Day 1 Leadership AndSocial Responsibilities WHO IS A LEADER Instructor: Ed Sawyer
Essential Readings1.Lussier, Robert N, Achua, Christopher. (2007) Effective 3rd edition. ThomsonSouth-WesternSupplementary1.Lussier, Robert N. (2004) Leadership – Theory, Application, Skill Development 2ndedition. Thomson South-Western2.Bratton, John. (2005). Organizational Leadership. Thomson South-Western3.Whetten, Cameron (2005). Developing Management Skills 5th edition. PrenticeHall4.Daft Richard L. (2005). The Leadership Experience. Thomson South-Western5.Potoker, Elaine S. (2005). Managing Diverse Working Styles: The LeadershipCompetitive Advantage. Thomson South-Western.
AssessmentsAssessment 1Exam Mid Term 2 hour durationAssessment 2Final Exam 3 hour durationAssessment 3Assignment 2000 words Due -
5 Key Elements of Leadership• Leader – Follower Relationship• Influence• Organisational Objectives• Change• People
InfluenceLeaders-Followers Organizational Leadership Objectives Change People
Benchmarking. Total Quality Management. Customer Focused. Best Practices. Globalisation. Information technology. Flexible manufacturing. Lean manufacturing. Micromarketing. Competitive advantage. Core competencies. Capabilities. Strategic intent. Strategic alliances. Partnering. Outsourcing. Networking. Time based competition. Continuous improvement. Business process redesign. Cross functional teams. Mission statements. Concurrent engineering. Downsizing. Right sizing. Delayering. Information. Revitalisation. Restructuring. Reengineering. Organisational redesign. Job redesign. Culture change. Gainsharing. Pay-for-performance. Computer aided design. Computer aided engineering. Computer aided manufacturing. Computer integrated manufacturing. Asset management. The new organisation. The learning organisation. The network organisation. The innovative organisation. The informated organisation. The adaptive organisation. The hybrid organisation. The empowered organisation. The transnational organisation. Knowledge workers. Entrepreneurs. Intrapreneurs.Key Performance Indicators.Key Value Drivers. Key result Areas. Open Book Management. Balanced Scorecard. Had enough? There are more……….
Leadership Theory• Traits – Leaders are born not made Looking for a set of traits which would identify a leader e.g. dominance, self reliance, high energy• Behaviour – What leaders do, and how they do it• Leadership roles Interpersonal, Informational Decisional• Task Leadership• People orientated
Leadership Theory• Contingency – No one good leadership style for all situations Study to understand which leadership styles would work in any given situation• Integrated – Combining “Trait” “Behavioural” and “Contingency” Theories
Leadership Theory• Management to Leadership – Democratic Form of Leadership• Managers were generally autocratic, this has change to distributed leadership• Managers had a tight reign on controls and employees – this has changed to employees ownership of tasks and processes• Management was top down
Task orientated Vs People Orientated There is a growing understanding in management and leadership that people are an important aspects of the success of the company.Managers that do not have the relevant skills to deal with people will have difficulty moving up the corporate ladder. In the traits of an effective leader, there is a fine line between good and bad
Bullying style Cold, aloof, arrogant6 Betrayed personal trustMajorReasons 4. Self-centeredfor Specific performance problemsExecutive Over managedDerailment
Dominance• An important aspect of leadership• Dominant leaders will take charge, however this done incorrectly may be seen as bossy, pushy arrogant or bullying.High Energy• A drive to achieve• Ability to tolerate stress• Enthusiasm• Drive to achieve
Self Confidence• Decision making• Capable• Self confidence can influence others by having a reassuring effectLocus of Control• Belief that they are in control of their life and destiny• Future oriented• Learn from mistakes
Stability• Emotionally in control• Secure and positiveIntegrity• Honesty to self and others• Trusting – able to trust other to do their work
Intelligence - IQ• Generally have an above average intelligence• Cognitive ability to think criticallyEmotional Intelligence EQ• Ability to work well with people• Ability to understand others emotions/feelings
Flexibility• Able to adjust• Leaders bring about change – therefore must be able to adjustSensitive to Others• Understand the individual and group needs and wants• Empathy
Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y• Theory X – Believe that people generally dislike work and they must be closely supervised – People are lazy. – People lack ambition – People dislike responsibility – People are self-centered – People don’t like change
Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y• Theory Y – Believe that people generally want to do their best at work, and given the chance will do what is best for the company – People are energetic. – People want to make contributions. – People do have ambition – People will seek responsibility This may be self prophesising as people will generally rise to the expectation of their leaders
Ethics• Differences between unethical and unlawful• Ethic often relates to cultural beliefs, or practices• Situation can often influence the position of a persons ethics
EthicsFour considerations in ethical decision making• 1 the utilitarian approach• 2 the individualism approach• 3 the moral rights approach• 4 the justice approach
EthicsThe utilitarian approach• The utilitarian approach holds that moral behaviour produces the greatest good for the greatest number.• Critics of this approach fear a tendency towards a ‘Big Brother’ approach and question whether the common good is squeezing the life out of the individual.
