Study Excretion and Osmoregulation for MH-CET 2014


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Study Excretion and Osmoregulation for MH-CET 2014

  1. 1. Study Excretion and Osmoregulation for MH-CET 2014 1. Urinary bladder is provided with transitional epithelium and detrusor muscles. Ans: i. Transitional epithelium helps in the expansion of the urinary bladder. ii. The detrusor muscles are smooth muscles which help in making the wall of urinary bladder though and thick. iii. Since in the urinary bladder, about half to one litre of urine is stored temporarily, it needs to be expandable and tough. iv. Urinary bladder is provided with such transitional epithelium and detrusor muscles as they help in this function.
  2. 2. 2. EFP is crated in the glomerulus. Ans: i. EFP or effective filtration pressure is a hydrostatic pressure. ii. It is created because the blood enters the glomerulus at a faster rate than the rate by which it leaves. iii. This is because the diameter of afferent renal arteriole is larger than the diameter of efferent renal arteriole. iv. The glomerular capillaries therefore create glomerular hydrostatic pressure called EFP in the glomerulus. 3. Distal convoluted tubule is important for homeostatic regulation of acidity of blood. Ans: i. During the last phase of urine formation, i.e. during tubular secretion, some nitrogenous waste substances which have eventually entered the blood circulation through peritubular capillaries are secreted back into the DCT. ii. The substances routinely secreted back are creatinine, potassium and hydrogen ions. iii. The secretion of hydrogen ions occurs chiefly in DCT and collecting tubule. iv. This regulates the acidity of the blood through homeostasis. Therefore, distal convoluted tubule is said to be important for homeostatic regulation of the acidity of blood. 4. Osmoregulation and excretion go hand in hand. Ans: i. Kidneys are the organs of excretion and osmoregulation. ii. The water is removed by the kidney as per the requirement of the body. iii. While doing so the solute concentration is also maintained to a constancy by osmoregulation.
  3. 3. iv. Hormones like ADH which maintain osmoregulation act on renal tubules in kidney. Similarly aldosterone, parathormone, etc. also maintain ionic balance in kidney. Thus, osmoregulation and excretion go hand in hand. 5. Low secretion of ADH causes diabetes insipidus. Ans: i. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which excessive urine is produced with constant thirst. ii. Polydipsia and polyuria are due to lack of sufficient ADH secretion. iii. ADH causes antidiuretic effect. When ADH is in more amount every drop of water is reabsorbed through the loop of Henle. Due to this hypertonic urine is produced. iv. But when ADH level is low water reabsorption is suppressed. This produces hypotonic urine. v. When ADH secretion is low then person concerned produces excessive urine due to faulty reabsorption of water leading to diabetes insipidus. Keep on visiting for more study material about MH-CET 2014 -Team Ednexa