Intercultural Negotiation Components Chapter 11

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Intercultural Negotiation Components Chapter 11

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Intercultural Negotiation Components Chapter 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11Intercultural Negotiation Components Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  2. 2. Topics Cross-cultural Negotiation Components Stereotypes that affect Intercultural Negotiations Comparative Negotiation Styles Characteristics of Effective Negotiators Importance of Protocol in Intercultural Negotiations Group vs. Individual Orientation Face-to-face Strategies Role of the Media Personal Constructs Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  3. 3. Cross-Cultural Negotiation Components  The players and situation  Cultural noise  National culture  Power and authority  Perception  Interpreters and translators  Gender  Environment  Relationship and substantive conflicts Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  4. 4. The Players and the Situation Learn the background of the players Determine expectations of negotiators Determine negotiating style Determine role negotiators have played in the past Provide an environment free of tension, conducive to exchange of ideas, and problem resolution Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  5. 5. Cultural Noise Anything that distracts or interferes with the message  Low- or high- context  Arguments emotional or logical  Trust based on laws or friendship  High or low risk takers  View of time  Authoritative or consensual decision-making style  Oral or written agreement Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  6. 6. National Culture Patterns of personality Governance structure Integrate negotiators’ interests Other cultures include: professional, social class, ethnic, regional, gender, and organizational Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  7. 7. Power and Authority Power is the ability to influence others Authority is the power to give commands Power has to be accepted to be meaningful Balanced authority – is shared decision- making Authority advantage – one partner claims superior resources or superior position Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  8. 8. Perception Process used to ascribe meaning to the environment Is culturally based Stimuli have both physical size and socio- environmental meaning; our experiences determine to what stimuli we are sensitive Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  9. 9. Interpreters and Translators Language issues are key in negotiations Interpreters and translators slow down negotiations Using interpreters and translators can have both positive and negative impacts Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  10. 10. GenderUse of women as negotiators; viewed as “window dressing” in some countries – viewed as equals in others. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  11. 11. Environment “Home court” advantage The room and furniture arrangement Seating arrangement Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  12. 12. Relationship and Substantive Conflicts Relationship conflicts are issues of long- term friendships or partnerships Substantive issues are use and control of resources Cognitive dissonance - the psychological conflict or anxiety that results from inconsistencies between what one does and what one believes Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  13. 13. Stereotypes That Affect Intercultural Negotiations How we view ourselves is probably not how the other team views us. Find out how others view your culture, gender, and organization. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  14. 14. Comparative Negotiation Styles A successful negotiator within a culture may not be successful in another culture. A successful negotiator needs to be able to ascertain where the opposition is coming from. Successful negotiators need to be able to adjust their behavior appropriately. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  15. 15. Characteristics of Effective Negotiators  Effective negotiators are  observant, patient, adaptable, and good listeners  mentally sharp  think before they speak  do their country homework  praise what is praiseworthy and refrain from criticizing the other side  keep their promises and negotiate in good faith Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  16. 16. Importance of Protocol in Intercultural Negotiations Three protocol types  Tribal  Collective  Pluralist All cultures share the need for honesty, courage, respect for human dignity, fairness, and love; however, these have different meanings in different cultures. Reality is not always the same in every culture. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  17. 17. Group vs. Individual Orientation Group orientation  Your identity belongs to the group  Decisions reached by consensus  Contracts are flexible Individual orientation  Your identity belongs to you  Decisions can be made by individuals  Contracts are inflexible Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  18. 18. Face-to-Face Strategies Negotiating in person rather than through the mail, fax, telephone, lawyers, or other intermediaries Face-to-face negotiators’ behaviors  Irritators  Counterproposals  Argument dilution  Reviewing the negotiation Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  19. 19. Role of the Media Media may support or tear down Media is a culture with cultural biases Tend to have a stereotypical view of business See other cultures through the bias of the U.S. perceptual grid Movies promote stereotypes Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  20. 20. Personal Constructs An individual’s belief system and attitudes Can differ within a culture as well as between cultures Expectations are based on learned life experiences Adaptability is important to success Adages  Birds of a feather flock together  They’re in America; they should act like Americans  When in Rome, do as the Romans do Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  21. 21. Negotiations - The Four Cs Common Interest - each has something the other wants Conflicting Interests - include payment, distribution, profits, contractual responsibilities, and quality Compromise - areas of disagreement Criteria - conditions under which the negotiations take place Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  22. 22. Mindsets Mindsets are controlled by language and culture. Realize the other side is having mindset difficulties in the negotiation also. People can alter their strategies based upon their first-hand knowledge and adaptability. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  23. 23. U.S. Negotiators Focused on completing the deal Profit oriented and direct Do not need personal relationships with other negotiators Work during meals, golf, at any time Tend to be informal Individually oriented Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  24. 24. Canada Two groups: the Anglophones and the Francophones Well informed and analytical Sense of self-determination Trust is an important component Individually oriented Mixture of tribal and pluralistic Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  25. 25. China The Chinese want a win-win strategy Harmony is important Neutral site is important Team members need to be matched on both sides Relationship building is important Group oriented and prefer face-to-face negotiations Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  26. 26. England Objective, matter-of-fact about negotiations Tend to understate their position Individualistic but company policy followed without question Relationships not necessary Very deadline oriented Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  27. 27. France Negotiators should have the correct social and education background and authority to make decisions A relationship will help negotiations Enjoy debates; are indirect Quality more important than speed Individualistic and prefer face-to-face negotiations Mealtime is not a time to talk business Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  28. 28. Germany Permanent and stringent contracts No-nonsense negotiators Relationships not necessary Individualistic and prefer face-to-face negotiations Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  29. 29. Japan The Japanese want a win-win situation Negotiation takes place away from the negotiation table Relationships are important Group and consensus oriented Prefer face-to-face negotiations Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  30. 30. Mexico Relationships and connections very important Senior executives make the decisions Time is fluid Emotional arguments are considered to be persuasive arguments Strategies are more win-win Neutral sites are preferred Leave room to bargain Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  31. 31. The Netherlands Averse to chaos; very organized The Dutch are direct and pragmatic Decision is based on consensus Will tend to move fast and expect you to also move fast Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  32. 32. South Korea Rank/status very important Harmony is important Can be direct, express emotion, and use aggression Need to be introduced and develop a relationship South Korea is a collective culture Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  33. 33. Taiwan Relationships need to be developed Seating protocol is important as is matching team members Self-control and harmony are very important Taiwanese are collectivistic Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
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