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Essay writing 3rds



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  • 1. The Introductory Paragraph
  • 2. What is the purpose of the introductory paragraph? • Get the reader’s attention • Set tone for the rest of the essay • Make a contract with the reader - what will be covered in this piece?
  • 3. The Parts of the Introductory Paragraph • The Hook - Designed to grab attention immediately and give some indication about the essay’s topic • The Transition - Moves the reader from the hook to the driving force of the essay…. • The Thesis - Makes the contract with the reader about what will be discussed without a blatant announcement.
  • 4. Types of Hooks
  • 5. Personal Examples • Provides strong, dramatic incidents to use. Honesty in expressing thoughts and feelings will ring true with the reader. While you can make up the personal experience, be careful that it sounds credible. • Personal observation - different from a personal example, an observation is something you saw happening.
  • 6. Example 1 On Friday, February 19, 2000, life changed for an eighteen-year-old young man. He became very ill from a bacterial infection. His body could not fight the infection. Why? After a week of tests and examinations by several specialists, the diagnosis was made. He had leukemia, a cancer of the bone marrow. I am that young man. When a person finds out that he has cancer, just as I did, his whole world changes. A cancer patient is affected physically, psychologically, and socially by the impact of cancer.
  • 7. Example 2 One morning a young mother had her seven-month old son in his stroller under the peach tree near the family pool. She walked to the kitchen to get a knife so she could peel the peach for him. Ten seconds later, she found him facedown with the stroller at the bottom of the pool. She immediately pulled him out and administered CPR to her son. If she had been gone any longer, he might have been one of the statistics that plague our country every year. These child drownings could be greatly reduced if parents never left their children unattended around water, if pools were properly fenced, and if other safety devices were installed in or by the pool.
  • 8. Using Quotations • Content of quote should be: – – – – Dramatic Emotionally appealing Surprising Humorous • Quote does not have to be from a famous person • Must be relevant to thesis statement
  • 9. Example 1 • “The mind is its own place, and in itself can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven.” This thought by John Milton was recorded over four hundred years ago, but it is still timely for us today. He seems to be saying that we are the ones to control our lives. We can be miserable when things are going well, just as we can be happy when things are going wrong. With this thought in mind, we can control the way we face life through our attitude, our determination, and our ability.
  • 10. Example 2 “I am stupid. I am never going back to school.” These are the words spoken by a learning disabled child when he was in first grade. He cried as he slowly walked to his bedroom, shredding his schoolwork into small pieces. This was the first of many times when he and his parents would feel frustrated because there was nothing that they could do. Parents of children with learning disabilities have often felt unprepared to help their children with their handicaps and frustrated with attempts to seek the proper placement of them in the public-school system. The experience of school can be overwhelming for children who have trouble learning. The learning disabled student in the public educational system must deal with academic, social, and emotional problems.
  • 11. Using Facts or Statistics • Must be startling or unusual • Must be from a credible source • Use journal as a place to record both quotes and facts or statistics that might work for an introduction
  • 12. Example 1 In the desert regions of Arizona, solar homes date back to the pre-Columbian Indians. These people carefully designed their homes in the recesses of south-facing cliffs to receive the warmth of the winter sun. In the summer, shade was provided by overhanging cliffs. Today, as then, the desert-region solar home must be carefully designed to use the sun efficiently in the orientation, the exterior, and the interior.
  • 13. Example 2 According to an article in Family Safety & First Aid, published by Berkley Books, “… every 45 seconds a fire breaks out in an American home – 700,000 residences aflame each year. And 16 times a day somebody dies in one of these burning homes.” These statistics are frightening and should not be taken lightly. The best way to deal with the possibility of loss from fire is to plan ahead before it happens. Otherwise, it is too late. In order not to become one of these statistics, Americans need to equip their homes with safety devices, set and adhere to safety rules, and practice a family escape plan.
  • 14. Using Current Events • Must be recent • Must be important • Should be made public by newspapers, television, or radio
  • 15. Example This morning’s newspaper reported a man who had shot his twenty-three-year-old girlfriend and her ninemonth-old child because he believed his girlfriend had transmitted AIDS to him. In 1984, a nurse in Kokomo, Indiana, refused to go into thirteen-year old Ryan White’s hospital room because he had just been diagnosed with AIDS, and in 1987, a bullet shattered his home’s picture window, forcing Ryan and his family to move to Cicero, Indiana, a community twenty miles south. Though these incidents seem bizarre in civilized America, many people fear AIDS because of the consequences of the disease, the misinformation concerning the disease, and the increasing number of cases of the disease.
