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Safeschool powerpoint

  1. 1. A Comprehensive Approach to Preventing School Bullying Presented by: Robert S. Salem, BA, JD ( Susan K. Telljohann, HSD, CHES (
  2. 2. The objectives of the session are to: Describe the prevalence and consequences of school bullying. Describe why it is important for schools to create a comprehensive bullying prevention program. Explain how the law guides bullying policies and practice in schools. Explain the purpose of having an inclusive anti-bullying policy. Describe the components of a comprehensive bullying prevention program that represent best practices in bullying prevention and intervention.
  3. 3. School Bullying Definition Regarding students, numerous definitions of “bullying” exist throughout the literature, however the most common definition states: “A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students”. 2 It is intentional. There is a differentiation in power.
  4. 4. Types of School Bullying Physical Bullying o Hitting o Kicking o Pushing o Hair Pulling o Etc.
  5. 5. Types of School Bullying Verbal Bullying o Name Calling o Teasing o Etc.
  6. 6. Types of School Bullying Indirect Bullying o Rumor Spreading o Social Isolation o Etc.
  7. 7. Types of School Bullying Cyber Bullying o Harass via e-mail o Text Messaging o Creating Hurtful Web Pages
  8. 8. Increased Focus on Bullying There has been much media attention related to school shootings. This attention shed light on the fact that some of the perpetrators were bullied students. Secret Service Report found that, of 37 school shootings, almost ¾’s involved attackers who “felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked, or injured by others prior to the incident”. 1 Furthermore, “a number of the attackers had experienced bullying and harassment that was longstanding and severe.” 1
  9. 9. Why is school bullying a problem? Depression (b/v) Bullying behavior is associated with: Suicidal Ideation (b/v) Eating Disorders (b/v) Low Self-Esteem (v) Sleeping Problems (v) Bed-wetting (v) Headaches (v) Stomachaches (v) Substance Use (b) Fighting Behaviors (b) Weapon Carrying (b) Vandalism (b) Stealing (b) Subsequent Criminal Convictions (b) Anxiety (v)
  10. 10. Bullying behavior is also associated with: Lack of Social Acceptance (v) Difficulty Making Friends (v) Absenteeism (v) Poorer Scholastic Achievement (b) Poor School Bonding (b/v) Spending a Lot of Time Alone (v) Being Less Popular (v) Starting to Date Earlier (b) Being Physically and Socially Aggressive Towards Dating Partner (b) Why is school bullying a problem?
  11. 11. School Bullying Prevalence Bullying prevalence estimates range from 10% to 40% depending on the frequency of the victimization. Bullying occurs on school playgrounds once every 7 seconds. 3
  12. 12. Targeted School Bullying Children who are rejected, teased, bullied or suffer other abuse because of their weight are two to three times more likely to have suicidal thoughts and suffer other health issues, such as high blood pressure and eating disorders. 4 According to one researcher, the quality of life for obese kids who are victims of taunting and physical bullying is comparable to that of kids who have cancer. 4
  13. 13. Targeted School Bullying One study reported that 45% of gay and 20% of lesbian youth were victims of verbal and/or physical assaults in secondary schools because of their sexual orientation. 5 The 2005 GLSEN survey found that one- third of teens report that students in their school are frequently harassed because they are or are perceived as being lesbian, gay or bisexual. 6
  14. 14. Legal Issues
  15. 15. The Law Does Not Protect Children From Bullying Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Equal Protection and Due Process (§ 1983) § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Americans with Disabilities Act State Tort Claims
  16. 16. Case Examples Davis vs. Monroe County Board of Education K.M. vs. Hyde Park Central School District Werth vs. Board of Directors Nabozny vs. Podlesny Patterson vs. Hudson Area Schools Theno vs. Tonganoxie Unified School District
  17. 17. The Law Does Not Provide Enough Guidance to Schools Federal law does not establish clear anti- bullying mandates. Ohio state law does not go far enough.
