0
Future Challenges for
Education:
the changing digital
environment:
the changing digital
environment:
Dr. Kevin Burden:
Sen...
•

indicate work well?

• Does research inform us why and how they work
well?

• Can we therefore design better mobile
sce...
Why do these strategies work well?
Technological & Pedagogical
Pedagogical Content
Content Knowledge
Knowledge
(TPACK)
Content

Pedagogy

Technology
What is mobile learning?
What is mobile learning?
Mobile learning is not?
Delivering more content!
iPod Project: North East Lincolnshire, 20092001
iPad Scotland Evaluation: 2012
Edinburgh 1:1 Mobile project: 2012-2013
Challenge 1:
Expertise & Authority
Expertise & Authority
Expertise & Authority
Imbalances of traditional classrooms
Daily use of technology in
school (iPad Scotland)
Daily use of technology in
school (Edinburgh 1:1)
W
Student agency:
where and how to learn
Second inbalance - unsymmetrical
classrooms
W
Learner Generated Content
Summary
Individualisation .v.
Socialisation
Individualisation .v.
Socialisation
Individualisation .v.
Socialisation
Customisation
AR as customisation
“It doesn’t work if it’s shared because all the good things
that happen, happen because it’s yours and you’re taking
it ho...
Conversations mediated by mobile devices, not
replaced by them
Challenge 3:
Is learning authentic?
Is learning authentic?
Is learning authentic?
Using mobile devices to make learning
more authentic
1. Using the device to replicate professional tools
2. using the devi...
Regular use of technology at
home (iPad Scotland)
QuickTime™ and a
Apple Intermediate Codec decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
Apple Intermediat...
Heritage learning situated
Personalisation

Collaboration

Authenticity
Design Based Research
Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of
feedback
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of
feedback
“… before I would have maybe sent a worksheet
home and they would just complete it and send it
back to me.  But if I put t...
‘Making Thinking Visible’

•Use scenarios which encourage two-way feedback
•Design problems which force students to articu...
Your take-away
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference,...
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Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference, Nov 2013)

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Dr. Kevin Burden argues for the need to understand how and why technologies bring about learning rather than just what changes