  • 16. Using Contrast to the Thesis Statement • In direct contrast to the thesis statement • It’s fun to prove an expert wrong
  • 17. Example Since the middle 1940s, the female Cannabis sativa plant, commonly known as marijuana, has been classified by the United States government as a Schedule I drug. This classification recognizes marijuana as a dangerous narcotic, similar in potency to heroin and possessing no redeeming medicinal qualities. Research in the last few years, however, has brought many new discoveries in medicine relating to the possible uses of marijuana to treat many different illnesses, including glaucoma, cancer, and phantom limb pain suffered by paraplegics and amputees.
  • 18. A Body Paragraph
  • 19. 1 Brainstorm the topic 2 Make it more specific 5 Source cards Write down your topic 3 4 Research 6 Note cards 8 7 MLA citations Outline Copy & paste works cited page to back of research paper 12 14 Thesis sentence Introductory & concluding paragraphs 11 13 Parenthetical citations 9 10 Works cited page Body paragraphs
  • 20. • A body paragraph is the basic paragraph of a research paper or an essay. • Body paragraphs are all the paragraphs between the introductory paragraph and the conclusion. • Body paragraphs support and prove your thesis. • You learned about them in middle school:
  • 21. Introduction Body paragraph #1 Body paragraph #2 Body paragraph #3 Conclusion
  • 22. We’re going to learn how to write an effective body paragraph for a research paper. The body paragraph’s structure may remind you of a certain food. Which of these three is your favorite?
  • 23. The McParagraph logic: Topic sentence Topic sentence Support sentence 1 Support reason 1 Proof sentence 1 Support reason 2 Support sentence 2 Support reason 3 Conclusion The McParagraph sentences: Proof sentence 2 Support sentence 3 Proof sentence 3 Concluding sentence
  • 24. Topic Sentences • Topic sentences state the main idea of the paragraph. • The rest of the paragraph must expand on, describe, or prove what the topic sentence states in some way. • A good topic sentence make a point and suggests the logical structure of the rest of the paragraph. • In handout 1, match each topic sentence with its logical structure.
  • 25. Which are good topic sentences? • Texas has 267,000 square miles. • Texas is so big that you can find many things to do. • There are several ways of accurately telling how old fossils are. • The animal dies and sinks to the sea floor. Do the exercises under “Practice 2” on pages W-27 and W-28 in your notebook.
  • 26. Topic sentence Support sentence 1 Proof sentence 1 Now we’ll look Now we’ll look at support and at support and proof sentences proof sentences Support sentence 2 Proof sentence 2 Support sentence 3 Proof sentence 3 Concluding sentence
  • 27. • A topic sentence is the first sentence in your body paragraph. • A support sentence gives a reason in support of the paragraph’s topic sentence. • A proof sentence proves a support sentence by providing a detail or quotation from a source. • A conclusion (one sentence) refers back to the topic, provides a logical closing, and may provide a transition to the next body paragraph.
  • 28. What makes each sentence in the following body paragraph what it is: a topic, support, proof, or concluding sentence?
  • 29. The political success of Lincoln's speech - the last speech in a series sponsored by the Young Men's Central Republican Union of New York that winter (Holtzer 13) - had something to do with timing and luck. A sizable number of Republican leaders were worried that the front-running candidate, New York Senator William Henry Seward, was perceived by the Northern electorate as too close to the unpopular abolitionist movement (Holtzer 32). “Lincoln’s best ally in the winter of 1860 was his lack of association with the abolitionists in the mind of New Yorkers,” according to Holtzer (32). Republicans were worried also that Seward has little appeal in the West (Illinois, Ohio, etc.) (Burris 126). Burris asserts that “Indiana and Illinois Republicans perceived Seward as an Eastern liberal” (127). Lincoln also benefited from the political machinations of the speech series’s sponsors. The Young Republicans planned the speech series ostensibly to introduce alternative candidates to Seward, but the real motivation of the group's leader, James A. Briggs, was to damage Seward enough to promote his favorite alternative, Ohio governor Salmon P. Chase (Holtzer 34). The Republican party’s soul-searching and the secret motivations of the series sponsors gave Lincoln the opening he needed. Topic Support Proof Support Proof Support Proof
  • 30. In handout 2, cut out the sentences. Then arrange them correctly in the order they would appear in a paragraph. Glue or tape them onto a sheet of colored paper in that order. Finally, label each sentence as being a topic sentence, a support sentence, a proof sentence, or a concluding sentence.
  • 31. A Conclusion Paragraph
  • 32. Conclusion Paragraph • It is important to have a strong conclusion, since this is the last chance you have to make an impression on your reader. • The goal of your conclusion isn’t to introduce any new ideas, but to sum up everything you’ve written. • Specifically, your conclusion should accomplish three major goals:
  • 33. Conclusion Paragraph • Restate the main idea of your essay, or your thesis statement • Summarize the three sub-points of your essay • Leave the reader with an interesting final impression