Eduardo E. Rivera Cintrón  UPR of Cayey                        Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our healt...
Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?near future they get the news that they or a              Cof...
Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?metabolic rate, anti-diabetes effect, boost to          per d...
Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?participant’s nearly 300 cases and 571                    ben...
Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?analyzing three large prospective studies on            Discu...
Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?   ent/19/1/39.long                                    icles/...
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Course 3095 Written Report


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Course 3095 Written Report

  1. 1. Eduardo E. Rivera Cintrón UPR of Cayey Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?Rise Program Abstract Cancer is the most deadly disease known in all mankind. Every year fatalities increase due to the complexity of this disease. Coffee and tea are one of the most popular beverages in the world. The average American drinks 3.2 cups of coffee equivalent to 336 million cups of coffee a day. The intake of tea is also considerably high in the United States and is increasing more every time. Holick and collaborators (Brain Tumor), Islami and collaborators (Tea and esophageal), and Villanueva and collaborators stated that their study addresses the prevention of brain tumors (coffee and tea), the risk bladder cancer (coffee) and esophageal cancer (tea). All of the results depended on the average intake of the beverage and how frequently the beverage was consumed. Villanueva and collaborators conducted a study where the result showed that drinking coffee four or more cups a day showed an increase risk of bladder cancer. However, Holick and collaborators concluded in their study that drinking five or more cups of coffee and tea a day showed a reduction in the risk of glioma tumors. In conclusion, the studies point to the contradictory results in the intake of coffee and/or tea, confirming that further studies are needed to discover whether the intake of coffee and/or tea can cause cancer and if so, what ingredient(s) may causes it. Introduction cancer diseases. Cancer has been a topic where every American is attentively There may be no greater goal in the listening to new discoveries and what they American population, or even in the world’s should know to be well prepared if in the population, than to find the cure of various
  2. 2. Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?near future they get the news that they or a Coffee is the major source of caffeine,loved one has cancer. Cancer is becoming which has been reported to both stimulatethe greatest and most complex disease in the the central nervous system and suppresshistory of mankind. Every day we identify brain tumors. There have been variousdifferent risk factors that can cause cancer studies stating the inconsistency of a resultand the list of possible carcinogens is in coffee making it a potential carcinogenic.greater. Every year we receive news on Studies have revealed that there is anhigher diagnostics of cancer deaths. Year- ingredient in coffee, not yet specified, that isby-year the fear of this disease is greater labeled 2b carcinogens. Although thebecause of the average mortality rate in the consumption of coffee has various healthworld’s society. The main reason for such a benefits in our daily living, it also hashigh mortality rate from cancer is due to the negative effects shown in recent studies.highly invasive behavior of cancer cells, Tea is known as the number one beveragewhich usually results in cancer progression worldwide and its consumption is increasingand metastasis. Metastasis is the process rapidly in the United States. Tea is generallywhere neoplastic cells spread from a primary consumed in the form of green (20%),site, where the primary tumor originated, to oolong (2%), or black (78%) tea, all ofdistant organs and is responsible for the which originate from the leaves of the plantmajority of deaths related to cancer. Camellia sinensis (Naghma 2010). Tea and(Naghma 2010) its constituents have been shown to inhibitOur main focus in this article is to inform tumor genesis in many animal models,whether the consumption of coffee and/or including those for cancer of the skin, lung,tea causes cancer or prevents it. In the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, smallpopulation of the United States 50% of intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder,Americans drink coffee averaging 3.1 cups breast and prostate (Kang et al. 2010).of coffee a day. Coffee consumption has Recent studies reveal that tea contains anbeen shown to be associated with cancer of ingredient called Tannin, a strong chemical,various sites in epidemiological studies. which is linked to the risk of esophagealHowever, there is not a comprehensive cancer. Although the consumption of tea isoverview of the substantial body of favorable for everyone because of its healthepidemiologic evidence. [Yu et al. 2011) benefits like antibiotic effects, increase of 2
  3. 3. Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?metabolic rate, anti-diabetes effect, boost to per day or more had an OR of 1.27 (95%CImental alertness, and others; tea may have a 0.88-1.81) (Villanueva et al. 2009). Innegative effect on the human being. addition, the consumption of coffee was correlated with smoking habits. Among theRisk of cancer in tea and coffee group who didn’t smoke, the risk was foundCoffee and the risk of Bladder cancer only in the group who drank 4 or more cups of coffee a day. These results supported theirBladder cancer is one of the most commonly hypothesis that coffee is a weak carcinogen.diagnosed cancers in the U.S. Studiessuggest that coffee is possibly carcinogenic Tea and the risk of Esophageal Cancerto urinary bladder, although evidence Esophagus cancer kills nearly 500,000remains controversial (Villanueva et al. people a year. The areas in which the deaths2009). A number of studies have reported a are most often seen are in Asia, Africa, andpositive association that was not replicated South America. The most common subtypein other studies (Villanueva et al. 2009). of esophagus cancer worldwide isThe study was conducted in Spain in 18 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thehospitals located in five different areas. main causes of this cancer are smoking andVillanueva and collaborators identified alcohol consumption. However, in the1,457 cases and 1,465 eligible controls. Eastern part of the world one of the causes isThey ask various questions to the the consumption of hot tea, something that isparticipants on how frequently they drank commonly used in these countries. Studiescoffee, when did you first drink coffee, how support the hypothesis that the consumptionsmany times a week they drank coffee, and of hot tea can cause esophageal many cups of coffee they drank per Islami and collaborators concentrated theirday. Eighty seven percent of the study study in the area of Golestan, Iran bysubjects consumed coffee (89% of cases, conducting a case-control study and a cohort85% of controls). By gender, 89% of men study. In the cohort study participants,vs. of 79% of women consumed coffee. around 50,045 adults, had to answer variousCoffee consumer drank an average 2.4 cups questions that were: do you drink tea, if so,a day. Overall, the risk of bladder cancer did they drink it warm, lukewarm, hot, oramong coffee drinkers was slightly very hot. In the case-control studyincreased. Drinkers of four cups of coffee 3
