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Intro. to Linguistics_16 Psycholinguistics 2 (Language Acquisition)
Edi Brata Mathla’ul Anwar UniversityPsycholinguistics 2: Language Acquisition (16th Session of Introduction to Linguistics)
Language Acquisition First Second Foreign Language Language LanguageAcquisition Acquisition Acquisition We have features for every step of the way
First Language AcquisitionThe process of how children acquire their native language
First Language Acquisition •A child’s mind is like a blank slate •Children do not need any kind of •All knowledge comes from formal teaching to learn to experience speak. •Environment shapes learning and •Children are born with a natural behavior capacity to learn language. •Children react to their •The brain contains systems for surroundings recognizing patterns of sound. •Children learn language from •Children are biologically •Input programmed for language. •Trial and error •Chomsky’s theories and “critical period” theories are important in •Error correction nativist theories. Behaviorist Nativist
Noam Chomsky’s L-A-DChomsky’s theory of the LAD (Language Acquisition Device) states that every human is born with innate principles of language.Children learn language spontaneously and speak creatively.The “poverty of the stimulus theory” states that what children hear is incomplete and often ungrammatical, and cannot account for the creativity of their utterances.
Critical Period of Age Language Stage Beginning Age » Crying! Birth » Cooing! 6 weeks » Babbling! 6 months » Intonation patterns! 8 months » One-word utterances! 1 year » Two-word utterances! 18 months » Word inflections! 2 years » Questions, negations! 2 1/4 years » Rare and complex constructions! 5 years » Mature speech! 10 years
Language Acquisition Device LAD can prevent the children from using incorrect rules of language and can discover language rules in the process of acquiring language.
Chomsky states:“… Language learning is not something that a child doesbut it is something that happens to the child placed in an appropriate environment,…”
Foreign Language Acquisition Children can They need These acquire any environment that preconditions language since provide sufficient make the learning they also possess exposure to the of EFL similar to several qualities language and that of English as L1 owned by L1 and L2 opportunities to and L2 children. use it.
Qualities possessed by Learners in FLL: o UG wired in the brainForeign o (For children) critical period of ageLanguage in learning languageAcquisition o Environment/language community o Sufficient exposure to the language o Social beings o Sufficient opportunities to use the language for communicative purposes o May take longer time
Second and Foreign Language AcquisitionFundamental difference between L1 and L2/FL Acquisition:• All children learn their first language easily and well whereas adults vary in their ultimate mastery of a second language.• Children do not need to be taught their first language whereas adults benefit from formal instruction.• Children are intrinsically motivated to learn their native language whereas adult mastery of a second language is dependent upon attitude, motivation, and aptitude.
Second and Foreign Language AcquisitionDespite the disadvantages of learning a second language in adulthood, adults are naturally endowed with important L2 learning abilities:• mature problem-solving abilities• general understanding about the nature of human interaction• competence in native language
Adult Learners» Analytical learners» Language inhibition, self- esteem/confidence» Insufficient time in learning» Insufficient exposure» Insufficient opportunities to use the language» Motivation» Way of learning at school» UG?» Critical period?
Second Foreign Language LanguageAcquisition Acquisition Language Learning
Signal Learning Stimulus-Response Chaining Verbal AssociationLearning Types Multiple Discrimination Concept Learning Principle Learning Problem Solving