We assess ourself what we feelcan we do, while others assess us what we have done(Henry Wadzworth)
INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS SESSION 9: MORPHOLOGY Edi Brata http://e-learning.edibrata.com Mathla’ul Anwar University
MICRO-LINGUISTICS Semantics Syntax and Pragmatics Morphology and Lexicology PhonologyPhonetics
WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY?o The study of words and the rules for word formation in a language.o Traditionally, the term morphology refers to the study of “morphemes”.
WHAT IS MORPHEME? cat cats chair chairs cook cooked
WHAT IS MORPHEME? cat cat+s chair chair+s cook cook+ed• Plurality indicated by adding +s to the singular noun.• Past pasticiple indicated by adding +ed
WHAT IS MORPHEME? cats (cat+s) cat s Morphem Morphem
WHAT IS MORPHEME? chairs (chair+s) chair s Morphem Morphem
WHAT IS MORPHEME? cooked (cook+ed) cook ed Morphem Morphem
WHAT IS MORPHEME?help helphelped help+edhelps help+shelping help+ingunhelpful un+help+ful
SO, WHAT IS MORPHEME?o A morpheme is a piece of phonological information that has a conventionalized meaning arbitrarily associated with it.o The smallest part of a word that carries meaning.o …the smallest part of a word with independent meaning.
The ThePhoneme smallest smallest significant significant Morpheme unit of unit of speech grammar
MORPHEME• one morpheme: taste• two morphemes: taste+ful• three morphemes: dis+taste+ful• four morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly
FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMEFREE MORPHEME:• Morphemes that can occur as an independent word.• Free morphemes can occur on their own: happy, change, select, green, house, …
FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMEBOUND MORPHEME:• Morphemes that cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes.• Where they attach: • Prefixation • Suffixation• What function they perform: • Derivational • Inflectional
o It changes the category and/or the type of meaning of the word, so it is said to create a new word. e.g. suffix –ment in governmento A derivational affix must combine with the base before an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoodso The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood
o It does not change either the grammatical category or the type of meaning found in the word. e.g. suffix –s in bookso An inflectional affix in more productive than a derivational affix. e.g. the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun.o On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.
Nouns –s plural –’s possessiveVerbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressiveAdjectives –er comparative –est superlative