  4. 4. Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?participant’s nearly 300 cases and 571 beneficial compounds; however, suchcontrols answered the same questions as in activity has not been convincingly shown inthe cohort study. Researchers started at 75C human(Islami et al. 2007). The associationand drop 5C if the temperature wasn’t the between drinking hot beverages and the riskone in which the participant drank the tea. of esophageal cancer suggests that thermalTea temperature was associated with the risk injury could be a cause of other cancers ofof esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. the upper aero digestive epithelia; however,(Islami et al. 2007) Compared with drinking this hypothesis has been investigated in onlywarm or lukewarm tea, drinking hot tea a few epidemiological studies. Even though(odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval the evidence shows that hot tea drinking1.28 to 3.35) or very hot tea (8.16, 3.93 to causes esophageal cancer it’s too early to16.91) was associated with an increased risk draw any conclusion. Further studies areof esophageal cancer (P for trend <0.001). needed.(Islami et al. 2007) What was also Prevention of cancerassociated with the risk of esophageal cancerwas the interval between tea being poured Tea and Coffee associated with brainand drunk. Compared with an interval of tumorsfour or more minutes, intervals of 2-3 Coffee is of the most frequently consumedminutes (odds ratio 2.49, 95% confidence beverage in the world. Coffee is mainlyinterval 1.62 to 3.83) and less than two caffeine, which is known to be a stimulant ofminutes (5.41, 2.63 to 11.14) were the central nervous system. There have beenassociated with an increased risk of only three epidemiologic studies that haveesophageal cancer (P for trend <0.001). In examined the relationship between thetheir study they concluded that the majority intake of coffee and glioma risk. Theseof the population drinks tea. They used more studies showed a null result when examiningblack tea, and it is the one they drink in large them differently with other variables. Whenamounts per day compared with green tea researchers examined the tea alone, they didthat is rarely consumed in their population. not find an association. On the other hand,Both green and black tea has shown cancer studying it combining coffee, tea and colaprevention activity in animal models, which drinks showed an inversed association. Thismay be attributable to flavonoids and other study is combining the data obtained by 4
  5. 5. Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health?analyzing three large prospective studies on Discussionmen and women. Holick and collaborators Previous research on coffee and/or tea statesconducted their study by asking the the positive health benefits in the differentparticipants the sizes of their intakes of food. types of cancer, in other diseases andIndividual intakes were calculated by nutritional health. In spite of these resultsmultiplying the frequency of each food or there have been contradictory effects relatedbeverage consumed by the nutrient content to coffee and tea that show the contrary. Atof the specified portion size and then by this point, we are aware of the varioussumming the contribution from all foods and benefits that coffee and tea provide. Withbeverages. (Holick et al. 2010) In each these results, people must take their cautionsquestionnaire, participants were asked if to moderate their intake of coffee and tea.they had been diagnosed with any type of Coffee and tea have been studied for yearscancer or medical disease during the past 2- in various diseases. In the past decades,years. Investigators evaluated every researchers have revealed contradictoryquestionnaire and the participants who results. Cancer is a disease that is spreadingdidn’t answer were called by phone and fast in society. Due to the inconsistency ofinterviewed. For (83%) of the men and 70% the results further studies are required toof the women in NHS I, glioblastoma was reveal what ingredient is the possiblethe most common histological type, while carcinogen in coffee, and why the intake ofastrocytomas accounted for 14% of tumors coffee and/or tea has contradictory effectsin men and 24% in women. (Holick et al. on humans.2010) However, there was a significantlylower risk of glioma among men and women Referenceswho consumed five or more cups a daycompared with the ones who drank one cup 1. Holick C, Smith S., Giovanucci E, Michaud D, 2010. Coffee, tea,or less a day. In conclusion, the findings caffeine intake and risk of adultsuggested that high intake of coffee and tea glioma 3 prospective study, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &reduces the risk of glioma in both men and Prevention (Internet); (citedwomen. Nonetheless, further study is January 2010). 19(39): Doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0732needed in other populations to confirm these (approximately 9 pages), availablefindings. in 5
  6. 6. Does the intake of coffee and tea really benefits our health? ent/19/1/39.long icles/PMC3066123/?tool=pubmed2. Islami F, Purshams A, Nasrollahzadeh D, et al; Tea Drinking habits and oseophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: Population based case-control study; BMJ [Internet]; [Cited 2009 March 26]; 338 doi: 10.1136/bmj.b929, available at j.b9293. Naghma K, Mukhtar H, Cancer mestatasis: prevention and treatment by green tea. BMC Cancer. [Published 2010 September 23] 29(3): Doi: 10.1007/s 10555 010 92361, Available at: icles/PMC3142888/?tool=pubmed4. Villanueva C, Silverman D, Murta Nascimiento C, et al; Coffee consumption, genetic susceptibility and bladder cancer: Cancer causes and control: [Published in formal form 2009 February 20]. 20(1): Doi 10.1007/s10552-008-9226-6: (approximate 7 pages) Available at med/187980025. Xiaofeng Yu, Zhijun Bao, Juan Zou, Jie Dong, Coffee consumption and the risk cancer: a meta analysis of cohort studies. PubMed. [Published 2011 March 15] 11(96): Doi: 10.1186/1471-11-96, Available at 6