0
Do you still remember?
o
o
o
o
o
o

Phrase
Clause
Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound Complex Sentence
QUIZ
Phrase or Clause?
1. _____ the beautiful girl
2. _____ the beautiful girl is under the tree
3. _____ the computer on ...
QUIZ
Write INDEP then put period after them for independent
clause or DEP for dependent clause!
a. ____ students normally ...
QUIZ
Determine whether these sentences is SIMPLE,
COMPOUND, COMPLEX, or COMPOUND COMPLEX!
a. ____ the athlete run
b. ____ ...
QUIZ
Determine which one is better?
a. My cat namely Kitty is a cute cat. It has smooth body
hair. It has beautiful eyebal...
SIMPLE & COMPOUND SENTENCE
Terms we’ll need
o Subject
o Verb
o Clause
(group of words with a subject and a verb)
Independent-strong, stands alone
D...
Simple Sentence
 A simple sentence contains a subject and verb.
 It expresses a single complete thought.
 A simple sent...
Sample Simple Sentences
1. The cat crept through the dark house.
2. The wary mouse watched from underneath an
upturned cer...
Simple sentence
A simple sentence has one independent
clause and no dependent clauses:


The student yawned.
Although a simple sentence cannot
have a dependent clause, it can have
modifiers:
The tall student yawned loudly.

The bas...
A simple sentence contains only one
independent clause, but it can have
more than one subject or verb:
Two Subjects:
The s...
A sentence with all these elements will be long, but it is
still simple because it contains only one independent
clause:

...
The tall student and his friend
yawned loudly and fell asleep.
Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two independent
clauses that are joined together.
She works in the city, bu...
Compound Sentence
You can make a compound sentence by
joining two logically related independent
clauses by using…
- a semi...
Using a Semicolon
Independent Clause ; Independent Clause

I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do.

In...
Using a Coordinating Conjunction
Independent Clause , coordinating conjunction Independent Clause

He couldn’t watch the s...
Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating
Conjunction

Logical Relationship
Addition

And

Contrast

But, yet

Choice

Or, no...
FANBOYS
Another way to remember these is…

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

For 
And 
Nor 
But 
Or 
Yet 
So 

F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
CAUTION!
Do NOT use a comma every time you use the
words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a
comma only when the coordi...
Using a Transition
Independent Clause ; transition, Independent Clause
I love San Francisco; however, I hate the traffic.
...
List of Transition
Relationship

Transition

Addition

Moreover
Furthermore
In addition
besides

Contrast

However
In cont...
List of Transition
Relationship

Transition

Exemplification

For example
For instance
In particular

Time

Meanwhile (at ...
Writing Complex Sentences
#1: Simple Sentence


A simple sentence has one subject
and one verb






I like to study grammar.

A simple sentence...
One
subject

I love you.
One
verb

Independent clause: only one subject and one verb
#2: Compound Sentence


A compound sentence is made up of
two or more simple sentences joined by
one of the following:

...
Independent
clause

I love you, and you love me.
Independent
clause

Two independent clauses joined together
#3: Complex Sentence


A complex sentence is a simple
sentence (independent clause) to which
a part of a sentence (depend...
Dependent clause

Because you love me, I love you.
Independent clause

A dependent clause joined to an independent clause....
Fragment!
Because you love me.
A dependent clause contains a subject and verb. It begins
with a subordinating conjunction,...
Complex Sentence
One independent clause and
one dependent clause.
These sentences use subordinating
conjunctions to link i...
Complex Sentence
(When the dog barked), the cat ran away.
S

V

S

V

The cat ran away when the dog barked.
Complex Sentence
Because she was sick, she stayed home.
She stayed home because she was sick.
Complex Sentence
Relative Pronouns =
Subject ( S ) in a complex sentence
who
whom
which
that
Complex Sentences
The dog that ate my homework is a genius.
Clause = S + V
The dog is a genius.
S V
that ate my homework
S...
Complex Sentence
The student ( who studies hard ) will pass the final.
S
S
V
V

The novel, ( which I liked the most ), is ...
A Tip on Punctuation


Since dependent clauses are only part
of a sentence, you can never connect
them to another sentenc...
Common Subordinating (Dependent)
Conjunctions
after

even if

although even
though
as
if
as if

now that

that

once

thou...
#4: Compound/Complex
Sentence




A compound/complex sentence is the
last and most complicated type of
sentence.
It cont...
Dependent clause

Because we are a family, I
love you, and you love me.
2 independent clauses
A dependent clause added to ...
Compound-Complex
A compound-complex sentence has at
least two independent clauses and at
least one dependent clause.
2 ind...
Compound-Complex Sentence
Simple
We drove from St. John’s to Corner Brook in one day.
Compound
We were exhausted, but we a...
Since every sentence in English fits into
one of these four categories,
Simple

