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  1. 1. Principles of Editing
  2. 2. Creating meaningthrough collage,tempo and timing
  3. 3. Joining ImagesEditing forms a collage, an assortment of images joinedtogether to create meaning.The link below is a clip from ‘Escape To Victory’ andthey have made a montage of loads of individualclips to produce a final copy of one long sequence.This form of editing is very common nowadays as itcreates a better story and captures the audiencesattention quicker and stronger.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4i5KjchN3I8
  4. 4. TempoShot Length – the most obvious way editors create Tempo is by controlling thelength of shot.• Long shots slow down the pace of a scene.• Short takes quicken the pace and intensity• Long shots for romantic scenes, quick shots for action.The link below shows a scene from friends. This scene is a lovescene and the camera angles add a massively importanteffect on the scene.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-_85uxmHEg
  5. 5. Cont…..Studies have suggested that shots are gaining pace compared to The Golden ageof Hollywood. The average shot used to be 5.15 seconds but nowadays it’s risento 4.75 seconds. The change of length can be seen when you compare Casablancato the Woman In Black. This is due to the fact that films are now electronically cutand used to be physically cut using scissors.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJoA6n120Sc
  6. 6. ProblemsIt takes the average person 3 seconds to adjust to a shot change. Brandt has argued“…..if the audience takes 3 seconds to adjust to a new scene, what happens when the averageshot length is so short that the audience is never given a chance to catch up”.The tendency to rely on such rapid editing in recent films may explain why youngeraudience are not receptive to older films; they seem slow paced. We have grown uparound fast tempo films resulting in us often becoming inpatient when watching aslow paced film and old film.
  7. 7. Shot transitionsThe second way editors adjust the tempo is shot transitions. Common shot transitionsare ‘Cut from A to B’, ‘Fade in/fade out’ and ‘Dissolve overlapping’. This transitions addseveral effects to the scene you see and can either have a good effect or bad.Sometimes it can make the editing look amateur and poor whereas if used correctly,then it will look professional and will capture the audience easier.The link below is the trailer for the film ‘Hugo’. This trailerShows fades and transitions which are vary rarely shown inFilms.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE1bzNrdz8s
  8. 8. Cont….These shot transitions convey a passage of time, but they also affect the pacing of ascene. Cuts quicken the pace of the action and connote instant change. Even a scenewith long takes, a cut often suggests sudden change in mood or character dynamic
  9. 9. FadesFades effect the pace of the film as they literally pause the action. They rarely occur infilms but when they do it is to introduce memory or fantasy . This is because it shows itin stages and as if the actor is dizzy, confused and thinking.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmh-YVA_4Zs
  10. 10. Timing of a shotThe third editing technique is timing of shots. By editing the clips poorly andbeing 1 millisecond out, you can cause the film to look poorly edited resultingin a poor film. Timing of shots and shot types are vital. Cut a ways are usedto emphasize a persons reaction or response. For example:• A Cut away to a newspaper on the table when presented in narrative.• Cutting from a two shot to a close up for reaction or a close up to a longshot for landscape effect.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCJBXfKtOiM
  11. 11. Hitchcocks ‘Notorious’ 1946http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPd5uSRDrZkAttribute to editing• Collage• Tempo• TimingTechniques used in Notorious• Medium shot (romanticintimacy) vs. Close up(disappointment)• The cut abruptly changes thepace of the conversation; AsAlicia and Delvins wordsbecome more heated, thescene relies on shorter takes• Cut to close up of Aliciacoincides with Delvins line “Ibet you’ve heard that lineenough’
  12. 12. Story- centered Editingand the construction ofmeaning
  13. 13. Editing and timingNarrative sequencing. Telling the story as it happens in Linear editing. This isthe most common. ‘Medias res’ is the term used when narrative is jumbledup. (Fight Club for example).The link below shows a man running to attempt to get into a building butstruggles to find a door that will open and enable him entry into the building.The shots they have used has made it look like one long sequence.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eR6yctA9vEM
  14. 14. Condensing / expanding timeCollages condense time. For example, Spiderman uses ‘condensed editing’when thinking of a costume – speeds up hours, days or years in the characterslives. Expanding – overlapping shots of a single actionexample: Someone pressing a door bell shot from 3 angles and shown aftereach other to portray time but also nerves in the person pressing it.#Below is a scene from Spiderman, where he designs his costume.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPa9rq0ZMT0
  15. 15. Arranging the order of events• Media Res• Events taking place in the present are interrupted by images that have taken placein the past.• Flashbacks• Rare occasions there are flash-forwards• By their nature ‘flash forwards’ can be confusing as they can only be understoodonce the event has occurred on scene.Easy Rider – Captain America is interrupted as he talks by a shot of burning debris on theside of the road. Only later will viewers realise that the debris is from CA motorcycle crash atthe end of the film
  16. 16. Time and SpaceEditing draws the viewers attention to the detail• Close up (example of the very first ‘close up’ used in film)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2X_BZpnWFc• EstablishingExample: Friends http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdClvwG9uH8The close up shot on chandlers facial expression helps put the emssageacross that joey is an idiot.This drawers the viewers attention to a number of things; theemotional tenor of a conversation, the object of a characters gaze,important detail in the mise en scene and the group dynamics of ascene.
  17. 17. Shot reverse shotConversation between two people.One speaks to the other listening.Rule of thumb is: the actors will never speak .directly to theviewer as this destroys the illusion of a naturally unfolding story.Cameras are normally slightly angles to the side rather thanusing point of view shots.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qips
  18. 18. Eye line matchThe match cut uses the characters line of sight• Powerful storytelling devise as it This draws the viewers into a charactersthought process and emotional stateCutaways• Unlike eye line match a cut away is not character centered, the on screenappearance of an object does not depend on the character having to ‘seeit’ in the previous shothttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VPMEKCITvs
  19. 19. Creating meaning outside the story• Continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects,places, events, abilities and the fictional universe seen by the reader orviewer over some period of time.• 180 degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatialrelationship between a character and another character or object within ascene. Examples of when this is used are Ant & Dec and Jedward.• Soviet Montage (political meaning) was a theory from Eisenstein and hecreated 5 methods of montage being Metric, Rhythminc, Tonal,Overtonal and Intellectual.
  20. 20. TASK 3• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlrqaAjBwS4The Hangover is a film where camera angles and shots are vital tohelp create the feeling of being confused and being hung over.The selected scene I have chosen, shows loads and loads ofdifferent angles. Depending on whats’ happening and where thelocation is, the shots will change and will attempt to try and suckyou in to the situation. At the beginning of the clip the shot typesare one shots and panning shots. As the clip goes on and morepeople come in creating more conversations, two shots begin tocome into use as well as dolly zooms and over shoulder shots.