EthicsThe individualism approach• The individualism approach contends that acts are moral when they promote the individuals best long-term interests, which ultimately leads to the greater good.• Individual self-direction is paramount.• Individualism is believed to lead to honesty and integrity, since that works best in the long run.
EthicsThe moral rights approach• The moral rights approach is the ethical concept that moral decisions are those that best maintain the rights of those people affected by them.• An ethical decision is one that avoids interfering with the fundamental rights of others.
Ethics‘Moral rights’• the right of free consent• the right to privacy• the right of freedom of conscience• the right of free speech• the right to due process• the right to life and safety
EthicsThe justice approach• The justice approach is the ethical concept that moral decisions must be based on standards of• equity, fairness and impartiality.• Three types of justice approaches: – distributive justice – procedural justice – compensatory justice.
Factors affecting ethical choicesthe manager: levels or stages of moral development ◦ pre-conventional ◦ conventional ◦ post-conventional the organisation employment conflicts of interest environmental issues sexual harassment workplace safety employee privacy ethical conflicts in international business the security of company records affirmative action.
Motivation and Leadership• Push and Pull Factors of Motivation• Hierarchy of Needs• Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs suggests people are motivated through five levels of needs – Physiological – Safety – Belongingness – Esteem – Self actualisation
Two Factor Theory• Maintenance – Extrinsic Motivators – Motivators which comes from outside the person • Pay • Security • Title • Conditions• Motivators – Intrinsic Motivators – Motivators which comes from within the person • Achievement • Challenges • Advancement
Two Factor Theory• Are Intrinsic or Extrinsic factors a greater motivation• Which will keep and employee satisfied with their workThe presence of Intrinsic or Extrinsic factors may not be a motivator, however the lack of the presence may be a de-motivator
Acquired Needs Theory• All people have the need for – Achievement – Power – Affiliation
Day 4 INFLUENCE POWER POLITICSNETWORKING AND NEGOTIATION
Position Power Vs Personal Power• Position Power comes from the perceived or delegated power through being placed in a position of leadership or management• Personal Power comes from the personal traits and behaviour• They are relatively independent, however do overlap
Legitimate Power• Based on the legitimacy given to the person by the company. This could include rank, title etc.• Power is influenced by the ability to give rewards or punishment due to their required position
Reward Power• Based on the ability to give something as a reward to another person. Similar to Reward Power, however it is the ability to take away something or punish another person.
Referent Power• Based on the ability to influence someone due to a relationship or loyalty. Based on the knowledge that person has which can be used to influence people
Information Power• Based on the ability to have the knowledge.• Knowledge is not power, the use of knowledge is power. Based on the relationships with people of influence or power
6 Degrees of Separation Boundary Spanners Connectors etc.
Contingency Theory• Effective Leadership depends on a variety of variables
• Organisation are increasing looking for leaders which understand contingency leadership• Leaders must be able to adapt to the given situation• No one leadership style is suitable in all situations
Day 6COMMUNICATION COACHING AND CONFLICT SKILLS
Communication Interference Message ReceivedMessage sent (Barriers) (Decoding)(Encoding) Medium Feedback
All communication needs to be effective in order to demonstrate our intention to our customer and colleague, and to deliver service and responses quickly.To help achieve effective communication, the following five rules apply:1. Every message must have a purpose.2. Messages should match the interests and abilities of the receiver.3. Unnecessary words should be eliminated.4. Chosen words should be within the experience range of the receiver.5. Verbal messages should be clear and concise, using the correct words and their pronunciation, along with appropriate inflection, tone, language, speed and volume of voice.
