The Nature Of Research


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The Nature Of Research

  1. 1. The Nature of Research Ervin Ramos DLSU-D Some materials taken from the WWW.
  2. 2. RESEARCH DENOTATIONS AND CONNOTATIONS <ul><li>When you think of research, what images appear in your mind’s eye? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What do you usually associate with research? (Connotations) </li></ul>Tons of paper work!!!
  4. 4. <ul><li>What do you usually associate with research? (Connotations) </li></ul>Experiments?
  5. 5. What is research? (Denotation) <ul><li>Origin of the Word “Research” </li></ul><ul><li>From the French word &quot;recherche&quot; which means to travel through or survey </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is research? (Denotation) <ul><li>Research is the “process of posing a research problem, gathering information, determining relationships, and writing the paper” (Plata et. Al, 2006). </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is research? (Denotation) <ul><li>...An unusually stubborn and persisting effort to think straight which involves the gathering and intelligent use of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamblin, H. (1966). What is research? American Vocational Journal, 41(6), 14-16. </li></ul>
  8. 8. TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave, Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992) <ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Basic </li></ul><ul><li>Applied </li></ul>
  9. 9. TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave, Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992) <ul><li>This type of research is done for the main purpose of arriving or testing a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective of the research is to establish general principles without known or intended practical application of the findings. </li></ul><ul><li>As Fox (1969, as cited in Sevilla, et. Al, 1992) wrote, “It is in search of knowledge for knowledge’s sake” (p. 65). </li></ul>BASIC RESEARCH
  10. 10. TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave, Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992) <ul><li>This type of research is done to solve a research problem through the application of a theory. It is also sometimes done to test a theory and evaluate its usefulness. </li></ul>APPLIED RESEARCH
  11. 11. Pulitzer prize  winning  photo  taken  in  1994  during  the  Sudan  famine.
  12. 12. Pulitzer prize  winning  photo  taken  in  1994  during  the  Sudan  famine. <ul><li>The  picture  depicts  a  famine  stricken  child  crawling  </li></ul><ul><li>towards  a  United  Nations  food  camp,  located  a  </li></ul><ul><li>kilometer  away. </li></ul><ul><li>The  vulture  is  waiting  for  the  child  to  die  so  that  </li></ul><ul><li>it  can  eat  it.  This  picture  shocked  the  whole  world.  </li></ul><ul><li>No  one  knows  what  happened  to  the  child,  including  </li></ul><ul><li>the  photographer  Kevin Carter  who  left  the  place  </li></ul><ul><li>as  soon  as  the  photograph  was  taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Three  months  later  he  committed  suicide  due  to  </li></ul><ul><li>depression. </li></ul>
  13. 13. TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave, Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992) <ul><li>This refers to research done by discovering or identifying and solving a problem in the immediate local setting without the intention of generalizing its results. </li></ul>ACTION RESEARCH
  14. 14. Two Approaches to Research <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul>
  15. 15. Quantitative <ul><ul><li>Emphasizes numbers, measurements, control, and experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: statistically or numerically describe, analyze, show relationships (correlations) or establish causality </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Do you agree?
  17. 17. Do you agree?
  18. 18. Qualitative <ul><ul><li>Emphasizes natural settings, observations, verbal narratives, and interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe multiple realities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture naturally occurring behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Qualitative vis-à-vis Quantitative <ul><ul><li>Box B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Box A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonrepresentative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul></ul>Sample Size? Qualitative Quantitative
  20. 20. Qualitative vis-à-vis Quantitative <ul><ul><li>Box B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of documents and artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Box A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quasi-experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Observations </li></ul></ul>Methods? Qualitative Quantitative
  21. 21. <ul><li>One is categorically not better than the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The research problem, objectives, questions, and data determine which approach is best. </li></ul><ul><li>Before, some researchers underestimate the importance of qualitative research. Today, however, qualitative is a significant tool for researchers worldwide. </li></ul>Which Approach is Best?
  22. 22. Three Major Types of Research <ul><li>Historical- What was </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive - What is </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental – What can be </li></ul>
  23. 23. Possible Sources of Research Problems? <ul><li>When there is an absence of information resulting in a gap in our knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>When there are contradictory results. </li></ul><ul><li>When a fact exists and you intend to make your study explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>When you want to improve a product, a process, a situation… </li></ul>