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Intro. to Linguistics_9 Morphology Intro. to Linguistics_9 Morphology Presentation Transcript

  • We assess ourself what we feelcan we do, while others assess us what we have done(Henry Wadzworth)
  • INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS SESSION 9: MORPHOLOGY Edi Brata http://e-learning.edibrata.com Mathla’ul Anwar University
  • MICRO-LINGUISTICS Semantics Syntax and Pragmatics Morphology and Lexicology PhonologyPhonetics View slide
  • WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY?o The study of words and the rules for word formation in a language.o Traditionally, the term morphology refers to the study of “morphemes”. View slide
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME? cat cats chair chairs cook cooked
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME? cat cat+s chair chair+s cook cook+ed• Plurality indicated by adding +s to the singular noun.• Past pasticiple indicated by adding +ed
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME? cats (cat+s) cat s Morphem Morphem
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME? chairs (chair+s) chair s Morphem Morphem
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME? cooked (cook+ed) cook ed Morphem Morphem
  • WHAT IS MORPHEME?help helphelped help+edhelps help+shelping help+ingunhelpful un+help+ful
  • SO, WHAT IS MORPHEME?o A morpheme is a piece of phonological information that has a conventionalized meaning arbitrarily associated with it.o The smallest part of a word that carries meaning.o …the smallest part of a word with independent meaning.
  • The ThePhoneme smallest smallest significant significant Morpheme unit of unit of speech grammar
  • MORPHEME• one morpheme: taste• two morphemes: taste+ful• three morphemes: dis+taste+ful• four morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly
  • ALLOMORPHslammed /sˈlæmdslipped /stilted /sˈlɪpt/ /ˈstɪl.tɪd /
  • ALLOMORPHcapable incapabletolerant intolerantcomplete incomplete
  • ALLOMORPHlegal illegalmobile immobileregular irregular‘il-’, ‘im-’, ‘ir-’ can thus be called allomorphs
  • SO, WHAT IS ALLOMORPH?• Morphemes which fulfill the same function have slightly different forms.• Alternative forms of a morpheme
  • MORPHEMESFREE BOUND DERIVATIONAL INFLECTIONAL
  • FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMEFREE MORPHEME:• Morphemes that can occur as an independent word.• Free morphemes can occur on their own: happy, change, select, green, house, …
  • FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMEBOUND MORPHEME:• Morphemes that cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes.• Where they attach: • Prefixation • Suffixation• What function they perform: • Derivational • Inflectional
  • o It changes the category and/or the type of meaning of the word, so it is said to create a new word. e.g. suffix –ment in governmento A derivational affix must combine with the base before an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoodso The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood
  • o It does not change either the grammatical category or the type of meaning found in the word. e.g. suffix –s in bookso An inflectional affix in more productive than a derivational affix. e.g. the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun.o On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.
  • Nouns –s plural –’s possessiveVerbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressiveAdjectives –er comparative –est superlative
  • 1) impossible 1) Derivational prefix2) terrorized 2) Inflectional suffix3) terrorize 3) Derivational suffix4) desks 4) Inflectional suffix5) dislike 5) Derivational prefix6) humanity 6) Derivational suffix7) fastest 7) Inflectional suffix
  • 8) premature 8) Derivational prefix9) untie 9) Derivational prefix10) darken 10) Derivational suffix11) fallen 11) Inflectional suffix12) oxen 12) Inflectional suffix13) faster 13) Inflectional suffix14) lecturer 14) Derivational suffix
  • Thank You http://e-learning.edibrata.com(Some materials of this slide presentation are directly adopted)