Compound

Complex

Compound/
complex
Developing Paragraph
There are four skills that need to be mastery
by students in learning English. They are listening,
speaking, reading, and ...
There are four skills that need to be mastery
by students in learning English. They are listening,
speaking, reading, and ...
There are some experts who state that speaking is the
most important. McDonough and Shaw (1993:151) state that
“Speaking i...
There are some experts who state that speaking is the
most important. McDonough and Shaw (1993:151) state that
“Speaking i...
The paragraph is a series of sentences
developing

one topic.
I live in a house in west Provo. I like the
view from our house. We have lived there
since November. We also have a car th...
My husband and I bought our first house last
November, and we love it. It is located in west
Provo near Utah Lake. Althoug...
Paragraph Structure
A paragraph should have a logical structure
that is easy to put into an outline:
•
•
•
•
•

Topic Sent...
The Topic Sentence
• The topic of a paragraph is
stated in one sentence. This is
called the topic sentence.
Topic Sentences
• A topic sentence is the sentence that tells the
reader the main idea of the paragraph.
• The topic sente...
Topic Sentences: Good Examples
• When I was a child, I lived in a house that
had a strange atmosphere.
• There is a canyon...
Topic Sentences: Bad Examples
• I went to the Grand Canyon this winter and
to Mexico in the spring of 1994.
• My friend is...
The rest of the paragraph consists
of sentences that develop or
explain the main idea.
•

Through the centuries rats
have ...
Developing a Paragraph
Unity in the Paragraph
Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main
idea expressed in the topic sentence.
The concluding or
clincher sentence
• Restate the topic sentence in different words.
• A clincher sentence or concluding s...
Coherence in a Paragraph
• Stick to the point: The ideas have
a clear and logical relation to each other.

• Put details o...
Connecting Sentences
Within the Paragraph
Transition words
chronological
order

objects in relation to
one another

in ord...
Transitions
Help your paragraphs flow together. They link
ideas so that they relate to one another
in the same way

