Principles.of first aid edith

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  • 1. FIRST AID Is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or delayed
  • 2. 3. Gain access to the victim. 4. Determine any threats to patient’s life. 5. Summon advanced medical care as needed. 7. Assist advanced personnel. 8. Record all findings and care given to the patient. 6. Provide needed care for the patient. Roles and Responsibilities of a First Aider 2. Ensure safety of him / herself and that of bystanders. 1.Bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician.  It is not intended to compete with nor take the place of the services of the Physician.  It ends when medical assistance begins.
  • 3. oTo alleviate suffering. oTo prevent added or further injury of danger. oTo prolong life.
  • 4. Observant – should notice all signs Resourceful – should make the best of things at hand Gentle – should not cause pain Tactful – should not alarm the victim Sympathetic – should be comforting  Respectable– should maintain a professional & caring attitude
  • 5. Hindrances in Giving First Aid 1. Unfavorable surroundings. 2. Presence of crowds. 3. Pressure from victim or relatives.
  • 6. Rubbing alcohol Povidone Iodine Cotton Gauze pads Tongue depressor Penlight Band aid Plaster Gloves Scissors Forceps Bandage (Triangular) Elastic roller bandage Occlusive dressing
  • 7. Any sterile cloth material used to cover the wound Other uses of dressing:  Controls bleeding.  Protects the wound from infection.  Absorbs liquid from the wound such as blood plasma, water and pus.
  • 8. BANDAGES Any clean cloth materials, sterile or not used to hold the dressing in place. Other uses of bandages: 1. Control bleeding. 2. Tie splints in place. 3. Immobilize body part. 4. For arm support – use as a sling.
  • 9. I. GETTING STARTED  Planning of action  Gathering of needed materials  Initial response as follows: A – Ask for HELP I – Intervene D – Do no further HARM  Instruction to Helper/s
  • 10. EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES  Survey the Scene Elements - Is the scene safe? - What Happened? - How many people are injured? - Are there bystanders who can help? - Identify yourself as a trained First Aider - Get consent to give care
  • 11. EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES  Primary Survey - CHECK for CONSCIOUSNESS - CHECK AIRWAY - CHECK for Signs of Life Coughing Breathing Movement
  • 12. Information to be remembered in activating medical assistance :  What happened?  Location?  Number of persons injured?  Extent of injury and First Aid given?  The telephone number from where you are calling?  Person who activated medical assistance must identify him/herself and drop the phone fast. EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES • Activate Medical Assistance (AMA) or Transfer Facility
  • 13.  Secondary Survey 1. Interview the victim - Ask victim’s name - Ask what happened - Assess the SAMPLE History EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES Signs & symptoms Allergies Medications Past medical history Last oral intake Events prior to the episode
  • 14. EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES  Secondary Survey 2. Check vital signs. - Pulse Rate - Respiratory Rate - Temperature - Blood Pressure - Skin Appearance - Pupil Reaction 3. Perform head-to-toe examination.
  • 15. 1. Remove the patient from danger or remove further danger from the patient; for example, if a child falls into fire, he/she must be immediately removed to safer surroundings before any treatment can be carried out. 2. Treat the most urgent condition first & in order to precedence these conditions are: a) Apparent cessation of breathing. b) Severe hemorrhage. c) Shock.
  • 16. 3.Unconscious patients should be placed in prone position or lying on their side, or if this is not possible, lying in recumbent position with the head turned to the side.
  • 17. Is a rapid movement of patient from unsafe place to a place of safety EMERGENCY RESCUE
  • 18. EMERGENCY TRANSFER Danger of fire or explosion Danger of toxic gasses or asphyxia due to lack of oxygen Serious traffic hazards Risk of drowning Danger of electrocution Danger of collapsing walls
  • 19. Methods of Rescue 1.For immediate rescue without any assistance, drag or pull the victim. 2.Most of the one-man drags/carries and other transfer methods can be used as methods of rescue. Is moving a patient from one place to another after giving first aid. TRANSFER
  • 20. 1. Nature and severity of the injury. 2. Size of the victim. 3. Physical capabilities of the first aider. 4. Number of personnel and equipment available. 5. Nature of evacuation route. 6. Distance to be covered. 7. Sex of the victim (Last Consideration). Factors to be considered in the selection of choosing the transfer method:
  • 21. ONE-MAN CARRIES / ASSISTS Assist to Walk Carry in Arms This only works with a child or a very light person. Methods of Transfer
  • 22. This technique is for carrying a victim longer distances. It is very difficult to get the person up to this position from the ground. Getting the victim into position requires a very strong rescuer or an assistant. Fireman’s Carry When injuries make the firefighter carry unsafe, this method is better for longer distances than the one- person lift. Pack-Strap Carry
  • 23. Piggyback Carry Fireman’s Drag
  • 24. Cloth Drag The feet drag (ankle pull) is the fastest method for moving a victim a short distance over a smoothsurface. This is not a preferred method of patient movement. Feet Drag
  • 25. This is the preferred method for dragging a victim. Blanket Drag Inclined DragArmpit/ShoulderDrag
  • 26. Chair CarryHand as a litter 2. Two-man assist/carries This technique is for carrying a victim longer distances. This technique can support an unconscious victim This is a good method for carrying victims up and down stairs or through narrow or uneven areas.
