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  • 1. EDUCATION HOLE PRESENTS ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY Unit-IV
  • 2. Environmental Protection through .......................................................................................... 3 Assessment and Education...............................................................................................................3 Indicators and Impact Assessment .......................................................................................................................3 Health Promotion Outcomes................................................................................................................................4 Health literacy ..................................................................................................................................................4 Social influence & action ..................................................................................................................................4 Healthy public policy and organizational practice................................................................................................4 Bio-indicators...................................................................................................................................5 Natural disasters..............................................................................................................................6 Disaster management ......................................................................................................................7 Types of disasters..................................................................................................................................................7 Disaster prevention...............................................................................................................................................8 Disaster preparedness ..........................................................................................................................................8 Disaster relief........................................................................................................................................................8 Disaster recovery ..................................................................................................................................................8 Impact assessment through inventorying and monitoring ................................................................9 Wetland Inventory............................................................................................................................................9 Wetland Assessment........................................................................................................................................9 Wetland Monitoring.........................................................................................................................................9 Environmental Protection........................................................................................................ 9 Role of individuals.......................................................................................................................... 10 Electricity ............................................................................................................................................................10 Pollution................................................................................................................................ 11 Food............................................................................................................................................... 12 Water............................................................................................................................................. 13 Organizations and government in pollution control............................................................... 14 Organizational structure ................................................................................................................ 14 Divisions of CPCB Head Office .................................................................................................... 15 Environmental Protection Law ....................................................................................................... 15 General ...............................................................................................................................................................16 Forest and wildlife ......................................................................................................................... 18 Water..................................................................................................................................................................18 Air.................................................................................................................................................. 19 Conventions and Treaties............................................................................................................... 19 National legislation .............................................................................................................................................19 Text of National legislation .................................................................................................................................20
  • 3. The Checklist for the Legislator...........................................................................................................................20 Model National Legislation.................................................................................................................................20 Issues in the enforcement of environmental legislation......................................................... 21 Inadequately Designed Legal Mandates.............................................................................................................22 Legislation initiatives by non- governmental organizations ............................................................ 22 NGOs and the states.............................................................................................................. 22 Application of the general law............................................................................................................................23 Preferential status ..............................................................................................................................................24 NGOs and IGOs ...................................................................................................................................................25 Global efforts in environmental protection .................................................................................... 26 The Promise of Rio..............................................................................................................................................26 Looking for U.S. Leadership ................................................................................................................................26 Filling the Environmental Policy Gaps.................................................................................................................27 Developing a Binding Framework of Environmental Principles .....................................................................27 Getting the Rules Right Regarding the Climate Regime .................................................................................28 Imposing Liability and Providing Compensation ............................................................................................28 Emphasizing Environmental Restoration........................................................................................................29 Addressing Persistent Chemicals....................................................................................................................29 Water Shortages.............................................................................................................................................29 Consumption Levels .......................................................................................................................................30 Environmental education ...................................................................................................... 30 Women and value education.......................................................................................................... 30 Women, Environment and Development (WED) Debate...................................................................................31 Environmental Protection through Assessment and Education Indicators and Impact Assessment Usually indicators of impact are much easier to come up with because they are about more immediate changes you are seeking. Whereas measuring outcomes refer to large and long term changes. Goals are often written as broad statements of desired change, such as to decrease social isolation in a region, or reduce the incidence of domestic violence. They can also relate to a change in health status, such as reduced mortality, morbidity, or improved well being. Health
  • 4. outcome evalution rarely occurs in small primary health care projects, due to the short term funding, complexity and difficulties of attributing project activities with long term outcomes. See below for more on Impact/Outcome evaluation. Instead most projects focus on evaluting the impact of their project acccording to their objectives. Examples of Impact/outcome indicators : • changes in awareness, knowledge, skills • increases in the number of people reached • policy changes • changes in behaviour • changes in community capacity • changes in organisational capacity (skills, structures, resources) • increases in service usage • improved continuity of care Health Promotion Outcomes These reflect changes to those personal, social and environmental factors which are a means to improving people's control, and thereby changing determinants of health (intermediate outcomes). They also represent the more immediate results of HP activities. Health literacy • improved health knowledge & motivation re lifestyles • improved knowledge, where to go, what to do to get access to services (health & other) • improved skills & confidence Social influence & action • mobilisation of human and material resources to overcome structural barriers • enhanced social support • reinforce social norms conducive to health, eg. improved social connectedness, improved community competency & community empowerment, greater social capital, greater community ownership of program Healthy public policy and organizational practice • Healthier public policy & organisation practices to improve access, social benefits, appropriate housing • Development of policy statements, legislation, regulations
  • 5. • Development of organizational procedures • Management practice • Funding & resource allocation • Institutionalization of HP programs • Improved disease and injury prevention • Reducing risk of ill health • Healthier lifestyles Bio-indicators Biological indicators are species that can be used to monitor the health of an environment or ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present. One example of a group of bioindicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioural) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem. Bioindicators can tell us about the cumulative effects of different pollutants in the ecosystem and about how long a problem may have been present, which physical and chemical testing cannot. A biological monitor, or biomonitor, can be defined as an organism that provides quantitative information on the quality of the environment around it. Therefore, a good biomonitor will indicate the presence of the pollutant and also attempt to provide additional information about the amount and intensity of the exposure. A bioindicator is an organism or biological response that reveals the presence of the pollutants by the occurrence of typical symptoms or measurable responses, and is therefore more qualitative. These organisms (or communities of organisms) deliver information on alterations in the environment or the quantity of environmental pollutants by changing in one of the following ways: physiologically, chemically or behaviourally. The information can be deduced through the study of: 1. their content of certain elements or compounds 2. their morphological or cellular structure 3. metabolic-biochemical processes 4. behaviour, or 5. population structure(s). The importance and relevance of biomonitors, rather than man-made equipment, is justified by the statement: "There is no better indicator of the status of a species or a system than a species or system itself. The use of a biomonitor is described as biological monitoring (abbr. biomonitoring) and is the use of the properties of an organism to obtain information on certain aspects of the biosphere.
