Using design based research to develop meaningful mobile learning scenarios

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Current research into the use of mobile devices and tablet computers like the iPad indicate there are multiple opportunities to support and enhance learning and we already know a considerable amount about what works in classrooms when these devices are deployed. However it is still unclear why or how these technologies make a difference and this presentation argues that design based research (DBR) would help practitioners and researchers gain a better understanding about the design principles required to develop effective and meaningful learning sceanrios using mobile technologies

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  • Could be called: Three Models and a Challenge - Distinctive Pedagogies for Tablet Computers
  • As long back as ancient times physicians and doctors like Hippocrates knew that the bark of this tree (the willow) when ground down (powder) produced a compound with great analgesic powers to reliev a wide variety of minor aliment and pains including inflammation and headaches. It continued to be used as a remedy for hundreds of years until in the 1860s it was identified as acetylsalicylic acid’ In 1899 Bayer (the US pharmaceutical company) patented this chemical as Aspirin but it was not until 1971 that John Robert Vane actually discovered the mechanism behind this drug. Since John Vane made his discovery numerous other applications have been developed moving far beyond the original purpose which was simple pain relief - it is now used extensively to prevent heart attacks and strokes
  • The use of technology in general, and mobile computers and tablets devices like the ipad, in particular follows a similar pattern to that I have just described. Given the recency of these devices (2008 for mobiles and 2010 for iPads) we have already collected considerable amounts of evidence about what works and does not work. But we are still struggling to explain the precise mechansims - the why and the how - that make these activities work. That is the real challenge for researchers and practitioners and this is where my research lies But firstly lets consider what we do know about what works and does not work when iPads are used in classrooms For example, even from the relatively small number of genuine studies which have been undertaken in the use of mobile devices and tablet devices in particular we know the following activities or pedagogical patterns appear to work very well:
  • Where is this evidence located ? A growing number of studies led by this one in Scotland - NEED OTHER STUDIES HERE - 2008, MELBOURNE STUDY, ETC
  • But despite all of this evidence to indicate what works and what works less well, we are still unclear about why or how these particular technologies achieve these outcomes. We do not yet undertsand the DNA code which would enable us to extend and generalise what works to new settings and indeed into new, as yet unexplored, pedagogical patterns. Partly because our research tends to be descriptive rather than explanatory or even prescriptive (as in medicine). We need to adopt a new research paradigm to achieve this. What some researchers as calling, working in Pasteur’s Quadrant. Doing this using a research approach called Educational Design Research
  • Stage 1 - Technology Triggers (touch screen) * characterised by proof of concept and media stories (Need image from papers here) * seldom a usable product exists - therefore viability is unproven Stage 2: Peak - early publicity fuels triggers of success stories - some companies take action (most do not) Stage 3: Trough - interest wanes as implementations and experiments fail * producers fail or move on *investment limited to those providers who improve their offering in the light of what early adopter wants Stage 4: slope of enlightenment * more successful examples begin to emerge to show real benefits * 2nd and 3rd generation products emerge * more funding for pilots *conservative enterprises remain cautious (is this where we are now?) Stage 5: Plauteau: *mainstream adoption begins * criteria for assessing and measuring viability and effectiveness are well established *broad market applicability paying off
  • The juxtaposing of both models suggest different groups and individuals will be further along the Hype cycle than others 1. innovators have alrerady scaled the Peak experienced the trough - through the first wave of tablet PCs (i.e. pen driven) 2. they have now moved on with the next generation of devices to the slope (2nd and 3rd wave generations - e.g. iPods and iPads) and the plateu, followed now by the early adopters who are the trend setters: 3. approaching the plateau - seeking ways top meausure their success (more of this later) This phase is characteristed by BUT important to remember the early majority (34%) are now following them - some points to make about their adoption patterns 1. Do they need to follow the same route - i.e. false expectations dahsed: probably not (can learn from others - in school this may be through champions and sharing - e.g. TeachMeets) 2. Note this group will follow but are not natural innovators - they will do so when they see it how it fits in with their current lives and ways of working (in practice this may mean becoming familiar with the technology at home - comon in many studies now - 3. BUT - they are unlikely to want to use this technology to change the current way things are done (i.e. to be transfromational) - this needs to be driven elesewhere
  • By the time innovators and early adopters reach Roger’s plateau they are well versed in the technology itself and are looking to establish tools and criteria to measure or evaluate the value of these initiatives. This is where we are approaching with some individuals and schools now. How do they do this?
