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Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
Mba ebooks ! Edhole
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Mba ebooks ! Edhole

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Here you will get ebooks

Here you will get ebooks

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  • 1. EDUCATION HOLE PRESENTS PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Unit-IV
  • 2. Presentation Strategies and Listening Skills............................................................................. 2 Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................2 Audience & Local .............................................................................................................................2 Organizing Contents.........................................................................................................................3 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................3 Middle Part ...........................................................................................................................................................3 Audio-visual Aids .............................................................................................................................4 Nuances of Delivery .........................................................................................................................5 Language...............................................................................................................................................................5 Dimensions of Speech ......................................................................................................................5 Pitch ......................................................................................................................................................................6 Intonation........................................................................................................................................6 Paralinguistic ...................................................................................................................................6 Features of voice..............................................................................................................................6 Listening Skills ......................................................................................................................... 7 Active Listening and Passive Listening ..............................................................................................8 Methods for improving Listening Skills.............................................................................................8 Presentation Strategies and Listening Skills Purpose The purpose of presentation is generally to put forward the aims and objectives of any given task. It decides the style, content and targeted audience. It also requires lots of “on-the-spot” thinking skills and in-depth knowledge of the subject. The speaker should be flexible enough to adjust to new input and unexpected audience reactions. Audience & Local Audiences have one thing in common. They are the receivers. They may be your friends, foes, clients, colleagues or unfamiliar faces. The nature of your audience has a direct impact on the strategy you devise for your presentation. Hence it is necessary to have some prior knowledge of the audience, and its level and cultural background so that your presentation can be effective and acceptable.
  • 3. Understanding of audience would help the presenter (speaker) to • Build support • Anticipate problems • Consider Strategies • Tune the approach • Competent delivery of content Moreover speak with confidence and conviction, demand the questions from audience that in turn would make you acceptable. In addition to that you should check the place and the facilities of the auditorium for effective presentation Organizing Contents People vary in their ability to speak confidently in public. When you face an audience you should expect to feel a little nervous. Always prepare more material than required, as this will help you feel confident. Arrange the contents of your presentation into three major parts namely (1) introduction (2) Middle part (3) Conclusions In other words, say what you want to say; say it; then say what you have already said. Introduction Introduction comprises the opening statement, the aim and the objectives of presentation. The beginning can be with a sincere greeting, question, quotation, anecdote, a short story, analogy so as to grab the attention of the audience. A good introduction is a vehicle to lead the audience into the main body of the speech with smooth transition. Middle Part The main body or discussion supports your aim or specific purpose of presentation. The major pointes highlighted in introduction would be expanded here. There are different patterns of organizing the content in the middle part. They are • Chronological • Categorical • Cause and Effect • Problem Solving • Persuasive
  • 4. Speaker can make this part or presentation authentic by providing facts, figures, examples, illustrations, statistics, testimony, analogy or definition. Speaker is always advised to avoid too many points. Devote enough time to each point so that you can convince the audience what you are saying. Preparing Outline Decide what it is you would like to happen as a result of your presentation. The four main goals of any communication are to inform, to request for an action, to persuade, and to build relationship. Decide which of these goals you are planning to achieve. Let your listeners know what you want them to do near the beginning of your talk and again at the end. Present your basic idea and give them an outline of your presentation that would lead you and your audience to the desired result. Audio-visual Aids Spoken words are ephemeral (temporary). But if the presentation has been made using the audio visual aids, it gives lasting effect. Audio visual aids • Increase audience interest • Illustrate key points • Signal transition from one part of the presentation to the next • Help listeners retain information • Help you deliver your speech better The table below gives some hints in careful use of audio-visual aids: Overhead Transparencies • Use larger & simple fonts • Keep the transparencies neat and clean • Show only required information • Do not make it more colorful • Use pointer to draw attention of audience • Understand the operation of OHP • Keep the notes also ready in case power failure Power Point Presentations • Check the multimedia & other devices • Familiarize yourself with transition of slides • Transfer your files to the hard disc • Rehearse your presentation • Keep the printed copy of your presentation in case of failure Blackboard or Whiteboard • Clean the board & check the markers or chalk sticks before writing • Write in legible size of fonts • Stand to the side as you write