  18. 18. Watch Out For………. Cyber Bullying Indirect Bullying GLBT Youth (and those perceived to be GLBT) Multiple bullies of the most vulnerable children
  19. 19. How Can Schools Protect Children and Reduce Risk of Liability? Get Buy-In From Students, Faculty, Staff, Parents, and Community Assess and Work on School Climate Offer Regular and Meaningful Trainings Comprehensive Policies
  20. 20. Comprehensive Bullying Prevention Policies Should Address the Following Issues: Define Bullying (be very inclusive) State Clear Consequences Indicate How The Policy Will Be Communicated To Staff, Parents, and Students Facilitate The Complaint Procedures
  21. 21. Comprehensive Bullying Prevention Policies Should Address the Following Issues: Require That Training Occur Encourage Staff To Report And Intervene Address School Climate Prohibit All Bullying And Enumerate Groups That Are Disproportionately Victimized
  22. 22. Enumeration Protects Children and Schools Improves Student Morale and Achievement Statistically Proven to Reduce Bullying Enumeration Is Endorsed By: The National Education Association The National PTA The American Association of School Administrators The National Association of Secondary Principals
  23. 23. 10 Best Practices in Bullying Prevention
  24. 24. 1. Focus on the social environment of the school It is important to change the climate of the school and the social norms with regard to bullying. Promote the message that by-standers who take action to stop bullying are brave. Create screen savers with anti-bullying messages. Post school rules/policy regarding bullying. Have articles about bullying in school newsletters and newspapers.
  25. 25. 2. Assess bullying at your school A survey for students should focus on: amount of bullying that students experience the types of bullying that are most common the “hot spots” where bullying happens responses to bullying Teachers, staff, administrators, and parents could also be surveyed to gain additional insights. (e.g., compare adult perceptions with those of the students). Problems with some surveys FREE Bullying Evaluation Survey Tool (developed by Dake & Telljohann)
  26. 26. 3. Obtain staff and parent buy-in and support for bullying prevention. Having administrative buy-in is critical Report the results of the survey to school staff and parents Staff meeting Parent newsletter
  27. 27. 4. Form a group to coordinate the school's bullying prevention activities. The group should have representatives from multiple groups (e.g. administrators, teachers, staff, students, parents)
  28. 28. 5. Provide training for school staff in bullying prevention. The training should focus on the following key points: Results of the bullying survey The nature of bullying and its effects How to recognize when bullying is occurring How to respond if bullying is observed How to work with others at the school to help prevent bullying
  29. 29. 6. Establish and enforce school rules and policies related to bullying
  30. 30. 7. Increase adult supervision in "hot spots" for bullying. Hot spots would be identified through the bullying assessment Teachers should be in the hallway between classes. Locker room supervision is key. Resource officers can help
  31. 31. 8. Intervene consistently and appropriately when you see bullying.
  32. 32. 9. Devote some class time to bullying prevention Model desired attitudes and behaviors With input from students, establish classroom rules and consequences regarding bullying consistent with school policy Keep students engaged so they are less likely to participate in undesirable behaviors Emphasizing to students the importance of asking for help and reporting bullying Incorporate bullying topics into related instruction (e.g. courage, fairness, justice, citizenship, etc.)
  33. 33. 10. Continue efforts. There should be no "end date" for bullying prevention activities. Assessing students periodically will help determine if prevention efforts are working.
  34. 34. Practice Scenarios Read the scenario on the next slide. Refer to the handouts, “How to Intervene to Stop Bullying: Tips for On-the-Spot Intervention at School” and “Providing Support to Children Who are Bullied: Tips for School Personnel and Other Adults”. Work with a partner to decide what steps you would take to handle the situation.
  35. 35. Scenario #1 You are in the hallway between classes when you hear 3 boys call Jared a fag and a queer. Other teachers have told you that Jared has been harassed in the past. What steps should you take? Think about the 3 boys, Jared and the bystanders.
  36. 36. Scenario #2 At the beginning of the school year, Sara was always a happy student who got along well with her classmates. Over the past month, however, you notice that Sara seems sad and does not interact with other students. After class one day, you ask Sara if everything is OK. She tells you that her “friends” are not hanging out with her anymore and that they are spreading hurtful rumors about her. What should you do?
  37. 37. Ohio Safe Schools Website
  38. 38. References 1. U.S. Secret Service National Threat Assessment Center. The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education; 2002. 2. Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: bullying at school: basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35, 1171-1190. 3. Craig and Pepler, et. al., School Psychology International, Feb. 2000. 4. Puhl and Latner, (2007). Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation’s Children, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 133. 5. Kourany, R. (1987). Suicide among homosexual adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 13: 111-117. 6. GLSEN, From Teasing to Torment: School Climate in America, 2005.