  • One way - SAMR good to measure where you or your school are in relation to technolgy use generally Little value as a formmative tool, however, to help you or your organisation progress
  • To support this form of research we are using a largely theoretical framework for mobile learning developed between myself and colleagues at the University of Technology, Sydney. It identifies three broad areas to investigate and within this six strands or designs
  • Stages in DBR 1. Stage 1: Identify the problem/puzzle (real world) - e.g. How can I get students to take more notice of the feedback I provide to them when I assess their work? 2. Stage 2: what does the literature say about this? (e.g. Hattie: Visible Learning - summarise findings) 3. Stage 3: develop the prototype activity with practitoners - introduce Explain Everything app (illustrate example from Sally giving feedback on writing - report effect) 4. Stage 4: collect feedback from stakeholders and modify the design - report here on Reshan Richard’s feedback in NY - how teachers started to discover more effective ways of using Explain Everything - get students to use it to explain their thinking 5. Stage 5: implement new iteration - e.g. student led (insight into their thinking) - collect feedback 6. Stage 6: develop theoretical understanding (Pasteur’s use-inspired basic theory) -e.g. the most effective feedback is not from the teacher to the student (i.e. iteration 1) but from the student to the teacher and using a multimodal format like EE enables the teacher to understand this better and modify their teaching accordingly. NB. This is just an example - porbably fits into Customisation
  • 1. Teachers are generally very capable and fluent in their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) – i.e. they understand how different pedagogical patterns will be more/or less effective in helping students to understand particular bodies of subject knowledge. The difficulties lies in understanding how, when and under what circumstances technology is part of this equation (TPCK- Mishra and Koeller) – the personal ownership of a device like the iPad brings this equation into play in a big way and teachers have probably not been equipped or prepared for this in their training
  • Using design based research to develop meaningful mobile learning scenarios

    1. 1. Dr. Kevin Burden:The University of HullDesigning MeaningfulPedagogies for MobileCulturesForest Pines Hotel, 20th June2013
    2. 2. • what pedagogies work well withmobile devices?• why is this important but notsufficient?• how can practitioners andresearchers design more effectivelearning episodes using mobiles?
    3. 3. Greece:5th century, BC U.K: 1971Hippocrates John Robert VaneAcetylsalicylicAcid
    4. 4. acetylsalicylic acid1861
    5. 5. John Robert Vane (1971)
    6. 6. Tablet Computers:a game changer?How do we design meaningfullearning episodes toexploit theaffordances of themobile culture?