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  • What does this suggest about technology and cognition generally - we are smarter than you think
    Extended cognition
  • Technologies have always done this - extended our cognition
    In doing so they have altered changed the way we think - books, for example, encouraged more linear and more abstract ways of thinking than did pictograms
  • So whats stopping us do all of these thing? - we know what works (by observing) but we know far less about why or how they work and therfore how to replicate them at scale - use analogy
  • What does it mean for learning in particular and the role of educators
    if technology extends our cognition (i.e. it acts as a multiplier) how do we design learning which exploits this?
    is it necessary, therefore, to understand more about the technology - i.e. what it is capable of supporting, and in what conditions or contexts?
  • These are the mobile technologies of their day
  • These are the mobile technologies of their day
  • List from previous conference - ??? 2012
    delivering more content
  • iPod research in North East Lincolnshire, 2009-2011
  • Background to my research into mobile technologies, and tablet devices in particular
  • Authority:
    1. Where mobile technologies are sanctioned within the institution, especially in depolyments which are highly personal (e.g. 1:1) they alter the relationship between learners and teachers/educators
    2. Current model of learning is unsymmetrical in many ways:
    the teacher owns and controls most of the knowledge or ‘stuff’ which is mandated to be understood/known - Freire’s Banking Analogy (Knowledge is deposited) restricting the ability to think critically
    knowledge (or stuff) is consumed by the learner in large volumes but relatively little is produced, particularly with any lasting value (most is ephemeral and quickly lost)
    3. Ubiquitous connectivity (which is what mobile learning promises) - challenges this in many respects:
    knowledge cannot be ‘controlled’ or rationed in the same way it was when it belonged exclusively to the teachers - scarcity has dissappeared (much as it did with the monks who were previous guardians of knowledge and therefore learning)
    not necessary to teach as much content any longer - most of it can be located by students
    it is also less necessary to memorise everything any longer - freeing up cognitive space and energy for other things
    learners become more independent and less needy of the teacher
    they are able to make more choices - agency (where they work; how they work and undertake a task; when they work)
    they
  • when knowledge and information was scarce it was fairly easy to control who had access to it and how it was regulated - these people did most of the regulating (monks, lecturers, teachers)
    The volume of information is now vast and scarcity is no longer an issue - with Internet access it is also impossible to police who has access to this information and this, therefore, challenges the traditional authority of the teacher
  • all of our research demonstrates very clearly how students get considerable more access to technology in school when mobile devices are introduced than they ever did before (see graph)
  • So what do students use this access and technology for?
    1. All of our evidence show two principal uses at this point in time:
    research/internet
    writing - productivity
    2. Interesting - for later - also considerable sharing (look at this later)
    Research is interesting - demonstrates a different model of learning - not a banking model (deposits)
    Ubiquitous connectivity (which is what mobile learning promises) - challenges this in many respects:
    knowledge cannot be ‘controlled’ or rationed in the same way it was when it belonged exclusively to the teachers - scarcity has dissappeared (much as it did with the monks who were previous guardians of knowledge and therefore learning)
    not necessary to teach as much content any longer - most of it can be located by students
    it is also less necessary to memorise everything any longer - freeing up cognitive space and energy for other things
    learners become more independent and less needy of the teacher
    they are able to make more choices - agency (where they work; how they work and undertake a task; when they work)
    they
  • Introduces more choices and autonomy for students - one of the emerging themes to date (students have more opportunities to find out for themselves; to be ‘experts’; to learn from experts outside the classroom’
    But is it happening (see findings from our study)
  • For almost as long as we have had schools the relationship between the learner and the teacher has been unsymmetrical in the sense that most of what occurs is about consumption (i.e. of knowledge) not production: why
    technical reasons - hard for students to produce anything that would last
    technical - hard to share or disseminate to a wider audfience
    lack of real audience diminishes the drive to publish - who reads a typical essay
  • Currently the creative activities, where students are producers, not consumers, are still low but we are starting from a low base and this needs to be an area where teachers re-conceptualise what leanring is and how it is assessed -process is as important as product (you can have both)
  • Examples of production - student generated content (contexts) - find examples
  • What are the arguments in this challenge - who will be the expert and production/authoring (knowledge construction)
  • One aspect of personalisation is customisation - technologies, like the iPad, offer great opportunities to customise learning to the individual
    the device itself can be customised giving it a great sense of personal identity (show screens)
    like eBay and Amazon the device can start to understand the learner’s preferences and customise resources accordingly (e.g. use of Twitter to send personal details)
    some apps are very good at customising the experience of learning (e.g. Beluga Maths)
    customisation through books - see iBooks and Bookry widgets
  • AR = the ultimate form of customisation - what you see is unqiue to you and your learning
  • Models of ownership - we are going towards a much more 1:1 model
  • Models of ownership - frequently 1:1 - highly personalised (see models of deployment in Scotland)
  • The risks associated with individualisations - lack of social contact
    But our data does not support this conclusion - at least not yet
    1. we were surprised to find higher levels of conversation and collaboration in the classroom than we expected - teachers report it has increased
  • Important that teachers still design lessons which encourage collaboration and cooperation between learners - when they do the technology actually supports this kind of learning - (e.g. see these apps_)
  • Three aspects to authenticity, all of which can be enhanced when learners have access to a mobile, networked device like the iPad
    1. make learning more realistic by drawing upon professional tools through the device (e.g. a microscope; a wind tunnel)
    2. make the learning more realistic by setting authentic tasks which draw upon real data - e.g. Quakespotter; Plane Finder; Sensors, etc
    3. Make the learning more realistic by taking the device outdoors and using it to situate learning in real contexts
  • 1 - microscopes, sensors and wind tunnels
    2 - demo iPad (Quakespotter and Plane Finder)
    2. museum trails/ AR apps/ games (ARIS)
  • 3. Using it in real work-places:
    Authentic learning tools - video capture
    Situated learning on the job - in the work-place
  • 3. Using the real world as the classroom - Museum of London street app
  • 3. Games based learning in situ - e.g. ARIS
  • Example of DBR in non educational context - traffic flow and calming
  • Transcript of "Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment (BPP University Annual Learning and Teaching Conference, Nov 2013)"

