•The nucleus is the center of the cell which contains the cells DNA and is often known as the control center of the cell. •It sends instructions to ribosomes which put proteins together.nucleus
Cell MembraneThe membrane separates thecell from the outside world aswell as compartments insidethe cell that help protectimportant processes. It is a thinmembrane enclosing thecytoplasm of a cell whichcontrols what comes in and outof the cell. This characteristic iscalled being semi permeable,meaning that it only lets certainthings in and certain thingsout. Water, for example, is ableto go through the cellmembrane while othermaterials are not.
Ribosomes make theproteins in the cell byconnecting one amino acid toanother. The nucleus tellsthem how to make proteinsand which ones to make.Ribosomes are found floatingthrough the cytoplasm or onthe endoplasmic reticulum.
Lysosomes hold enzymes for digestion inthe cell. They float around the cytoplasmbreaking down complex molecules such asproteins. The lysosome comes from theGolgi apparatus which gets enzymes fromthe endoplasmic reticulum which latermake up a lysosome.
•Mitochondria are sphericalorganelles in the cytoplasm thatcreate energy for the cell.•“Powerhouse of the cell”•Have two membranes (mostother organelles only have one)
Cilia FlagellaDefinition-hairl ike organelles that line the Definition-a long, whip like extension of surfaces of certain cells and beat in certain cells or unicellular organisms rhythmic waves as means of that function as a means of propulsion. locomotion.• Lots of arms on one cell • Has only one or two arms attached to• Shorter in length the cell surface• Different direction of force • Longer flagella cilia
The rigid outer layer found in plants and certainalgae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristicallyabsent from animal cells. It maintains the shapeof the cell and serves as a protective barrier.The cell wall is made out of a specialized sugarcalled cellulose which provides framework forthe cell to survive.
The cyt oplasm is t he J elly-like mat er ialinside t he cell membr ane t hat or ganellessuch as mit ochondr ia and t he endoplasmicr et iculum ar e cont ained in. Cyt oplasm isf ound in all cells and is also used f orst or age.
Microtubules MicrofilamentsDefinition-tube shaped protein structures that are distributed throughout the Definition-minute fibers located throughout cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm of cells, functioning providing structural support and primarily in maintaining the structural assisting in cellular locomotion and integrity of a cell. transport.• Thick, strong spirals of thousands of • Long, thin, stringy proteins subunits • Work with microtubules to form the• Rounder, tube shaped structure that allows a cell to hold its shape microfilaments
•Exist only in plant cells•Found in the cytoplasm•Have a doublemembrane surroundingthem•The primary function ofplastids is to synthesizeand store food•Generally spherical orovular in shape
A cavity within thecytoplasm surroundedby a single membraneand containing fluid,food, or metabolicwaste. In plant cellsthere is one very largevacuole, in animalcells there are small,specialized vacuoles.The vacuole holds onto anything the cellmight need like morefood or water and thewaste is broken downand eventually sentout of the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelleconsisting of a network of membranes within thecytoplasm involved in protein synthesis andtransport in cellular materials. The roughendoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attachedto the outside. The smooth endoplasmicreticulum has none. It works as a packagingsystem with the Golgi apparatus ribosomes.
Chloroplasts are plastids in thecells of green plants that containchlorophyll and creates glucosethrough photosynthesis. Whenenergy from the sun hits achloroplast, the chlorophyll usesthat energy to combine CO2 andwater to make sugar for the cell.Chloroplasts are usually diskshaped and can orientthemselves in the cell to varytheir exposure to sunlight.
The Golgi Apparatus is apacking organelle similarto the endoplasmicreticulum. It has onemembrane and processesmacromolecules fortransportation elsewherein the cell.
The nucleolus is located inside the nucleusas a sub organelle. The nucleolus is aspherical ball of protein that’s main job isthe production and assembly of ribosomes.
Cytoskeleton Centriole The internal framework of a cell,A cell near the nucleus in the cytoplasm composed of a network of filaments extending through the cytoplasm. Itthat aids in cell division. There’s two in provides structural support andevery animal cell. Cetrioles are made of transportation for the cell.microtubules arranged in a specificway. centriole Sources: Dictionary.com Biology4kids.com http://sun.menloschool.org/~cweaver/cells/c/plastids/ http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/golgi.htm All visited 10/14/07