Verbal communication involves sending and receiving messages via language or speech (verbal communication) or via body language (non-verbal).For communication to occur there must be ‘feedback’: the receiver must also send a message that indicates they have understood the message that has been sent.Without feedback, there is only monologue, not dialogue – without feedback it is possible to argue that no real communication has occurred.Communication comprises both ‘verbal communication’ and ‘non- verbal communication’:
The two main causes of breakdowns in communication are:1. a lack of the necessary communication skills, and2. a lack of motivation to communicate properly. Factors that increase the chance of communication failure or breakdown include: Hidden agendas – where the real message behind the communication is something other than the message being sent Negative feelings – bad feelings built up in you by actions or words from others. Personal traits – the way that an individuals personal characteristics affect their natural communication ability: a person may naturally be an avoider, a joker or a blamer and these traits will affect both the messages they send and the way they receive and interpret messages.
When working in the hospitality industry, there is a need to communicate with both customers and other staff (colleagues).It is important that all of these communications are conducted in a polite, professional and friendly manner.Who might communication occur with?• Workmates/colleagues• External customers and clients• Local residents• Visitors
The medium is the tool you use to communicate. There are numerous mediums in the workplace, including: Fax Email Speaking face-to-face Telephone Two-way communication systems Simple written messages Standard business forms eg: maintenance request Using an interpreter
Paraphrasing• Paraphrasing is a form of feedback• It allows the sender that the receiver has understood the message
Conflict• Conflict should be managed• Conflict can be functional and dysfunctional• Conflict can be due to a tangible or intangible problem• Conflict can arise from relationships
Conflict Management Styles High ConcernHigh Concern Accommodating Collaborating for for Passive Assertive Others’ andOthers’ Needs You Win, I Lose You Win, I Win Own Needs Negotiating Assertive You Win Some, I Win SomeLow Concern Avoiding Forcing High Concern for Passive Aggressive for Others’ and You Lose, I Lose You Lose, I Win Own Needs Own Needs 4-13
Accommodating Conflict• Accommodating is when one person or group attempts to resolve the conflict by giving the other person or persons what they want or need• This may not achieve the best for both parties• May result in further conflict
Avoiding Conflict• Avoiding is when one person or group attempts to resolve the conflict by ignoring the issue or person• This may not achieve the best for both parties• May result in further conflict or escalation of the conflict• Can be used successfully in some situations
Negotiating Conflict• Negotiating is the use give and take concessions (bartering)• This may achieve for both parties a middle ground of compromise where both parties are satisfied• May result in less than favourable results or productivity• This is often seen in budget reviews where management will ask for more, yet expect less.
Collaborating Conflict• Collaborating is finding a way to jointly resolve a situation ( Win/win)• This may achieve the best for both parties• Rather than finding a middle ground, thus dividing the pie, collaborating will try to grow the pie.• May be time consuming to ensure the best for both parties
Forcing Conflict• Forcing is using bullying or standover tactics to force the resolution, usually in one person’s favour• This may achieve the resentment and an unco-operative outcome• Forcing may be used when safety or legal considerations are paramount
Alignment Distributed Leadership Integration of Effort Out Front Up Front Resourcing the Future Time Based Bias for Action Learning Focus Discipline Measurement/Feedback Customer Value Capabilities Micro to Macro Adapted from Prof Danny Samson
Principle 1 : Alignment• There is good alignment of employee values and articulated company values.• There is good alignment of employee mindsets and strategic business imperatives.• These values and mindsets guide employee behaviors and are aligned with customer requirements, the stated strategy and the financial performance requirements of the firm.