    1. 1. Future Challenges for Education: the changing digital environment: the changing digital environment: Dr. Kevin Burden: Senior Lecturer and University Teaching Fellow: The Faculty of Education The University of Hull
    2. 2. • indicate work well? • Does research inform us why and how they work well? • Can we therefore design better mobile scenarios? • What might these look like? learning
    3. 3. Why do these strategies work well?
    4. 4. Technological & Pedagogical Pedagogical Content Content Knowledge Knowledge (TPACK) Content Pedagogy Technology
    5. 5. What is mobile learning?
    6. 6. What is mobile learning?
    7. 7. Mobile learning is not? Delivering more content!
    8. 8. iPod Project: North East Lincolnshire, 20092001
    9. 9. iPad Scotland Evaluation: 2012
    10. 10. Edinburgh 1:1 Mobile project: 2012-2013
    11. 11. Challenge 1: Expertise & Authority Expertise & Authority Expertise & Authority
    12. 12. Imbalances of traditional classrooms
    13. 13. Daily use of technology in school (iPad Scotland)
    14. 14. Daily use of technology in school (Edinburgh 1:1)
    15. 15. W
    16. 16. Student agency: where and how to learn
    17. 17. Second inbalance - unsymmetrical classrooms
    18. 18. W
    19. 19. Learner Generated Content
    20. 20. Summary
    21. 21. Individualisation .v. Socialisation Individualisation .v. Socialisation Individualisation .v. Socialisation
    22. 22. Customisation
    23. 23. AR as customisation
    24. 24. “It doesn’t work if it’s shared because all the good things that happen, happen because it’s yours and you’re taking it home and you’re using it and then you’re adapting and you’re taking the different things. And you’re getting so used to using it that you can use them across the different apps and you can have that bit of personal choice” (Student, Bellshill Academy)
    25. 25. Conversations mediated by mobile devices, not replaced by them
    26. 26. Challenge 3: Is learning authentic? Is learning authentic? Is learning authentic?
    27. 27. Using mobile devices to make learning more authentic 1. Using the device to replicate professional tools 2. using the device to generate real life tasks using real data 3. using the device in outdoor contexts
    28. 28. Regular use of technology at home (iPad Scotland)
    29. 29. QuickTime™ and a Apple Intermediate Codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a Apple Intermediate Codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    30. 30. Heritage learning situated
    31. 31. Personalisation Collaboration Authenticity
    32. 32. Design Based Research
    33. 33. Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of feedback
    34. 34. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    35. 35. Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of feedback
    36. 36. “… before I would have maybe sent a worksheet home and they would just complete it and send it back to me.  But if I put the worksheet on ‘Screen Chomp’, then they can do the worksheet on ‘Screen Chomp’ but record themselves while they do it, and explain what they are doing to me, so I can see where their understanding is, and I can see any points that they are not understanding.  And I can also, when I am marking it when I am talking to the children after, I will be able to give them more direct and targeted feedback because I will know exactly where they have gone wrong with things.  I think that has been a big change in being able to do that” Teacher - Chryston Primary School
    37. 37. ‘Making Thinking Visible’ •Use scenarios which encourage two-way feedback •Design problems which force students to articulate their thinking processes •Facilitate students feedback with peers •Focus on ‘threshold concepts’ and ‘troublesome knowledge’
    38. 38. Your take-away
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