    7. 7. http://www2.hull.ac.uk/ifl/ipadresearchinschools.aspx
    8. 8. BBloom’sCognitiveDomainsRememberUnderstandApplyAnalyseEvaluateCreateeditshareimplementusesimulateconstructrecordclassifycompare/contrastdeduceinfer outlineexaminedemonstrate deconstructcritiquerankjudgedebateprioritisecollaboratejustifydecidediscusstransformhypothesiserearrangeproduceinventcomposedesignexplainidentifysummarisedescribereportretrievereportfindlocateMind MappingBloggingWord ProcessingInternet SearchingAnnotatingPresentingmovie-makinginterviewingcapturingconstructingdiagrammingproblem solvingsurveyingspread sheetingsummarisingcharting creating advertisementrecommendationjudgementself-evaluationconferencingcritiquingauthoringstory-tellingcourse designscreen-castingmusic productionmultimediaAugmentedReality
    9. 9. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)engagementmotivationreliance/persistenceindependence/autonomy
    10. 10. Effective pedagogiesPersonal ownership
    11. 11. Effective pedagogiesPersonal ownershipCollaborative learning
    12. 12. Effective pedagogiesClassroom dynamicsPersonal ownershipCollaborative learning
    13. 13. Effective pedagogiesOutdoor learningClassroom dynamicsPersonal ownershipCollaborative learning
    14. 14. Effective pedagogiesOutdoor learningClassroom dynamicsPersonal ownershipBridging home-school divideCollaborative learning
    15. 15. Pasteur’s Quadrant
    16. 16. ?ApplicabilityTheoreticalunderstanding
    17. 17. CollaborationDatasharingConversationAuthenticityContextualisedSituatedPersonalisationAgencyCustomisationA pedagogical frameworkfor mobile learningKearney, M., Schuck, S., Burden, K., & Aubusson, P. (2012)Viewing mobile learning from a pedagogical perspective,Research in Learning TechnologyVol. 20, 2012
    18. 18. PersonalisationBeluga MathsBeluga Maths
    19. 19. Collaborationmediated conversations
    20. 20. Authenticity
    21. 21. Authenticity
    22. 22. Collaborative analysisCollaborative analysisof practical problemsof practical problemsby researchers andby researchers andpractitionerspractitionersReflection to produceReflection to produce‘design principles’ and‘design principles’ andenhance solutionenhance solutionimplementationimplementationDesign Based ResearchDevelopment of initialDevelopment of initialsolution driven bysolution driven bydesign principles &design principles &technologicaltechnologicalinnovationsinnovationsIterative cycles ofIterative cycles oftesting andtesting andrefinement ofrefinement ofsolutions in practicesolutions in practicerefinement of problems, solutions and design principles
    23. 23. Educational DesignResearchExplain EverythingQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
    24. 24. Collaborative analysisCollaborative analysisof practical problemsof practical problemsby researchers andby researchers andpractitionerspractitionersDevelopment of initialDevelopment of initialsolution driven bysolution driven bydesign principles &design principles &technologicaltechnologicalinnovationsinnovationsIterative cycles ofIterative cycles oftesting andtesting andrefinement ofrefinement ofsolutions in practicesolutions in practiceReflection to produceReflection to produce‘design principles’ and‘design principles’ andenhance solutionenhance solutionimplementationimplementationDesign Based ResearchHow can weHow can wecustomise feedbackcustomise feedbackto students to make itto students to make itmore effective?more effective?Teacher uses App toTeacher uses App toprovide richer, moreprovide richer, moreinformative feedbackinformative feedbackPrototype designPrototype designmodified to enablemodified to enablestudents to use Appstudents to use Appto make their thinkingto make their thinkingmore visiblemore visibleExtract ‘designExtract ‘designprinciples’:principles’:
    25. 25. How can weHow can wecustomise feedbackcustomise feedbackto students to maketo students to makeit more effective?it more effective?Teacher uses App toTeacher uses App toprovide richer, moreprovide richer, moreinformative feedbackinformative feedback
    26. 26. QuickTime™ and aH.264 decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    27. 27. How can weHow can wecustomise feedbackcustomise feedbackto students to maketo students to makeit more effective?it more effective?Teacher uses App toTeacher uses App toprovide richer, moreprovide richer, moreinformative feedbackinformative feedbackPrototype designPrototype designmodified to enablemodified to enablestudents to use Appstudents to use Appto make their thinkingto make their thinkingmore visiblemore visibleExtract ‘designExtract ‘designprinciples’:principles’:•Use the App to encourage two-wayflow of feedback data•Focus on ‘threshold concepts’•Encourage peer-to-peer feedback•Use feed-back to inform futureplanning
    28. 28. 48On-line learning scenarios surveyhttp://www.survey.hull.ac.uk/mobilelearningscenario
    29. 29. 49http://www.educationcommunities.org/c/162117/h
    30. 30. MESH Knowledge Maps
    31. 31. 52Dr. Kevin BurdenThe Centre forEducational StudiesThe Faculty of EducationThe University of Hullk.j.burden@hull.ac.uk07815184477

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