• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Written proposal
 

Written proposal

on

  • 368 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
368
Views on SlideShare
362
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://eduardorivera23.wordpress.com 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Written proposal Written proposal Document Transcript

    • University of Puerto Rico at CayeyWritten Proposal: Does the excessive use of cell phones cause glioma tumors and ipsilateral exposure here in Puerto Rico? Eduardo E. Rivera Cintrón Biol- 3009 Dr. Edwin Vázquez Ph. D July 12, 2011
    • Abstract:The objective is to determine whether the excessively use of cell phones causes gliomatumor and ipsilateral exposure and establish that the tumor and the ipsilateral exposurecould also be cancerous here in Puerto Rico. Based on the Interphone study done in 13countries (all outside the United States) their was a dramatically increase of risk ofobtaining brain cancer and formation of numerous tumors. The method will mainly focuson two groups. The first group consists of patients having glioma tumors and patientswithout glioma tumors. Another groups consist of people that talk excessively throughthe cell phone and people that use the cell phone when needed and doesn’t talkexcessively. Each person in the group will continue living their normal lives but will bemonitored. There will be specific dates in which the people will pass by a controllingcenter. In this controlling center the people will receive a handed survey with formulatedquestions. In other occasions the people will go through an interview to determine thatwhat they are saying matches our records. The possible results in Puerto Rico are notgoing to be the same compared to the ones obtained by the interphone study. In PuertoRico there would be several factors that could influence in the results obtained. Inconclusion there is an association with cell phones and tumors or brain cancer. Furtherstudies are required to know to what extent could this go and determine whether the useof cell phone is the only thing that causes brain cancer or tumors.
    • IntroductionThrough the past few years we have seen a significantly increase in the use of cell phonesand even a higher increase in the users and the time spent on them. As result of theexcessive use there has been a concern on whether the electromagnetic radiofrequencyfields show possible carcinogenic effect on the user. There have been numerous studieson this issue. The majority didn’t find a link between the excessive use of cell phone andformation of tumors. However, most studies found that there is a possible link betweenthe use of cell phone and formation of brain tumor in a period to ten or more years. Ourobjective is to determine whether it’s true that the excessive use of cell phones couldcause glioma tumors and ipsilateral exposure in a period of ten to fifteen years. Based onthe results that are obtained it will be establish that they can also be cancerous. Duringthe period of ten years there will be a higher risk of the formation of glioma tumors. Theipsilateral exposure will show a significantly increase of risk in the period of ten or moreyears.
    • BackgroundThere were recent studies done in 13 countries (all outside the United States) called theInterphone study. These countries are: Canada, Australia, Denmark, Finland, France,Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden and the UK. With thesestudies you can see how the potential risk of obtaining glioma tumors, ipsilateralexposure and brain cancer are significantly high with the use of several phones (analogcell phones, digital cell phones and cordless phones). Next you will find a series ofgraphs explaining how the use of cell phones shows a high risk. A. Analysis by cumulative hours of use: The following graph show the increase of brain cancer based on the number of hours talked, despite the kind of wireless phone used.
    • B. Analysis by years of use: This graph show the increase of brain cancer in a short time, then increases noticeably for longer periods of time.
    • C. Analysis by use of wireless phone on the same side of the head: The side of the head where you use your wireless phone is where the brain absorbs most of the radiation.D. Analysis for type of combinations of wireless phones used:
    • Ever phone shows an increase of risk of obtaining cancer. But combining themwith other wireless phones show even a higher risk. With this graph you could seethat no wireless phones are safe now in days.
    • E. In this graph show the risk of 66% of obtaining glioma tumor based on years and onabsorbed energy at the location of the tumor:
    • MethodologyThe study is mainly based on two groups choosing the people that fit perfectly in thestudy groups. The first groups consist of patients with glioma tumors and patients withoutglioma tumors. The second groups consist of people that talk excessively through the cellphone and people that don’t talk that much through the cell phone. These two groupswill be living their normal lives but will be monitored. There will be specific dates inwhich we will ask them a serious of questions related to their cell phone activity and seeif it matches our records. The participants will be ask to identify the number of callsmade and received, duration of the calls, if there was a change of pattern of use over aperiod of more than 6 months, if they use any headsets or hands- free devices, which sideof the head the cell phone was predominantly held, and main area of usage (urban/ rural/both). As time passes the team working with the research will divide the results in thegroups mentioned earlier and perform a diagnostic of the research in graphs or tables.They will be given specific cell phones that emit high radiation to the brain.
