. Attract no tourists, but visitors from the same place. Events and tourism can be mutually beneficial. Interaction between event planning and destination planning is needed. To capture attention and promote attractions and infrastructures. Most events are small, with a limited duration in time and create minor impacts. Events in big cities are more prepared to achieve success. More modestly sized cities have achieved notable successes. Events hallmarking Successful stories?! Many Failures?!
  • Celebrating success, or on the way to fail? Events hallmarking Success  The need for a good strategic and cultural fit with the place – reflet the local spirit (genios loci);  The need for an event to be differentiated from others;  The longevity or tradition of the event;  Cooperative planning among key players;  Media support for the event. COMMUNITY SUPPORT
  • http://vimeo.com/56759520
  • Looking for the very best…
  • From traps to topophobia
  • From traps to topophobia The colours & logo challenge
  • From traps to topophobia The slogan challenge Country slogans Significance No specific message Geographical significance Geographical significance
  • From traps to topophobia Taglines Significance No specific message Fun, Memories Geographic significance Everything for all
  • From traps to topophobia Taglines Significance Everything for all Fun, uniqueness No specific message
  • London’s City branding strategy crisis
  • Fashionable slogans as a result perhaps of their necessity to convince political decision-makers who place a premium on novelty, succinctness and simplicity. A strong city brand relies on more than just its communications: the city must take action as part of its strategic plan. Slogans and logos may be useful practical instruments in a place branding strategy but they are not the strategy itself. Places, such as cities do not suddenly acquire a new identity thanks to a slogan or a memorable logo.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nTi5hrDVFFc
  • http://thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com/category/every-da
  • built-fabric and public realm
  • Venice Syndrome mm-dd-yy
  • Venice Syndrome mm-dd-yy
  • Venice Syndrome mm-dd-yy
  • City Branding, future thinking and key words
  • A NETWORK APPROACH Hankinson’s (2004) conceptualization of place/city brands as relational network brands (…) collaborative approach between public and private sector organizations and a distributive approach to the ownership of the city branding;  inclusiveness and representativeness;  long-term commitment;  shared vision;  sharing responsibility;  trusting each other;  alignment and engagement;  communicating as one;  taking ‘on-brand’ decisions and actions;  making ‘on-brand’ investments;
  • Brabant is an enterprising, innovative and successful Dutch region in Europe and a wonderful place to live. http://www.brabantsmartsolutions.com/
  • SUSTAINABILITY In terms of the sustainability of the city brand, key preconditions emerge as follows: a long-term commitment to the city brand strategy, rather than a series of short-term, ad hoc campaigns; adequate budget allocation; responsiveness to societal changes; and the need for specific objectives, underpinned by rigorous research CITY itself as a LIVING and LIVEABLE ENVIRONMENT
  • Some examples City-Region http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com/ The Edinburgh Inspiring Capital Brand draws its strength from the people and organisations who embrace it. Inspiring Capital This brand began with the project team taking a good look at the Edinburgh city region Enjoy Edinburgh As the city is the main economic driver of the region, the brand is naturally focused on Edinburgh itself but reflects the strengths of the wider city region.
  • Some examples Essence Is Inspiring Capital. This means that Edinburgh is a dramatic city bursting with ideas and life. There is a drama and magical quality to the city for many people, and it is a place that stimulates the senses and imagination. Personality Edinburgh as a world influencer in science, education, the arts and business, whose stunning physical beauty and magical atmosphere always inspires.
  • Some examples Values Brand Pyramid  Inventive  Visionary  Rich diversity  Striving for excellence  Sincere warmth  Understated elegance
  • Some examples Objectives  To develop a brand which would represent a cohesive image of city region.  To ensure a more joined up and effective approach to city promotion.  To create a brand which would allow economies of scale as public, private and voluntary sectors.  To develop and enhance Edinburgh’s reputation as a successful and dynamic world class city region.  To highlight the attractions of the city region as a place to live, invest, visit and study.  To contribute to improving the economic and social prosperity. http://www.edinburghbrand.com/
  • What is City Branding? Anholt, (1996) Simon Anholt coined the term 'nation branding' (…) he has been working with governments to help them plan the policies, strategies, investments and innovations which lead their countries toward an improved profile and reputation. A Consistent Framework for City-To-City Comparisons Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index
  • What is City Branding? Anholt, (2003) The Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index  Analytical ranking of the world's city brands.  Working with an innovative set of tools that helps to assess, develop and implement brand strategies .  Provide the global and local insights needed to move a city’s reputation forward and increase the success of Business - Trade - Tourism EFFORTS
  • What is City Branding? Anholt, (2003) The Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index This framework has been developed as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of branding (…) it is a tool for guiding the branding effort
  • What is City Branding? Anholt, (2003) The Presence refers to the city’s international status and standing – how familiar people are with the city. The Place component refers to the physical aspects of the city – how beautiful and pleasant or otherwise the city is. The Potential considers the opportunities the city has to offer in terms of economic or educational activities.
  • What is City Branding? Anholt, (2003) The Pulse examines the existence of a vibrant urban lifestyle - how exciting people think the city is. The People component examines the local population in terms of openness and warmth and also looks at safety issues in the city. The Prerequisites deal with the basic qualities of the city; the standards and price of accommodation and public amenities.
  • mm-dd-yy | 146 Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2014 - top 10 cities The Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index
  • http://bloom-consulting.com/en/nation-branding#
  • http://bloom-consulting.com/en/nation-branding#
  • The http://www.brandfinance.com/knowledge_centre/reports/brandfinance-nation-brands-2013
  • City brand strength mm-dd-yy City assets mm-dd-yy + Assets + Brand+ Value + Strength
  • Recommended literature (Oliveira, 2014) Colourful logos, dark realities http://placesbrands.com/colourful-logos-dark-realities/ (Oliveira, 2013) In Search of Place Branding Geographies http://placesbrands.com/in-search-of-place-branding-geographies/ (Oliveira, 2013) Once upon a time in Istanbul http://placesbrands.com/once-upon-a-time-in-istanbul/
  • Thank you (references upon request via email) Eduardo Oliveira e.h.da.silva.oliveira@rug.nl Questions?