  • 27. Assist to Walk/Human Crutch/Two-Person Drag For the conscious victim, this carry allows the victim to swing their leg using the rescuers as a pair of crutches.For the unconscious victim, it is a quickand easy way to move a victim out of immediate danger. This technique is for carrying conscious and alert victims moderate distances. The victim must be able to stand unsupported and hold themselves upright during transport. Four-Hand Seat
  • 28. THREE-MAN CARRIES Three or more rescuers get on both sides of the victim. The strongest member is on the side with the fewest rescuers. Hammock Carry (for wide spaces) Bearer’s Alongside (for narrow alleys)
  • 29. Wounds Two Types of Wounds First Aid Management C - Cold Application S - Splinting 1. Closed Wound
  • 30. 2. Open Wound Puncture Abrasion Laceration Avulsion C - Control Bleeding C - Cover the wound with dressing and secure with a bandage. C - Care for shock. C - Consult or refer to physician. First Aid Management
  • 31. First Aid Visual Aids Bones, Joints, and Muscle Injuries 1. Muscle cramp or spasm Is the sudden, painful tightening of a muscle First Aid 1. Have the victim stretch out he affected muscle to counteract the cramp. 2. Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently. 3. Apply heat. Moist heat is more effective than dry heat. 4. Get medical help if cramps persist 2. Muscle strain or pulled muscle Is the sudden, painful tearing of muscle fiber during exertion. First Aid 1. Apply cold compresses at once. 2. Elevate the limb to reduce swelling and bleeding with in the muscle. Rest the pulled muscle for 24 hours. 3. Get medical help.
  • 32. 3. Sprain Is caused by torn fibers in a ligament. First Aid 4. The victim’s physician may recommend an over the counter anti-inflammatory medication (aspirin, ibuprofen) appropriates for the victim’s general health. 3. Elevate the affected joint with pillow or clothing. 2. Apply cold compresses at once. 1. Remove any clothing or jewelry from around the joint.
  • 33. 1. Check the victim’s ABC. 2. Keep the victim still. 3. Prevent infection by covering a sterile dressing before immobilizing. 4. Splint or sling the injury in the position, which you found it. 5. Take steps to prevent shock. 6. Get medical help. 4. Dislocation and Broken Bones Joint dislocation is the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint. While Broken bone is a break or disruption in bone tissue.
  • 34. FEVER Is a sustained body temperature above the normal level of 37 C. First Aid  Make the patient comfortable in cool surroundings, preferably in bed with a light cover. Allow her to rest. Give the casualty plenty of cool, bland drinks to replace lost fluids. An adult may take two paracetamols tablets. Give a child the recommended dose of paracetamol syrup (not aspirin).  If you are worried about the casualty’s condition, call a doctor.
  • 35. Help the patient to sit or lie down comfortably in a quite place.  An adult may take two paracetamol tablets or her own painkillers. Give a child recommended dose of paracetamol syrup (not aspirin).  If in doubt or if the pain does not ease within two hours, call a doctor. HEADACHE May accompany any illness, particularly a feverish ailment such as flu, but it may be the most prominent symptom of a serious condition, such as meningitis or stroke. First Aid
  • 36. ABDOMINAL PAIN Is a pain in the abdomen often has a relatively trivial cause, but can indicate serious disease, such as perforation or obstruction of the intestine.  Make the patient comfortable, and prop him/her up if breathing is difficult. Giving her a container to use if vomiting.  Do not give the patient any medicines or anything to eat or drink.  Give patient a covered hot-water bottle place against the abdomen. • If the pain is severe, or does not ease within 30 minutes, call a doctor. First Aid
  • 37. VOMITING & DIARRHEA Are most likely to be caused by food poisoning, contaminated water, allergy, or unusual or exotic foods.  Reassure the patient while he or she is being sick. Afterwards, give the patient a warm damp cloth with which to wash him- or herself. Give the patient lots of bland fluids to sip slowly and often. If the appetite returns, give him only bland, starchy or sugar food for the first 24 hours.  If you are worried about the patient’s condition, particularly if it is persistent, call a doctor. First Aid
  • 38. No Questions!!!!
  • 39. The Philippine National Red Cross (2007). Participant’s Workbook:Standard First Aid. Philippine Copyright, 1999 CERT Los Angeles Lifts and Carries (2001). [Accessed online]http://www.certla.com/liftcarry /Liftcarry.htm References: