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Essay Writing (Unity and Coherence)
 

Essay Writing (Unity and Coherence)

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    Essay Writing (Unity and Coherence) Essay Writing (Unity and Coherence) Presentation Transcript

    • Edi Brata, S.Pd. Mathla’ul Anwar University http://edibrata.wordpress.com
    • What is Unity?
      • Unity means single idea. In other words, unity in writing is the connection all ideas to a single topic. In an essay all ideas should relate to the thesis statement, and the supporting ideas in a main body paragraph should relate to the topic sentence. For example, if your essay is about the advantages of nuclear power, discuss only that. Do not discuss about the disadvantages.
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    • Keeping Unity in an Essay
      • One way to keep unity in an essay is to edit the outline for ideas that are not relevant to the thesis statement or topic sentence. Also, after you have written the essay, it is helpful to review the text and look for ideas that do not relate to the thesis statement or the topic sentence.
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    • What is Coherence?
      • Coherence is related to unity. Ideas that are arranged in a clear and logical way are coherent. The purpose of coherence is to make the readers can easily understand the main points.
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    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • When organising your ideas, think about what type of organisation is the best for your topic or essay type. Here are some examples of types of writing and good ways to organise them
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Type of Writing Type of Organisation Chronology Order by time or order of events/ steps Description Order by position, size, and shape of things Classification Group of ideas and explain them in a logical order Comparison/ Contrast Organise in point-by-point or block style Argumentation/ persuasion/ cause effect Order from least important to most important
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices
      • Cohesive devices are words and phrases that connect sentences and paragraphs together, creating a smooth flow of ideas. Here are three kinds of cohesive devices that can be used:
      • transition signals
      • pronoun references
      • repetion of key noun
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    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Transition Signals)
      • Transition signals can be categorized into three groups by grammatical function. The three groups are:
      • sentence connectors (including transition phrases and conjunctive adverbs) ,
      • clause connectors (including coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions), and
      • mixed group called others .
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    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Transition Signals)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Meaning/ Function Sentence Connectors Clause Connectors Others (Adjectives, Verbs, and Prepositions) Coordinators Subordinators To introduce similar additional idea also besides furthermore in addition moreover too and nor (“and not)   another an additional To compare things also likewise similarly too and both ... and not only ... but also neither ... nor as just as as ... as like/ alike just like similar to be alike be similar To introduce an opposite idea, and to contrast things however in contrast instead in/ by comparison nevertheless nonetheless on the other hand on the contrary still but yet although even though though whereas while despite in spite of compared to/ with be different (from) be dissimilar be unlike differ (from)
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Transition Signals)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Meaning/ Function Sentence Connectors Clause Connectors Others (Adjectives, Verbs, and Prepositions) Coordinators Subordinators To introduce an example for example for instance     such as an example of To emphasize in fact       To explain and restate indeed that is       To introduce an alternative otherwise or if unless   To signal chronological order first, second, etc. first of all then, next now, then, soon last finally meanwhile gradually after that since then   after as as soon as before since until when while the first, the second the next, the last, the final before lunch after the war since .... in the year ...
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Transition Signals)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Meaning/ Function Sentence Connectors Clause Connectors Others (Adjectives, Verbs, and Prepositions) Coordinators Subordinators To indicate order of importance above all first and foremost more/ most importantly/ significantly primarily       a more important the most important the second most significant the primaily To introduce a cause or reason   for because since as result from be the result of due to because of the effect of the consequence of as a result of as a consequence of To introduce an effect or result accordingly as a result as a consequence consequently hence, thus therefore So   result in cause have an effect on affect the cause of the reason for
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Transition Signals)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Meaning/ Function Sentence Connectors Clause Connectors Others (Adjectives, Verbs, and Prepositions) Coordinators Subordinators To conclude all in all, in brief, in conclusion, in short, in summary, indeed,     It is clear that ... We can see that ... The evidence suggets that ... These examples show that ...
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Pronoun References)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Two sentences can be connected by the use of pronoun. A pronoun ( he, she, it, they, etc. ) takes the place of a noun (a person, place, thing, or idea) or noun phrase (several words that refer to a person, place, thing, or idea). Example: Gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental puposes. The pronoun it refers back to the subject, Gold , and connects the two sentence together.
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Repetition of Key Noun)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Another way to connect ideas in an essay is by repeating important words and phrases. This will help the reader remember the main ideas in the text. Example: Modern medicine focuses on illness. If a patient with a cough visits a modern doctor, then the doctor will give the patient a medicine to stop the cough. If the patient also has a fever, the doctor may give a different medicine to stop the fever. For every person with a cough, the doctor will probably recommend the same cough medicine. The philosophy of modern medicine is to stop problems like coughing and fever as quickly as possible.
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Repetition of Key Noun)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Another way to connect ideas in an essay is by repeating important words and phrases. This will help the reader remember the main ideas in the text. Example: Modern medicine focuses on illness. If a patient with a cough visits a modern doctor, then the doctor will give the patient a medicine to stop the cough. If the patient also has a fever, the doctor may give a different medicine to stop the fever. For every person with a cough, the doctor will probably recommend the same cough medicine . The philosophy of modern medicine is to stop problems like coughing and fever as quickly as possible.
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Cohesive Devices (Repetition of Key Noun)
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Another way to connect ideas in an essay is by repeating important words and phrases. This will help the reader remember the main ideas in the text. Example: Modern medicine focuses on illness. If a patient with a cough visits a modern doctor, then the doctor will give the patient a medicine to stop the cough . If the patient also has a fever, the doctor may give a different medicine to stop the fever. For every person with a cough , the doctor will probably recommend the same cough medicine . The philosophy of modern medicine is to stop problems like coughing and fever as quickly as possible.
    • How to Make Our Essay Coherence?
      • Exercise
      http://edibrata.wordpress.com Zemach and Rumisek, 2005:83, 84, 85
    • References: http://edibrata.wordpress.com
      • Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 1998. Writing Academic English. New York: Longman. (Page: 40-50)
      • Zemach, Dorothy E and Rumisek Lisa A. 2003. Academic Writing form Paragraph to Essay. Macmillan. (Page: 78-86)
      • Many of the materials are directly quoted.
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