as a r...
Types of Paragraphs
• The narrative paragraph
• tells a story

• The persuasive paragraph.
• tries to convince the audienc...
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  1. 1. Do you still remember? o o o o o o Phrase Clause Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound Complex Sentence
  2. 2. QUIZ Phrase or Clause? 1. _____ the beautiful girl 2. _____ the beautiful girl is under the tree 3. _____ the computer on the table in the lab 4. _____ this class is dirty 5. _____ all of my friends come to my birthday party Phrase is ... Clause is ... How many kinds of clause? What are they?
  3. 3. QUIZ Write INDEP then put period after them for independent clause or DEP for dependent clause! a. ____ students normally spend four years in college b. ____ although students normally spend four year in college c. ____ Indonesia was proclaimed in 1945 d. ____ which is simply the urge to sleep at inappropiate Independent clause is ... times Dependent clause is ...
  4. 4. QUIZ Determine whether these sentences is SIMPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX, or COMPOUND COMPLEX! a. ____ the athlete run b. ____ Ali run quickly, so he come earlier than others c. ____ the tall athlete run quckly d. ____ I love this class because I like to write e. ____ I hate you; you love me f. ____ because we are family, I love you and you love me Simple sentence is ... Compound sentence is ... Complex sentence is ... Compound complex sentence is
  5. 5. QUIZ Determine which one is better? a. My cat namely Kitty is a cute cat. It has smooth body hair. It has beautiful eyeball. Kitty likes to play in the dirty land. But it always keep clean its body when it come and sleep near me. b. My cat namely kitty is a cute cat. It has smooth body hair and beautiful eyeball. Although Kitty likes to play in the dirty land, it always keep its body clean when it come and sleep near me.
  6. 6. SIMPLE & COMPOUND SENTENCE
  7. 7. Terms we’ll need o Subject o Verb o Clause (group of words with a subject and a verb) Independent-strong, stands alone Dependent-subordinate-weak, needs support
  8. 8. Simple Sentence  A simple sentence contains a subject and verb.  It expresses a single complete thought.  A simple sentence is a single independent clause. I live in Cikaliung. Subject Verb
  9. 9. Sample Simple Sentences 1. The cat crept through the dark house. 2. The wary mouse watched from underneath an upturned cereal box. 3. The predatory cat stopped and surveyed his surroundings. 4. The mouse darted for the safety of the nearly invisible hole under the cabinet.
  10. 10. Simple sentence A simple sentence has one independent clause and no dependent clauses:  The student yawned.
  11. 11. Although a simple sentence cannot have a dependent clause, it can have modifiers: The tall student yawned loudly. The basic sentence is ‘The student yawned’. The other words are modifiers - they are descriptive words.
  12. 12. A simple sentence contains only one independent clause, but it can have more than one subject or verb: Two Subjects: The student and his friend yawned. Two Verbs: The student yawned and fell asleep.
  13. 13. A sentence with all these elements will be long, but it is still simple because it contains only one independent clause: The tall student and his friend yawned loudly and fell asleep. Can you identify the ‘real’ sentence and the modifiers?
  14. 14. The tall student and his friend yawned loudly and fell asleep.
  15. 15. Compound Sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together. She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Clause Independent Clause
  16. 16. Compound Sentence You can make a compound sentence by joining two logically related independent clauses by using… - a semicolon - a coordinating conjunction - a transition
  17. 17. Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Clause Independent Clause
  18. 18. Using a Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause , coordinating conjunction Independent Clause He couldn’t watch the show, so he decided to tape it. Independent Clause Independent Clause
  19. 19. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunction Logical Relationship Addition And Contrast But, yet Choice Or, nor Cause For Result So
  20. 20. FANBOYS Another way to remember these is… • • • • • • • For  And  Nor  But  Or  Yet  So  F A N B O Y S
  21. 21. CAUTION! Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses. Simple Sentence The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Independent Clause No comma- not an independent clause
  22. 22. Using a Transition Independent Clause ; transition, Independent Clause I love San Francisco; however, I hate the traffic. Independent Clause Independent Clause
  23. 23. List of Transition Relationship Transition Addition Moreover Furthermore In addition besides Contrast However In contrast Result or Effect Consequently Thus Therefore Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact On the contrary On the other hand Accordingly Hence As a result
  24. 24. List of Transition Relationship Transition Exemplification For example For instance In particular Time Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact Exemplification For example For instance In particular
  25. 25. Writing Complex Sentences
  26. 26. #1: Simple Sentence  A simple sentence has one subject and one verb    I like to study grammar. A simple sentence is also called an independent clause. An independent clause ends with a period or semicolon.
  27. 27. One subject I love you. One verb Independent clause: only one subject and one verb
  28. 28. #2: Compound Sentence  A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by one of the following:  A comma and one of the FANBOYS   A semicolon   I like to study grammar, and I love this class. I like to study grammar; I love this class. A semicolon and a transitional  I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class.
  29. 29. Independent clause I love you, and you love me. Independent clause Two independent clauses joined together
  30. 30. #3: Complex Sentence  A complex sentence is a simple sentence (independent clause) to which a part of a sentence (dependent clause) has been added.   Because I like to study grammar, I love this class. I love this class because I like to study grammar.
  31. 31. Dependent clause Because you love me, I love you. Independent clause A dependent clause joined to an independent clause. (The dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for support.)
  32. 32. Fragment! Because you love me. A dependent clause contains a subject and verb. It begins with a subordinating conjunction, and thus it does not express a completed thought. A dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause. Dependent clauses, like babies, cannot stand alone.
  33. 33. Complex Sentence One independent clause and one dependent clause. These sentences use subordinating conjunctions to link ideas: after if because although before since unless while until as when
  34. 34. Complex Sentence (When the dog barked), the cat ran away. S V S V The cat ran away when the dog barked.
  35. 35. Complex Sentence Because she was sick, she stayed home. She stayed home because she was sick.
  36. 36. Complex Sentence Relative Pronouns = Subject ( S ) in a complex sentence who whom which that
