Tips to Crack 11th - Biology - Respiration

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Tips to Crack 11th - Biology - Respiration

  1. 1. 9011041155 / 9011031155 ∙ Live Webinars (online lectures) with recordings. ∙ Online Query Solving ∙ Online MCQ tests with detailed solutions ∙ Online Notes and Solved Exercises ∙ Career Counseling 1
  2. 2. 9011041155 / 9011031155 Respiration ∙ Why do all living beings need energy? ∙ From where does this energy comes? ∙ What is respiration? Definition of Respiration A biochemical process by which Organic Compounds (foods) are oxidized to liberate chemical energy. ∙ It is a stepwise process leading to the formation of ATP ∙ What is ATP? 2
  3. 3. 9011041155 / 9011031155 Overall process of respiration C6H12O6 + 6 O2 →6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP. Respiration in Animals 3
  4. 4. 9011041155 / 9011031155 Animals show various methods of respiration. Organism Organs / Method of respiration 1. Single celled organisms Cell membrane 2. Sponges and Jellyfish Through water 3. Annelids Outer body surfaces Gills 4. Fish / arthropods Internal lungs 5. Terrestrial vertebrates Skin 6. Eel / Frogs ∙ Respiratory surfaces are covered with thin, moist epithelial cells that Carbondioxide. Human Respiratory System 4 allow Oxygen and
  5. 5. 9011041155 / 9011031155 ∙ It consists of → Nostrils – Exterior openings → Nasal Chambers –-Seperated into right & left halves called "nasal septum" -Septum -Air -Nasal is enters hairs made nasal in of cavities through nostrils filter -Contains receptor cells for the sense of smell 5 bone two large & openings particles cartilage called "nostrils" of dust
  6. 6. 9011041155 / 9011031155 → Pharynx –-Located behind the oral cavity & between the nasal cavities & the larynx -Includes 3 parts: 1) Nasopharynx- upper section 2) Oropharynx- middle section 3) Laryngopharynx- lower section -Pharynx conducts food toward esophagus & air to the larynx as it moves toward the lungs -Contains 2 other structures: 1. the openings from Eustachian tubes (auditory tubes); connects the nasopharynx w/middle ear 2. tonsils  → Larynx – -Located between pharynx & trachea -Functions: 1. Passageway for air during breathing 2. Produces sound (your voice); voicebox 3. Prevents food & other foreign objects from entering the breathing structures (trachea) → Trachea – the tube connecting the throat to the bronchi. → Bronchi and Bronchioles – the trachea divides into two bronchi (tubes). One leads to the left lung, the other to the right lung. Inside the lungs each of the bronchi divides into smaller bronchi. the bronchi branches off into smaller tubes called broncheoli which end in the pulmonary alveolus. → Lungs – a pair of organs found in all vertebrates. The structure of the lungs includes the bronchial tree – air tubes branching off from the bronchi into smaller and smaller air tubes, each one ending in a pulmonary alveolus. Pulmonary alveoli – tiny sacs (air sacs) delineated by a single-layer membrane with blood capillaries at the other end. The exchange of gases takes place through the membrane of the pulmonary alveolus, which always contains air: oxygen (O2) is absorbed from the air into the blood capillaries and the action of the heart circulates it through all the tissues in the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide (CO2) is transmitted from the blood capillaries into the alveoli and then expelled through the bronchi and the upper respiratory tract. The inner surface of the lungs where the exchange of gases takes place is very large, due to the structure of the air sacs of the alveoli. 6
  7. 7. 9011041155 / 9011031155 → Diaphragm – a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the rib cage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs & ribs) from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs. → Inter costal muscles – Intercostal muscles are groups of muscles found in the chest area. Intercostal muscles run along the ribs and are responsible for movement of the chest and breathing. When a person breathes, intercostal muscles help the chest cavity expand and shrink. 7
  8. 8. 9011041155 / 9011031155 Mechanism of Respiration It comprises of following steps:1. Breathing – It is a process by which air rich in Oxygen is taken in by the lungs (Inspiration) and air containing more CO2 and water vapour is forced out of the lungs ( Expiration). 8
  9. 9. 9011041155 / 9011031155 ∙ Alternate Inspiration and Expiration together form the respiratory cycle. It occurs 16-20 times per minute in man. ∙ It is controlled by medulla oblongata. 2. Transport of gases It takes place in 3 steps a. External respiration : ∙ Exchange of CO2 and O2 takes place through lungs depending upon internal and external concentrations of these gases. ∙ Haemoglobin combines with O2 to form instable Oxy-haemoglobin. ∙ CO2 is brought from the tissues in the form of Sodium and potassium bicarbonates and also Carbomino - haemoglobin. ∙ These forms are then broken down to release CO2. 9
  10. 10. 9011041155 / 9011031155 NaHCO3 H Na Sod.bicarbonate KHCO3 H2CO3 carbonic acid H K Pot.bicarbonate H2CO3 Carbonic acid H2CO3 →H2O + CO2↑ b. Internal respiration : ∙ It is the transfer of CO2 and O2 between tissue cells of the lungs and blood. c. Cellular Respiration : 10
  11. 11. 9011041155 / 9011031155 ∙ It is the formation of ATP molecules by Oxidation of food in the mitochondria ∙ Energy is released when ATP molecules are broken down. How does medulla Oblongata regulates the process of respiration? Respiratory Volumes ∙ Tidal Volume (TV) – It is the volume of air breathed in and out during effortless breathing. In an adult it is about 500 ml. ∙ Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – 11
  12. 12. 9011041155 / 9011031155 Volume of air during forced inspiration is called inspiratory reserve volume. It is about 2500 ml to 3000 ml. ∙ Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – Volume of air during forced expiration is called expiratory reserve volume. It is about 1000 ml. ∙ Residual Volume (RV) – The volume of air left behind in the lungs and respiratory passage after forced expiration is called residual volume. It is about 1000 ml. ∙ Vital Capacity (VC) – 12
  13. 13. 9011041155 / 9011031155 It is the total volume of air expired after a maximum inspiration. This includes ERV, TV and IRV. • Ask Your Doubts • For inquiry and registration, 9011041155 / 9011031155. 13 call

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