Principle 2 : ‘Distributed’ Leadership Senior Managers in great companies are having less and less to do with organizational and day to day operational issues. These have been devolved to individuals and work groups who have been given, and who accept, increased decision making authority, responsibility and accountability. Managers pull back from managing the short term and focus on creating and resourcing the medium and long-term for the firm. They have become strategists and change agents.
Principle 3 : Integration Leading companies have broadened the scope and span of all employees’ objectives and responsibility cycle. They achieve an integration of effort and purpose across the firm, often restructuring to suit, from functional hierarchies to a systemic value chain/process focus. They also are involved in integrating their activities, values and goals with those of customers and suppliers including material and technology supplies.They focus on making all relationships partnership-like.
Principle 4 : Being ‘Out Front’ Being ‘out front’ means leading customer requirements, leading environmental policy and practice, leading industry standards, leading supplier partnership development, leading in quality, leading in responsiveness, leading in product design and features, leading in technology management....... Leading firms make extensive use of information technology in order to look and act global.
Principle 5 : Being ‘Up Front’ Being ‘out front’ means leading customer Being ‘up front’ means being open, honest and acting with integrity in all areas of business activity.. only making promises to customers that can be kept... telling employees “the way it is”...confronting unacceptable behavior etc Senior Managers in leading organizations place an extremely high value on the “quality” of their working relationships and the effectiveness of the executive management team.
Principle 6 :Resourcing the Medium Term (3 years) Whilst being lean, leading organizations do not cut so ‘close to the bone’ as to stop their development. They have enough professional resources to engage in key strategic projects. Operators are able to balance their time between operating, improving processes and learning. This is not to say cost reduction is not a driving focus in leading firms, it invariably is. By investing in learning today, great companies build cost reduction and other capabilities for tomorrow.
Principle 7 : Being Time Based• This means having time as a critical value and set of measures, whether its the time taken to respond to customer enquiries, the order to delivery time or the product development time.• To be an effective time based competitor requires mastery of cost, quality and flexibility.
Principle 8 : Having a Bias For Action• Leading firms are as good at executing ideas and strategies as formulating them.• Leading firms have developed change management capabilities and project management disciplines as core capabilities themselves!• Accountability is ‘tough and hard’ in these companies
Principle 9 : Having a Learning Focus• Learning for all employees is seen as critical to success in leading firms.• This is born from being always dissatisfied with performance and processes, and realizing that improved knowledge translates into improved processes and then performance. Ranging from multi-skilling to management think tanks, excellent firms continually invest in the brains of all their employees.
Principle 10: Being Disciplined Leading firms have not empowered their workforces and ‘set them free’. They have more structure rather than less, lots of standardization and documentation, with a strong systems perspective. Improvement processes are standardized in their nature. Many best practice firms seem to go ‘overboard’ in their behaviors aimed at achieving discipline, integrity of process control and standardized procedures.
Principle 11: Measurement and Reporting/Publication Leading companies measure a range of non- financial parameters as well as financials. They recognize that corporate value potential is like an iceberg. The financials represent the 10% you can see; the other 90%, the technological, operational and organizational systems that you don’t see in company accounts need to be measured, evaluated and actively managed. Leading companies frequently use performance scorecards in their operations.
Principle 12: Driving Customer Value Leading companies do more than just know their customers’ requirements. They drive to maximize customer value creation through their organizations activities. They create customer needs that never existed before, they predict changes in customer needs before they happen, they identify customer needs that even the customer can’t identify for themselves, they relentlessly pursue previously unnerved customers etc .
Principle 13:Investing in Capabilities• Core capabilities’ are defined, managed, communicated, valued and ‘held sacred’ as priority areas for investment and decision making.• The principle of capabilities investment directly supports the principle of driving customer value as capabilities are the means by which superior order winner characteristics are developed.
Principle 14: Connection Between Micro and Macro• In leading organizations each and every employee understands how his/her individual and team-based work effort connects with, and contributes to, the ‘big picture’ of business success. There is a strong connectedness between business goals and individual and work group goals.
