1. Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which a living
organism gives rise to young ones (off spring) similar to itself. The
offspring grow, mature and in turn produce new off spring.
2. Reproduction is the process which helps to maintain continuity of life
generation after generation.
3. Reproduction serves as an effective means of perpetuation of the
4. It results in the increase in number of individual of the species
involved in the process.
5. There is a large diversity in the biological world and each organism
has evolved its own mechanism to reproduces.
6. Based on whether there is participation of one organism or two in the
process of reproduction, it is of two types.
7. When offsprings are produced by single parent without formation and
fusion of gamets, it is called as Asexual reproduction.
8. When two parents (opposite sex) participate in the reproductive
process and also involve fusion of male and female gamets
(syngamy), it is called as sexual reproduction.
Difference between Asexual and sexual reproduction
Characteristics Asexual Sexual
1.Parent involved Only one One or two
2. unity of
cells or spores
Sex cells or
3. Fusion of cells or Not involved Involved
4.off springs All off springs
makeup as the
5. Role in life cycle Rapid
in number and
6. Mei mitosis Not necessary Always necessary
7. Sign significance Useful in
purity of crop
Useful in plant
breeding and crop
Asexual Reproduction: -
In this method, a single individual (parent) is capable of producing
offspring. As a result, the offspring that are produced are not only identical
to one another but are also exact copies of their parent. The term ‘lone’ is
used to describe such morphologically and genetically similar individual.
∙ Asexual reproduction is common among single celled organism and
in plants and animals with relatively simple structures.
Following are the modes of asexual reproduction in different organisms.
1. Binary fission
2. Many single celled organisms reproduce by binary fission, where a
cell divides into two halves
and each rapidly grows into an adult.
3. Here, the parent cell is replaced by two daughter cells.
4. The single DNA Molecule first replicates, then attaches each copy to
a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull
apart, the replicated DNAs are separated along with the cytoplasm
into two daughter cells.
5. Such type of reproduction is seen in
6. Examples of organisms reproducing by this mean are Protists and
Monerans such as Amoeba, Paramecium, Bacteria etc.
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