Intercultural Communications: Chapter 02 universal systems

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Intercultural Communications: Chapter 02 universal systems

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Intercultural Communications: Chapter 02 universal systems

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Universal Systems Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  2. 2. Universal Systems <ul><li>Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Political Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage and Family Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Social Hierarchies and Interaction </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  3. 3. Economic ISMs <ul><li>Socialism - You have two cows. The government takes one and gives it to your neighbor. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism - You have two cows. The government takes both of them and gives you part of the milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazism - You have two cows. The government takes both your cows and then shoots you. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism - You have two cows. Sell one cow and buy a bull. </li></ul>Axtell, 1999
  4. 4. Economic ISMs (cont.) <ul><li>Bureaucracy – You have two cows. The government takes both of them, shoots one, milks the other, then pours the milk down the drain. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy -Everyone has two cows. A vote is taken and the loser cries discrimination, the lawyers sue (on a contingency basis), and the government takes at least 39%. </li></ul>Axtell, 1999
  5. 5. Economic Systems <ul><li>U.S. - Capitalistic with socialistic overtones; free market with government regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>England - based on capitalism; since the 1980s some sectors have been privatized; less regulation of industry has been encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico - dependent on others (Maquiladora program). </li></ul><ul><li>Japan - capitalistic/free market. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada - capitalistic with social controls in health care and retirement. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  6. 6. Political Systems <ul><li>U.S. - president elected by electoral college; states have numerous rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada - parliamentary system; prime minister and members of Parliament elected; country divided into provinces; each province controls its region. </li></ul><ul><li>China - China’s policies are determined by a 20-member Politboro and a 7-member standing committee. The Chinese Communist Party is the only legal political party. </li></ul><ul><li>England - ruled by a constitutional monarchy with a parliament. The monarch is head of state, but elected officials govern through Parliament. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  7. 7. <ul><li>France - The French Republic has 22 regions, divided into 96 departments. President is the head of state and serves a 7-year term. Prime minister is appointed by the President from the majority party in the National Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany – Germany’s president is elected by members of the federal and state legislatures for a maximum of two 5-year terms. Chancellor is head of government, elected by the lower house of Parliament, the Federal Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan - constitutional monarchy but emperor has no power. Prime minister, lower house, and upper house elected by the people. Prefectures (states) have governors elected by people. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  8. 8. <ul><li>Iran - Six religious leaders and six lay leaders make </li></ul><ul><li>up Council of Guardians; council approves presidential candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico - federal government with president elected by those over 18; voting is obligatory. President may serve only one term, but senators and deputies may serve more than one term (terms cannot be consecutive). Federal government controls some industries and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia - series of regions called governorates headed by an emir who reports to the king. After current crown prince (inherited) serves, future kings will be elected by princes (500+). </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea – most members of government are elected. State council includes the president, prime minister, and </li></ul><ul><li>15-30 ministry heads. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  9. 9. World Economics <ul><li>Foreign competition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>World competition for positions </li></ul><ul><li>Quality versus price </li></ul><ul><li>Supernationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Subnationalism </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  10. 10. Formal and Informal Education <ul><li>Formal education - a formalized educational structure; education acquired in school </li></ul><ul><li>Informal education - no formal educational infrastructure </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  11. 11. Education in the U.S. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin <ul><li>Learning concepts are emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Students taught to think for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning and developing intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>abilities emphasized </li></ul>
  12. 12. Education in the U.S. Althen, American Ways Anybody can get into college in the U.S. Malaysians, remarking on the easy accessibility of American colleges and universities, compared U.S. schools unfavorably to that of the British who once ruled Malaysia and provided the model for their educational system. However, the Malaysians observed, “You Americans put men on the moon, so there must be something right about your system.”
  13. 13. U.S. Leads in Percentage Completing School Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Country Sec. Educ. Higher Educ. Spain 21.8% 9.9% France 50.5% 9.7% Britain 65.3% 9.6% Japan 69.7% 13.3% Canada 75.7% 16.7% Germany 81.3% 11.2% United States 83.3% 23.6%
  14. 14. Education in Japan <ul><li>A national curriculum set up by the Ministry of Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Most lessons are compulsory; core subjects are Japanese, Math, and English. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching considered a high status profession. Teachers must continue their professional involvement, be moral citizens, and role models to students. </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations for students. Schools differentiate by ability. </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of parental involvement. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  15. 15. Social Stratification <ul><li>authority </li></ul><ul><li>power </li></ul><ul><li>property ownership </li></ul><ul><li>income </li></ul><ul><li>lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>occupation </li></ul><ul><li>educational background </li></ul><ul><li>altruistic activity </li></ul><ul><li>kinship connections </li></ul><ul><li>ties with volunteer associations </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Ranking of people in a society into higher and lower positions by other members of society, resulting in a hierarchy of respect and prestige. On what basis do we rank people?
  16. 16. Occupational Rankings Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin U.S. Japan________________ Supreme Court justices Prefectural governors Physicians University professors State governors Local judges President’s Cabinet Officers in large firms Diplomats Government section heads Mayors of large cities Doctors University professors Architects Scientists Owners of businesses Congressional leaders Labor union leaders Bankers Newspaper reporters
  17. 17. Family Systems <ul><li>Nuclear family (father, mother, children) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family (grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins) </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  18. 18. Common Family Systems <ul><li>Polygyny (1 man, many wives) Arab countries/Islamic believers </li></ul><ul><li>Polandry (1 woman, many husbands) Polynesian nations </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamy (1 husband and wife) North and South America, Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Monogamy (people remarry after divorce or death of spouse) </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  19. 19. Social Hierarchies/Interaction <ul><li>Social reciprocity - the way formal and informal communications are handled. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>independent social reciprocity (avoids commitment); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>symmetrical-obligatory social reciprocity (people have an equal obligation); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complementary-obligatory social reciprocity (people are forever indebted to others) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Group membership has two extremes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people can belong to many groups or very few groups; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people in the middle try to balance group affiliation and personal freedom </li></ul></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  20. 20. <ul><li>Intermediaries - people who act as go-betweens </li></ul><ul><li>Formality - the degree of preciseness, regularity, or conformity expected within the society </li></ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>private (U.S.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilitarian (Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community (Native American) </li></ul></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  21. 21. Human Development Index (HDI) <ul><li>The HDI “attempts to compensate for the inability of traditional economics indicators to portray accurately the environment in which people live.” The basis for the index is related to infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy, and real GDP. </li></ul>CultureGrams 2005, 2004, p. A-12
  22. 22. Human Development Index (HDI) <ul><li>Australia 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Canada 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands 5 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan 9 </li></ul><ul><li>England 12 </li></ul><ul><li>France 16 </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany 19 </li></ul><ul><li>China 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore 25 </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico 53 </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia 77 </li></ul><ul><li>India 127 </li></ul>CultureGrams 2005, 2004, p. A-12 Country Rank
  23. 23. Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) <ul><li>“ The GDI measures progress in the same way as the HDI, but it is adjusted to account for inequality between men and women.” </li></ul>CultureGrams 2005, 2004, p. A-12
  24. 24. Unequal Treatment of Men and Women Around the World <ul><li>Norway, Sweden, and Australia are 1, 2, and 3 respectively (on overall HDI and GDI) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. is ranked 8 for overall HDI and 8 for GDI </li></ul><ul><li>Countries with lower GDI than HDI: United Kingdom, Finland, Denmark; larger differences in China, India, Kenya. </li></ul>CultureGrams 2005, 2004, p. A-12

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