  • 5. • Do not face the board while talking to audience • Keep the main points on board, in case required Flip Charts • Use different color markers • Keep the number of pages • Write in large letters • Use only one side of the chart • Wait for the understanding of the audience Nuances of Delivery How you give your talk can be more important than what you say. Whenever possible speak from an outline. If you have a formal written speech to deliver, use a marking system in the text to guide your delivery. Promise to tell the audience how they can get something they want. Outline the agenda – knowing your order increases attention. Never take your audience for granted. People have very short attention span. Not more than 15% of their brain power is required to understand the language and grasp what you mean. Don't let the remaining 85% of their brain to do daydreaming. To keep your audience with you, you must build in new devices – make your message visual, build anticipation, create a conversation cycle, use role-play practices – to keep your listener's mind 100% occupied. The sound of your voice makes a great difference. Practice projecting enthusiasm. People aren't going to be influenced by a lifeless voice. To hear yourself speak, record your voice during a phone conversation or practice your presentation using a tape recorder. Then make necessary changes. Language · Help your audience follow your presentation by using clear transitions between sentences and paragraphs, as well as between major sections. · Limit the body to three or four main points Emphasize your transition by repeating key ideas, using gestures, changing your tone of voice, or introducing a visual aid. Holding Your Audience's Attention · Relate your subject to your audience's needs. · Anticipate your audience's questions · Use clear, vivid language · Explain the relationship between your subject and familiar ideas Dimensions of Speech You will be nervous at the beginning of your presentation. Don't worry most people are nervous.
  • 6. Try not to speak too fast during the first couple of minutes. This is the time you establish your rapport with the audience. Remember your first impressions are very important. You may find it helpful to memorize your introduction. Move during the speech. Some movements hold audience attention. If you're seated, shift position in your chair or gesture a bit more with your arms. Pitch Para-language relates to all aspects of the voice which are not strictly part of the verbal message, including the tone and pitch of the voice, the speed and volume at which a message is delivered, and pauses and hesitations between words. Intonation It is useful to consider memory as a two-step process: storage and retrieval. If you want to remember something, it must be “stored” in your memory. After being introduced to someone, have you ever forgotten the name? When this happens you typically haven't forgotten the name, because you never really “had it." But if you listen carefully (original awareness) and then silently review the name (intention to remember), the name is now stored in your memory so you can remember it later. When you find something worth remembering in your reading or problem-solving practice, stop for a few seconds and review it before you lose it! Paralinguistic Paralinguistics are the aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words. These may add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say. Some definitions limit this to verbal communication that is not words. Example Body language, gestures, facial expressions, tone and pitch of voice are all examples of paralinguistic features. Features of voice The voice is probably the most valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most of the content that the audience takes away. One of the oddities of speech is that we can easily tell others what is wrong with their voice, e.g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc., but we have trouble listening to and changing our own voices. • Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal is to be heard without shouting. Good speakers lower their voice to draw the audience in, and raise it to make a point.
  • 7. • Tone: The characteristics of a sound. An airplane has a different sound than leaves being rustled by the wind. A voice that carries fear can frighten the audience, while a voice that carries laughter can get the audience to smile. • Pitch: How high or low a note is. Pee Wee Herman has a high voice, Barbara Walters has a moderate voice, while James Earl Jones has a low voice. • Pace: This is how long a sound lasts. Talking too fast causes the words and syllables to be short, while talking slowly lengthens them. Varying the pace helps to maintain the audience's interest. • Color: Both projection and tone variance can be practiced by taking the line “This new policy is going to be exciting” and saying it first with surprise, then with irony, then with grief, and finally with anger. The key is to over-act. Remember Shakespeare's words “All the world's a stage” — presentations are the opening night on Broadway! Listening Skills Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. How well you listen has a major impact on your job effectiveness, and on the quality of your relationships with others. • We listen to obtain information. • We listen to understand. • We listen for enjoyment. • We listen to learn. Given all this listening we do, you would think we'd be good at it! In fact most of us are not, and research suggests that we remember between 25 percent and 50 percent of what we hear. That means that when you talk to your boss, colleagues, customers or spouse for 10 minutes, they pay attention to less than half of the conversation. This is dismal! Turn it around and it reveals that when you are receiving directions or being presented with information, you aren't hearing the
  • 8. whole message either. You hope the important parts are captured in your 25-50 percent, but what if they're not? Clearly, listening is a skill that we can all benefit from improving. By becoming a better listener, you will improve your productivity, as well as your ability to influence, persuade and negotiate. What's more, you'll avoid conflict and misunderstandings. All of these are necessary for workplace success! Active Listening and Passive Listening Passive Listening is listening without reacting: • Allowing someone to speak, without interrupting • Not doing anything else at the same time Active listening is reacting or doing something that demonstrates you are listening and have understood. • Giving non-verbal cues to demonstrate you are paying attention (nodding, making eye contact, making facial expressions appropriate to what is being said) • Reflecting back the main points and summarising what has been said Non-verbal cues happen naturally, providing you really are listening. If you concentrate on making the non-verbal cues, then you probably are not listening Methods for improving Listening Skills • stop whatever you were doing • arrange the chairs comfortably, eg: in ten-to-two format • ideally, sit in comfortable/easy chairs • remove any barriers between you - eg: dont sit on the other side of a desk • ensure there will not be any interruptions - close the office door and put your phone on divert • If you anticipate making notes, get the persons permission. Be aware that this may formalise the discussion and thereby restrict the openness of information you may be given. As the person is speaking: • Focus completely on what the person is saying. Dont do any other activity or think about any other topic. • Mentally note the main points they are making, ready for summarising. • Listen not only to the words that are said, but also the tone of voice and body language - eg: if they are nervous, excited, depressed.
  • 9. • If any relevant points occur to you, dont say them immediately - keep them on a separate mental list of your own ideas, for use at an appropriate point. • Dont think about your own ideas so that you end up not listening, or forgetting what the person has said. • Dont interrupt. • Dont ask questions (questions are a push or pull, not active listening).

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