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As Archaeology  Stonehenge
 

As Archaeology Stonehenge

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    As Archaeology  Stonehenge As Archaeology Stonehenge Presentation Transcript

    • THE RITUAL MONUMENTS IN WILTSHIRE: A STUDY OF THE BELIEF SYSTEM IN THE NEOLITHIC AND BRONZE AGES
    • WHAT IS A CEREMONIAL LANDSCAPE?
      • Wiltshire has a ritual landscape is where large numbers of prehistoric monuments cluster together.
      • It is believed that a whole block of land might have been dedicated to gods
    • THE AVEBURY HENGE
      • Avebury is the site of a large henge and two stone circles.
      • It is one of the largest Neolithic monuments in Europe and dates to around 5,000 years ago.
      • It is older than the megalithic stages of Stonehenge although both monuments date to the Neolithic period.
    • Religion and Ritual at Avebury: Student Task
      • Use the internet to explore the evidence that Avebury had a religious and ritual function:
      • 1. Visit the following website and take a panoramic tour of the site:
      • www.stone henge - avebury .net/Photos/gtour/QtvrtourAve.html
      • 2. Research the construction and layout of the site
      • 3. Produce a 3 slide power point presentation in which you present your findings and comment on the ways in which Avebury could be seen to have a religious function
    • WEST KENNET LONG BARROW
      • The West Kennet Long Barrow is a Neolithic tomb situated about one-and-a-half miles south of Avebury.
      • It was built in about 3600 BC, some 400 years before the building of Stonehenge
      • It contains the remains of 46 individuals whose bodies had been exposed before burial
      • Archaeologists believe that the people who built the tomb practised ancestor worship .
      • Student Task: Discussion
      • What is excarnation?
      • How do we know when it has been practiced?
      • What is the evidence for ancestor worship at West Kennet?
    • SILBURY HILL
      • Silbury Hill is the largest man-made structure from the prehistoric period.
      • It was built 4,000 years ago
      • Its purpose remains a mystery even today
    • SILBURY HILL: STUDENT TASK
      • Silbury is a grass-covered chalk mound in the shape of a flat-topped cone
      • Click to view the film clip
      • Use the internet to research Silbury Hill and write a commentary for the film clip. You will be presenting this to the class
    • STONEHENGE
      • Stonehenge one of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world.
      • Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones
      • Henges have ditches inside their banks; they cannot have been defensive structures
      • Julian Richards regards Stonehenge as a Neolithic temple.
      • The standing stones were probably erected around 2200 BC and the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC.
    • How was Stonehenge Built?
      • The first phase of the monument was the digging of a circular bank and ditch enclosure
      • In the second phase a timber structure was built. We know this from the posthole that have been discovered
      • In the third phase timber was abandoned in favour of stone and two concentric crescents of holes were dug in the centre of the site.. The holes held up to 80 standing stones 43 of which were for the bluestones. The Altar Stone, the Heel Stone and the Station Stones were added.
    • Building Stonehenge (Contd)
      • Next the great sarsen stones were erected into a circle and lintels were fitted on top.
      • Within this circle five trilithons of dressed sarsen stone were arranged in a horseshoe shape
      • In the final stages the bluestones were re-erected so that in the end they created a horseshoe-shaped setting
    • BUILDING STONEHENGE: STUDENT TASK
      • Use the internet to research further the building of Stonehenge and put together a presentation that explores the building phases in detail:
      • Use the following websites:
      • www.english-heritage.org.uk/ stonehenge /
      • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Stonehenge
    • STONEHENGE IN THE CEREMONIAL LANDSCAPE
    • STONEHENGE IN THE CEREMONIAL LANDSCAPE (contd)
      • Archaeologists have used the term ceremonial or ritual landscape where large numbers of monuments cluster together.
      • Stonehenge is linked to a number of other important monuments in the area which all appear to have a ritual function
      • Explore the interactive map on the English Heritage website.
    • RELIGIOUS AND RITUAL ACTIVITIES AT STONEHENGE
      • The layout of Stonehenge reveals that the entrance is aligned on the mid-summer sunrise
      • The mid-winter sun sets between the two great uprights of the trilithon
      • Archaeologists believe that ceremonies on the longest and the shortest days played an important role in Neolithic and early Bronze Age religion when the gods were called upon during key points in the agricultural calendar
    • WHAT HAVE THE DRUIDS GOT TO DO WITH STONE HENGE?
      • Click to view the film clip
      • People associate Stonehenge with the religion practised by the druids
      • Druids are associated with religion in the Iron Age
      • It is a common misconception that the druids worshipped at Stonehenge
      • Druids have nothing to do with Stonehenge!
    • Religion at Stonehenge: Student Task
      • Draw the table opposite in your notes
      • Use the evidence you have gathered from this study package to help you complete the table
      • Present your ideas to the class
      Size: Community Gatherings     Role of a Priesthood or Shamen   Role of Processions   Orientation of the Feature