• A lot is discussed about the benefits of teams• Teams are not always the best answer• Teams often bring about a
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES–Synergy –Pressure to conform to group–Avoids major errors standards and conduct–Faster, better decisions –Ostracized for–Continuous productivityimprovement –Social loafing–Innovation –Groupthink–Stimulates self- –Inter-group conflictsmotivation–Greater job satisfaction–Needs fulfillment
5 Determinants of Effective Team Decisions Team Size Member’s Team and Status CohesivenessComposition Member’s Quality Traits and of Values Leadership 7-
Social Networking Boundary spanners ◦ Boundary spanners are well connected in the inter-network and the connection of other networks or groups. They are well-positioned to be innovators and to introduce new ideas into the group, since they have access to ideas and information flowing from other networks. They are able to combine different information and knowledge, found in various places, into new products and services. Central Connectors ◦ They are the quantitative connectors within a network. They have many dealings with individuals, and have a well connected and knowledgeable association with the network. Due to this connection they can have a lot of power to influence other members of the group. This can be an asset to the organisation if the values align with the organisation, however they can also become a hindrance, if their network is tight or selective. Information brokers ◦ Information brokers are similar to boundary spanners. Unlike boundary spanners who connect to outside the network information brokers connect several subnetworks within the organization. Information brokers are essential because they prevent the many groups within any large organization from falling apart into separate identities. They have many indirect connections throughout the organization. Peripheral specialists ◦ Peripheral specialists are outsiders in the network, however are very important as they are pulled in for specific advice or tasks. They are not tightly integrated into the group, yet are integral to the group. They may not spend a lot of time communicating with others, and often don’t want to work in a committee.
DISC• Disc is a way of studying the behaviours of individuals in their environment or within a specific situation• Split into 4 different personality types – Dominance – relating to control, power and assertiveness – Influence – relating to social situations and communication – Submission – relating to patience, persistence, and thoughtfulness – Compliance– relating to structure and organization
Dominance People who score high in the intensity of the "D" styles factor are very active in dealing with problems and challenges, while low "D" scores are people who want to do more research before committing to a decision. High "D" people are described as demanding, forceful, egocentric, strong willed, driving, determined, ambitious, aggressive , and pioneering. Low D scores describe those who are conservative, low keyed, cooperative, calculating, undemanding, ca utious, mild, agreeable, modest and peaceful.
InfluencePeople with high "I" scores influence others through talking and activity and tend to be emotional. They are described as convincing, magnetic, political, enthusiastic, p ersuasive, warm, demonstrative, trusting, and optimistic. Those with low "I" scores influence more by data and facts, and not with feelings. They are described as reflective, factual, calculating, skeptical, logical , suspicious, matter of fact, pessimistic, and critical.
SubmissiveSteadiness: People with high "S" styles scores want a steady pace, security, and do not like sudden change. High "S" individuals are calm, relaxed, patient, possessive, predictable, deliberate, stable, consistent, and tend to be unemotional and poker faced. Low "S" intensity scores are those who like change and variety. People with low "S" scores are described as restless, demonstrative, impatient, eager, or even impulsive.
ConscientiousPeople with high "C" styles adhere to rules, regulations, and structure. They like to do quality work and do it right the first time. High "C" people are careful, cautious, exacting, neat, systematic, di plomatic, accurate, and tactful. Those with low "C" scores challenge the rules and want independence and are described as self- willed, stubborn, opinionated, unsystematic, a rbitrary, and unconcerned with details.
• Placing people into teams which have different styles and priorities may cause conflict• Its important to understand that everyone is different and sometimes people will not achieve if the personalities are different• Teams can be highly effective, or ineffective
Self-Managed Teams• Relatively autonomous workgroups in which the obligations and responsibilities which have traditionally been management, have been transferred to the group of people who perform a complex task with highly interdependent activities
Make Operating Acquire Supplies Decisions & Materials Interact with Assign Work Self-Managed Customers Teams Are Usually PerformPlan Schedules Empowered to: Team Member Evaluations Create Task Deal with Procedures Conflicts
Stages of Team DevelopmentForming Storming Norming PerformingHigh Commitment Less Commitment Variable Commit. High CommitmentLow Competence Some Competence High Competence High CompetenceMembers come Members become Commitment changes Commitment andcommitted but have not dissatisfied with the competence remain high team as they develop while competencedeveloped competence in confidence. remains constant.working together.Appropriate Leadership StyleAutocratic Consultative Participative EmpowermentHigh Task High Task Low Task Low TaskLow Relationship High Relationship High Relationship Low Relationship
Day 9 CHARISMATIC ANDTRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Charismatic LeaderCharismatic leaders work on personalities to achieve their goals and objectives.Usually formed by attributes rather than positional powerUsually thought to be people of exceptional quality, people inspire to be like them.Influence based on follower perceptions that the leader is endowed with the gift of divine inspiration or supernatural qualities.
Qualities of a Charismatic LeaderVisionThe ability to show the followers a vision and to have the followers to rally behind that vision.Communication SkillsCharismatic leaders generally have the ability to communicate complex ideas in common ways and ways which appeal to their followersSelf ConfidenceThe Charismatic leader will portray a confidence in their conviction which will inspire others to followAspire TrustCharismatic leaders generally have the ability to have followers trust in what they are trying to achieve
Qualities of a Charismatic LeaderHigh RiskRisk taking is an integral part of the charismatic leader. By taking risks the leader can show followers the pathBias for ActionCharismatic leaders generally have the ability to communicate complex ideas inRelationship BuilderThe Charismatic leader will build relationships with their followersEmpower OthersCharismatic leaders generally empower other to achieve and to ensure the vision is on courseSelf PromotingCharismatic leaders ensure others know of their exploits.
Transformational LeaderTransformational leaders work on abilities rather than personalities to achieve their goals and objectives.Create organisational and process commitmentOften task orientatedUses all of the qualities of the charismatic leader
Recognizing need for change.Create a new vision.Manage Transition Institutionalize the change.
Day 10LEADERSHIP OF CULTURE AND DIVERSITY AND THE LEARNING ORGANISATION
Culture• The set of key values, assumptions, understandings and ways of thinking that is shared by members of an organization and taught to new members. 11-3
Characteristics of Low-Performance Cultures Insular thinking Resistance to change Politicized internal environment Unhealthy promotion practices 11-4
Characteristics of High-Performance CulturesCulture reinforcement toolsIntensely people orientedResults orientedEmphasis on achievement and excellence 11-5
Symbolic Leadership Actions for Shaping Culture• Leaders serve as role models• Ceremonial events for high achievers• Special appearances by leaders• Organizational structure 11-6
Stereotypes and Prejudice PoliciesEthnocentrism Obstacles and Practices Unfriendly Glass Work Ceiling Environment
The diversity of customers and colleaguesPeople are different. There are a number of things that make us all different, including: The way they live – including where and how they live Values and principles – the importance placed on people, actions and things, and personal guidelines for living life Educational background Sporting interests Food and beverage tastes Lifestyle background – what car do they drive, where have they worked? Place of birth – born in Australia or overseas? Styles of communication Religious beliefs – who or what do they believe in? Is English their first or second language?
The diversity of customers and colleagues• Just because these people are different to you doesn’t make them any better or worse – they are just different.• In your industry workplace you must make sure that any personal bias is not allowed to adversely influence and affect the way you interact with such individuals.• In an industry that is such a strong service-oriented industry there is absolutely no room for prejudice.• Prejudice relates to holding a personal bias or point of view that disposes you to prejudging a person (or situation) rather than deal with the facts that relate to the person (or situation). 10 8
Keys in factoring in appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication when dealing with people from another culture include:• Identify the country/culture• Take time to plan what to say and how to say it• Be mindful of your body language – much/most non-verbal communication is spontaneous• Avoid industry/establishment jargon• Avoid Australian slang/colloquialisms• Avoid complex statements• Give the person your full attention• Use alternative communication strategies to support the verbal communication• Be alert to feedback from the other person – especially in regard to identifying when something you may have said/done has given unintended offence. 10 9
Day 11 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ANDMANAGING CRISIS AND CHANGE
Social responsibility Social responsibility is the obligation of organisation/management to make choices and take actions that will contribute to the welfare and interests of society as well as the organisation. Social responsibility involves: ◦ distinguishing right from wrong ◦ being a good corporate citizen Many social-responsibilities issues are ambiguous with respect to right and wrong.