  37. 37. Complex Sentences The dog that ate my homework is a genius. Clause = S + V The dog is a genius. S V that ate my homework S V The dog ( that ate my homework ) is a genius. S S V V
  38. 38. Complex Sentence The student ( who studies hard ) will pass the final. S S V V The novel, ( which I liked the most ), is about a spy. S S V V
  39. 39. A Tip on Punctuation  Since dependent clauses are only part of a sentence, you can never connect them to another sentence with a semicolon. Semicolons are only used between two independent clauses.   I have loved you for years ; although I never admitted it. No! I have loved you for years, although I never admitted it. OK
  40. 40. Common Subordinating (Dependent) Conjunctions after even if although even though as if as if now that that once though whereas rather than unless whenever since because in order that before where wherever until whether so that when which than in case while
  41. 41. #4: Compound/Complex Sentence   A compound/complex sentence is the last and most complicated type of sentence. It contains at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses.
  42. 42. Dependent clause Because we are a family, I love you, and you love me. 2 independent clauses A dependent clause added to two or more independent clauses
  43. 43. Compound-Complex A compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. 2 independent clauses + 1 dependent clause ( compound ) ( complex )
  44. 44. Compound-Complex Sentence Simple We drove from St. John’s to Corner Brook in one day. Compound We were exhausted, but we arrived in time for my mother’s birthday party. Complex ( Although he is now 81 years old ), he still claims to be 75. Compound-complex ( After it was all over ), my mother claimed she knew we were planning something, but we think she was really surprised.
  45. 45. Since every sentence in English fits into one of these four categories, Simple Compound Complex Compound/ complex
  46. 46. Developing Paragraph
  47. 47. There are four skills that need to be mastery by students in learning English. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and reading are receptive skills, and speaking and writing are productive skill. “The four skills are important; however, of all the four skills, speaking seems intuitively the most important” (Ur, 1996:120).
  48. 48. There are four skills that need to be mastery by students in learning English. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and reading are receptive skills, and speaking and writing are productive skill. “The four skills are important. But, of all the four skills, speaking seems intuitively the most important” (Ur, 1996:120).
  49. 49. There are some experts who state that speaking is the most important. McDonough and Shaw (1993:151) state that “Speaking is often the skill upon which a person is judge „at face‟”. In other words, people may often form judgments about our language competence from our speaking rather than from any of the other language skills. In addition, Richards and Renandya (2002:210) also write in their book that “Speaking is one of central elements of communication”. In EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction.
  50. 50. There are some experts who state that speaking is the most important. McDonough and Shaw (1993:151) state that “Speaking is often the skill upon which a person is judge „at face‟”. In other words, people may often form judgments about our language competence from our speaking rather than from any of the other language skills. Likewise, Richards and Renandya (2002:210) also write in their book that “Speaking is one of central elements of communication”. In EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction.
  51. 51. The paragraph is a series of sentences developing one topic.
  52. 52. I live in a house in west Provo. I like the view from our house. We have lived there since November. We also have a car that I like very much. We were in an accident a few months ago. We hit a deer that was crossing the street at night. I felt sorry for the deer, but it cost a lot of money to repair the car.
  53. 53. My husband and I bought our first house last November, and we love it. It is located in west Provo near Utah Lake. Although we cannot see the lake from our house, we do have a beautiful view of Mount Timpanogos. Our house has three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a living room and a family room, and a large kitchen and dining area. We also have a large backyard and a small garden. We are very happy to own our own home, and I hope that we will live there for several years.
  54. 54. Paragraph Structure A paragraph should have a logical structure that is easy to put into an outline: • • • • • Topic Sentence Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Concluding Sentence
  55. 55. The Topic Sentence • The topic of a paragraph is stated in one sentence. This is called the topic sentence.
  56. 56. Topic Sentences • A topic sentence is the sentence that tells the reader the main idea of the paragraph. • The topic sentence should contain only one main idea. It should be specific and detailed. • The topic sentence is often found at the beginning of the paragraph, but it can be in other places, too.
  57. 57. Topic Sentences: Good Examples • When I was a child, I lived in a house that had a strange atmosphere. • There is a canyon in Northern Arizona that is the most beautiful place on Earth. • My favorite item of clothing is a comfortable, worn pair of jeans that I have had for many years.
  58. 58. Topic Sentences: Bad Examples • I went to the Grand Canyon this winter and to Mexico in the spring of 1994. • My friend is nice. • I like my bedroom.
  59. 59. The rest of the paragraph consists of sentences that develop or explain the main idea. • Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. We have tried germ warfare. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the Pacific after World War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests.
  60. 60. Developing a Paragraph
  61. 61. Unity in the Paragraph Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main idea expressed in the topic sentence.
  62. 62. The concluding or clincher sentence • Restate the topic sentence in different words. • A clincher sentence or concluding sentence clinches the point made in the paragraph. • It summarizes the paragraph.
  63. 63. Coherence in a Paragraph • Stick to the point: The ideas have a clear and logical relation to each other. • Put details or examples or incidents in logical order. chronological in relation to each other in order of importance 4 3 2 1
  64. 64. Connecting Sentences Within the Paragraph Transition words chronological order objects in relation to one another in order of importance first next to however meanwhile in front of furthermore later beside as a result afterwards between in fact finally behind yet
  65. 65. Transitions Help your paragraphs flow together. They link ideas so that they relate to one another in the same way as a result similarly therefore likewise finally while in conclusion on the other hand in summary although lastly however in addition
  66. 66. Types of Paragraphs • The narrative paragraph • tells a story • The persuasive paragraph. • tries to convince the audience • The descriptive paragraph • describes something • The expository or explanatory paragraph • gives information or explains something
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