Decision making process regarding climate change regulation in


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This working paper seeks to contribute to the debate about the role of The European Environment Agency and it is argued that in order to capture a fuller picture of their functioning, we need to go beyond a legal framework (legislation from European Commission as Green and White papers), taking into account institutional features that involve both formal and informal processes. The inception of the European Environment Agency (EEA) was in 1991. Over the years the EEA has become a more loyal partner to the European Commission in the European administrative system, balancing the ability to have a credible voice on the one hand and the need for stability and a secure resource supply on the other. The Agency has also been able to meet increasing demands for information without a similar scale of increase in resources, also pointing to efficiency gains within the organisation. In the Agency we strive to give value for money across an enormous environmental agenda. This is essential in today's climate of increased financial pressure and the growing number of organisations working on environmental issues.
To contribute directly to European Union (EU) policy developments on climate change impacts by refining relevant indicators, producing assessments, combined with socio-economic factors in Europe, using past trends, now casting, spatial analysis, forward looking assessments, and policy effectiveness analysis including economic aspects.

Key-words: European Union; European Environment Agency; Climate change; Decision-making;

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  • "Our Neighbourhood Policy provides us with a coherent approach that ensures that the whole of the EU is committed to deeper relations with all our neighbours. At the same time, it allows us to develop tailor-made relations with each country." Štefan Füle, Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy
  • Decision making process regarding climate change regulation in

    1. 1. The planet is not ours; it is the treasure we hold in trust for future generation s. Kofi Annan , President of the Global Humanitarian Forum, January 2009
    2. 3. You control yourself?
    3. 4. We are alone?
    4. 5. Follow your way?
    5. 6. Who got the power? Who decides?
    6. 7. What we can do? Kuala Lumpur, 2010
    7. 8. Decision-making process regarding climate change regulation in European Union 2009-2013. The role of European Environment Agency Eduardo Oliveira October 2010 University of Minho School of Economics and Management
    8. 9. Índex <ul><li>Brief introduction; </li></ul><ul><li>Overview; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change as global issue; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Environment Agency; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision – making process; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision – making actions; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After words; </li></ul><ul><li>Credits. </li></ul>
    9. 10. The European Environment Agency (EEA) The Climate System OCEAN Precipitation Sea-ice LAND Ice- sheets snow Biomass Clouds Solar radiation Terrestrial radiation Greenhouse gases and aerosol ATMOSPHERE The Met.Office Hadley Centre Source: IPCC, 2001
    10. 11. <ul><li>‘ Climate ’ is the long-term atmospheric conditions, ‘ weather ’ varies constantly; </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in climate are natural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the last ice age (11,500 years ago) global temperatures were 5°C lower than now; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are now experiencing temperature rises at unprecedented speed; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists believe that human activities are responsible... </li></ul>Climate change: The scientific evidence is conclusive Source: IPCC, 2001
    11. 12. What is climate change? <ul><li>Gases in the Earth’s atmosphere trap heat; </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions are increasing due to human activity; </li></ul><ul><li>The build-up of gases leads to long-term warming = climate change; </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases are emitted naturally; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT human activity is increasing emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in behaviour can reduce emissions...YOU, EU, UN... </li></ul>Source: IPCC, 2001
    12. 13. Warming world - Climate Change <ul><li>Global-average surface temperature increased by about 0.6 ºC over 20th century; </li></ul><ul><li>1990s warmest decade and 1998 warmest year in last 1000 years; </li></ul><ul><li>Over last 50 years night-time minimum temperatures increased by about 0.2 ºC; </li></ul><ul><li>10% reduction in snow cover ice since late 1960s; </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of about two weeks in annual duration of lake and river ice; </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread retreat of mountain glaciers during 20th century; </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere spring and summer sea-ice extent decreased by 10-15%; </li></ul><ul><li>Global-average sea level has increased by 10-20 cm during 20th century; </li></ul><ul><li>0.5-1% per decade increase in Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude precipitation during 20th century; </li></ul><ul><li>2-4% increase in frequency of heavy precipitation events in Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes over latter half of 20th century ; </li></ul>Source: IPCC, 2001
    13. 14. <ul><li>Europe’s temperatures have risen by 1°C since 1850; </li></ul><ul><li>Another 1.2°C could mean irreversible, large-scale and potentially catastrophic environmental change; </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme weather events – storms, floods, droughts and heat waves – becoming more frequent and more severe; </li></ul><ul><li>90% of natural disasters in Europe since 1980 caused by weather and climate; </li></ul>Warming Europe - Climate Change Source: IPCC, 2001
    14. 15. Source: IPCC, 2001 Overview:
    15. 16. Overview: Land areas are projected to warm more than the oceans with the greatest warming at high latitudes. Source: IPCC, 2001 Annual mean temperature change, 2071 to 2100 relative to 1990: Global Average in 2085 = 3.1 o C
    16. 17. Overview: CO 2 concentrations, temperature and sea level continue to rise /emissions are reduced Source: IPCC, 2001
    17. 18. Developing countries are the most vulnerable to climate change M ore flood and drought prone and a large share of the economy is in climate sensitive; Because of a lack of financial , institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge; Climate change is likely to impact disproportionately upon the poorest countries and the poorest persons within countries; Net market sector effects are expected to be negative in most developing countries; Impacts are worse Access to adequate food, clean water and other Lower capacity to adapt
    18. 20. The European Environment Agency (EEA) <ul><li>The European Environment Agency is an agency of the European Union. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEA was adopted in 1990; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is locate in Copenhagen, Denmark; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help the Community and  member countries   make informed decisions about KEPT INFORMED THE DECISION MAKERS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improving the environment; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating environmental considerations into economic policies and moving towards sustainability; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To coordinate the European environment information and observation network; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, the EEA has 32 member countries ; </li></ul></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>Main clients : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Commission; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Parliament; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and Social Committee; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee of the Regions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member countries; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EEA provides information as well, too : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business community; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-governmental organizations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil society </li></ul></ul>The European Environment Agency (EEA) - II European policy actors Clients Make sustainable decisions
    20. 22. The European Environment Agency (EEA) - III Copenhagen Member countries Cooperating countries
    21. 23. The European Environment Agency (EEA) - IV EEA Goal? Environment <ul><li>Provide European decision-makers and citizens access to timely and relevant information and knowledge ; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a sound basis for environmental policies , to help answer their questions about the environment in their daily lives and to ensure that environmental thinking and education … </li></ul>Economy Social Mainstream of Decision-making... Decision-makers Citizens Lives
    22. 24. Decision making? Information Environmental Data State of the environment Knowledge assessments Provide integrated environmental data and indicator sets Provide a sound decision basis for environmental policies in the EU and Member Countries The consultation procedure: White and green papers… Decision-makers European, and regional level European Neighbourhood Policy
    23. 25. Decision – making -> Consultation EEA aim: Assessments and forward studies High quality environmental data Environmental legislation Dissemination to decision-makers Environmental priorities Producing Ensuring Support Improving Addressing
    24. 26. Decision-making process regarding climate change regulation in European Union 2009-2013. Strategic areas of EEA Shared Environmental Information System Communications Air quality Air pollutant emissions Biodiversity Greenhouse gas emissions Freshwater Marine Climate change Ecosystems Land use Air pollutant emissions
    25. 27. Decision-making process regarding climate change regulation in European Union 2009-2013. Strategy of EEA for 2009–2013 Shared Environmental Information System Communications Policy - making In Climate Change Integrated environmental Regional and global assessment Strategic futures
    26. 28. Decision-making process regarding climate change regulation in European Union 2009-2013. Strategy for 2009–2013 Launch information services in the areas of the Environmental Data Centres (air quality, climate change , biodiversity, freshwater ) Produce the EEA's regular integrated environmental assessment -> focusing on operational and strategic policy priorities , including those of the candidate and potential candidate countries Support environmental reporting within the European Neighbourhood Policy ; 2009 2010 2011
    27. 29. Decision-making process regarding climate change regulation in European Union 2009-2013. Strategy for 2009–2013 Produce an assessment of Europe's ecosystem services — Eureca 2012 ; Support the review of the environmental outcomes of the 6th Environment Action Programme and the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Expand the EEA's communications to the public , policy-makers and experts via multi‑media , user‑friendly, multilingual information particularly in the areas of climate change, biodiversity, ecosystems and the greening of the economy. 2012 2013 Aim for the future
    28. 30. The European Union is a pioneer in the battle against climate change <ul><li>EU countries have set targets for 2020 to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut emissions by 20% (or 30% if agreed globally); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase energy efficiency by 20%; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate 20% of energy from renewable sources; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The EU is pushing for an ambitious new global pact to </li></ul><ul><li>reduce emissions </li></ul>
    29. 31. What EU can do? A Community agency is a body governed by European public law ; it is distinct from the Community Institutions (Council, Parliament, Commission, etc.) and has its own legal personality. It is set up by an act of secondary legislation in order to accomplish a very specific technical, scientific or managerial task … Green White Papers
    30. 32. What EU do? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Strategy for a future chemicals policy” </li></ul><ul><li>     </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;EuropeanTransport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide&quot; </li></ul>Commission's White Paper: <ul><li>&quot;Adapting to climate change in Europe - options for EU action&quot; </li></ul>Commission's Green Paper: <ul><li>“ Adapting to climate change : towards a European framework for action” </li></ul><ul><li>Commission to the Council; </li></ul><ul><li>European Parliament; </li></ul><ul><li>European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions </li></ul>
    31. 33. What can you do? <ul><li>Simple everyday actions play a major role in the fight against climate change </li></ul><ul><li>So… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save hot water by taking a shower instead of a bath (four times less energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant a tree , at school, in your garden or neighbourhood </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Obrigado
    33. 35. Credits Eduardo Oliveira, is from Portugal. He is doing a MSc. in Marketing and Strategic Management in the School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, final year. My dissertation is about “Networks and Place Branding: Minho as International Brand”. Until December, I will stay in Malaysia as exchange student in University Sains Malaysia (USM) with a scholarship from the European Union. In USM, I attend courses in International Political Economy and Political and Decision Making in European Union and also courses in Marketing. I reserved my free time to do some research in destination marketing and place branding, my favorite topics and improve my skills in global issues, like climate change, sustainable development and explore the most controversial topics in the international political economy context. My main goal is to understand the economic and local markets, the consumers’ needs in the global economy and search for new ways to achieve a sustainable world. Email address : [email_address] URL: In Malaysia: +601 25 792 867 In Portugal: +351 91 70 60 153