INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS (SESSION 13: PRAGMATICS) Edi Brata Mathl’aul Anwar University
Meaning Dimensions Review to the Previous Topic Lexical SemanticRelations Roles
SEMIOTICS (Syntactic, Semantics and Pragmatics)a) Diki eats Donut.b) Donut eats Diki.• Syntactically, sentence a) and b) are accepted.• Semantically, only sentence a) that is accepted since sentence b) is illogical.• Sometime, it is possible to use sentence b) when we want to express donut as a monster. Here, pragmatics plays its role.
PRAGMATICSBABY & TODDLER SALE Invisible meaning
PRAGMATICSA : I have a fourteen year old son.B : Well thats all right.A : I also have a dog.B : Oh, Im sorry.
CONTEXT Linguistics Context a) He is standing at the steep bank. b) She has to get to the bank to cash a check. Physical ContextIf you see the word BANK on the wall of abuilding in a city, the physical locationwill influence your interpretation.
DEIXISDeixis is reference by means of an expression whoseinterpretation is relative to the extra-linguistic context ofthe utterance. • Person Deixis (it, this, me, you, him, them) • Time/ Temporal Deixis (now, then, tonight, last week) • Place/Spatial Deixis (here, there, yonder)Deictic expressions have to be interpreted in terms ofwhat person, place or time the speaker has in mind. o Here she comes! o There she goes o Pay now, free tomorrow!
REFERENCEWords dont refer to anything but people refer.We have to define reference as an act by which aspeaker (or writer) uses language to enable alistener (or reader) to identify something Who do you mean with the man? One man who always went by fast and loud on his motorcycle.
REFERENCE• Kawasaki• Honda (A brand name for a motorcycle can obviously be used for a person).• Inference o Wheres the fresh salad sitting?. o We saw Shakespeare in London. o I enjoy listening to Mozart.
ANAPHORAAnaphora can be defined as subsequent referenceto an already introduced entity.A : Can I borrow your book?B : Yeah, its on the table.I was waiting for the bus, but he just drove by without stopping.
PRESUPPOSITION• The speaker is working with an assumption that the hearer knows which referent is intended.• The assumption may be mistaken, but they underlie much of what we say in the everyday use of language• What a speaker assumes is true or is known by the hearer can be described as a presupposition
PRESUPPOSITION• My car is a wreck.• My car is not a wreck. Notice that, although these two sentences have opposite meanings, the underlying presupposition, I have a car, remains true in both.• I used to regret marrying him, but I dont regret marrying him now.• Why did you arrive late? There is a presupposition that you did arrive late.
SPEECH ACTSVisitor : Excuse me, do you know where the Marbella Hotel isYou : Oh sure, I know where it is. (and walks away…)The use of the term speech act covers actions such asrequesting, commanding, questioning and informing
POLITENESSPoliteness is showing awareness of anotherpersons face• Give me that paper! (a face-threatening act)• Could you pass me that paper, please? (a face-saving act)
SO, WHAT IS PRAGMATICS?• Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning.• Pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning.• Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said.• Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. (Yule, 1996:3)
PRAGMATICSUnderstanding how people communicate isactually a process of interpreting not justwhat speakers say, but what they intend tomean.