    • Possible resultsThe  possible  outcome  of  this  study  will  vary  compared  to  the  Interphone  study  done  in  the  13  countries.  In  Puerto  Rico  is  expected  that  there  will  be  a  high  risk  in  obtaining  glioma  tumors  and  ipsilateral  exposure.  Also  is  expected  within  the  tumors  that  the  majority  will  be  cancerous.  The  people  that  talk  excessively  will  have  a  dramatically  risk  of  obtaining  brain  cancer  due  to  moderate  time  dedicated  to  the  phone.  As  we  go  further  in  the  study  we  may  encounter  numerous  factors  in  which  changes  the  results  of  Puerto  Rico  compare  to  the  outside  countries.  These  factors  could  be:  population,  environment,  cultural  influence,  health  conditions,  and  economical.  The  participants  in  the  study  may  vary  due  to  the  population  in  Puerto  Rico  is  enormously  different  from  Europe  and  other  countries  that  participated  in  the  Interphone  study.  Due  to  rural  and  urban  areas  the  risk  may  change  because  in  Puerto  Rico  there  is  a  lot  of  urban  areas  and  because  of  the  antennas  that  may  be  closer  to  each  other  and  that  will  emit  more  radiofrequency.  The  cultural  influence  in  our  point  of  view  is  the  one  that  has  the  most  effect.  Puerto  Rican  people  need  to  have  everything  and  they  like  to  be  up  to  date  in  the  technology.  Due  to  this  fact,  the  uses  of  cellular  phones  are  an  important  device  in  their  lives.  The  health  condition  may  vary  because  the  people  here  in  Puerto  Rico  don’t  have  the  same  health  conditions  as  in  the  countries  where  they  performed  the  other  studies.  The  economical  aspect  the  people  need  to  have  the  best  phone  doesn’t  matter  if  they  are  upper  class  or  lower  class.  By  considering  the  cellular  phones  an  essential  device  for  their  daily  lives,  they  don’t  realize  that  maybe  the  phones  that  they  are  buying  may  have  a  lot  of  radio  frequency.  We  can  conclude  that  the  use  of  cell  phones  can  cause  
    • the  formation  of  tumors  and  brain  cancer  but  in  a  higher  risk  due  to  the  factors  mentioned  earlier.    We  questioned  ourselves  how  can  we  detect  this  in  an  early  stage  of  formation  or  prevent  it.  We  would  need  to  do  further  studies  on  how  to  detect  the  tumor  or  cancer  earlier.  We  will  be  open  to  do  further  studies  to  research  what  really  causes  brain  cancers  if  its  not  the  use  of  cell  phone.  In addition you willfind a few explanatory graphs of the expected results of Puerto Rico compared to theInterphone Studies.A.  Risk  of  brain  cancer  due  to  hours  of  usage:   300   1  to  1,000   1,001-­‐2,000   250   2,001-­‐3,000   200   150   100   50   0   Digital  cell  phone  PR   Cordless  phone  PR   Digital  cell  phone   Cordless  phone  Inter   Inter  study   study  
    • B. Risk of Brain cancer due to Years of usage:200  180   1  to  5  years  160   6  to  10  years  140   11  to  more  120   years  100   80   60   40   20   0   Digital  cell  phone  PR   Cordless  phone  PR   Digital  cell  phone   Cordless  phone  Inter   Inter  study   study  
    • C. Risk of ipsilateral exposure in a period of ten years or more100   90   80   70   60   50   40   10  or  more  years   30   20   10   0   Digital  cell   Cordless  phone   Digital  cell   Cordless  phone   phone  PR   PR   phone  Inter   Inter  study   study  
    • D. Risk of obtaining glioma tumors in a period of ten years: Glioma  Tumors  90  80  70  60  50  40   Glioma  Tumors  30  20  10   0   Puerto  Rico   Interphone  study  
    • References • Martin Mittelstaedt; Heavy use of cell phones may increase tumour risk: study; Published may 17, 2010. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health/heavy-use-of-cell-phones-may-increase-tumour-risk-study/article1571108/ • Joachim Schüz, Eva Böhler, Gabriele Berg, and others; 2006; Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones, and the Risks of Glioma and Meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany); American Journal of Epidemiology; Volume 163, issue; pages 512-520. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/163/6/512.full • Christian Nordqvist; 2006; Extensive Cell Phone Use Linked To Brain Tumors, Swedish Study; Medical News Today; unkwnown, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/40764.php • Christian Nordqvist; 2011; Cellphones Possibly Linked To Cancer Risk In Humans, World Health Organization; Medical News Today; unknown http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/227011.php
    • • Natalie Wolchover; Cellphone Radiation and Brain Cancer; June 1, 2011 http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/faq-cellphone-radiation-and-brain-cancer-1734/ • Lloyd Morgan, The latest study on the risk of brain cancer from wireless phone use, August 17, 2006 http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/columns/morgan/20060817_wireless_tumours.asp • Lloyd Morgan, Mobile phone causes brain tumors- more evidence, June 10, 2011 http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20110610-mobile-phone-tumours-evidence.asp