  • 6. Biomonitoring of air pollutants can be passive or active. Passive methods observe plants growing naturally within the area of interest. Active methods detect the presence of air pollutants by placing test plants of known response and genotype into the study area. Bioaccumulative indicators are frequently regarded as biomonitors. Natural disasters A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover. An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population.[2][3][4] In a vulnerable area, however, such as San Francisco, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, requiring years to repair. In 2012, there were 905 natural catastrophes worldwide, 93% of which were weather-related disasters. Overall costs were US$170 billion and insured losses $70 billion. 2012 was a moderate year. 45% were meteorological (storms), 36% were hydrological (floods),12% were climatological (heat waves, cold waves, droughts, wildfires) and 7 % were geophysical events (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions). Between 1980 and 2011 geophysical events accounted for 14% of all natural catastrophes. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and planning. Some of the most significant earthquakes in recent times include: • The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the third largest earthquake recorded in history, registering a moment magnitude of 9.1-9.3. The huge tsunamis triggered by this earthquake killed at least 229,000 people. • The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami registered a moment magnitude of 9.0. The death toll from the earthquake and tsunami is over 13,000, and over 12,000 people are still missing. • The 8.8 magnitude February 27, 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami cost 525 lives.
  • 7. • The 7.9 magnitude May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Sichuan Province, China. Death toll at over 61,150 as of May 27, 2008. • The 7.7 magnitude July 2006 Java earthquake, which also triggered tsunamis. • The 6.9 magnitude 2005 Azad Jammu & Kashmir and KPK province Earthquake, which killed or injured above 75,000 people in Pakistan. Disaster management The United Nations defines a disaster as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. Disasters involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. The Red Cross and Red Crescent societies define disaster management as the organisation and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. Types of disasters There is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. There are four main types of disaster. • Natural disasters: including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis. • Environmental emergencies: including technological or industrial accidents, usually involving the production, use or transportation of hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported, and forest fires caused by humans. • Complex emergencies: involving a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations, including conflict situations and war. • Pandemic emergencies: involving a sudden onset of contagious disease that affects health, disrupts services and businesses, brings economic and social costs. Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as health care, electricity, water, sewage/garbage removal, transportation and communications. The interruption can seriously affect the health, social and economic networks of local communities and countries. Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on people long after the immediate effect has been mitigated. Poorly planned relief activities can have a significant negative impact not only on the disaster victims but also on donors and relief agencies. So it is important that physical therapists join established programmes rather than attempting individual efforts.
  • 8. Local, regional, national and international organisations are all involved in mounting a humanitarian response to disasters. Each will have a prepared disaster management plan. These plans cover prevention, preparedness, relief and recovery. Disaster prevention These are activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards. In January 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework. It offers guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical means for achieving disaster resilience for vulnerable communities. Disaster preparedness These activities are designed to minimise loss of life and damage – for example by removing people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation. Preparedness is the main way of reducing the impact of disasters. Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy practice management. Disaster relief This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing temporary shelter and emergency health care. Disaster recovery Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the communities that support them are still vulnerable. Recovery activities include rebuilding infrastructure, health care and rehabilitation. These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future. Disaster management is linked with sustainable development, particularly in relation to vulnerable people such as those with disabilities, elderly people, children and other marginalised groups. Health Volunteers Overseas publications address some of the common misunderstandings about disaster management.
  • 9. Impact assessment through inventorying and monitoring Wetland Inventory: the collection and/or collation of core information for wetland management, including the provision of information base for specific assessment and monitoring activities. Wetland Assessment: the identification of the status of, and threats to, wetlands as a basis for the collection of more specific information through monitoring activities. Wetland Monitoring: the collection of specific information for management purposes in response to hypotheses derived from assessment activities, and the use of these monitoring results for implementing management. The collection of time-series information that is not hypothesis-driven from wetland assessment is here termed surveillance rather than monitoring (refer to Resolution VI.1). 18. The approach and the scope of activity for inventory, assessment and monitoring as separate components of the management process differ substantially, but these are not always well distinguished in implementation projects. 19. Importantly, wetland inventory and wetland monitoring require different types of information. Whilst wetland inventory provides the basis for guiding the development of appropriate assessment and monitoring, wetland inventories repeated at given time intervals do not in themselves constitute monitoring. 20. Essentially, wetland (baseline) inventory is used to collect information to describe the ecological character of wetlands; assessment considers the pressures and associated risks of adverse change in ecological character; and monitoring, which can include both survey and surveillance, provides information on the extent of any change. All three are important and interactive data gathering exercises. They should be considered as linked elements of this overall integrated framework which, when implemented, provides for identification of key features of the character of wetlands. Taken together, they provide the information needed for establishing strategies, policies and management interventions to maintain the defined wetland ecosystem character and hence ecosystem benefits/services. Environmental Protection Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun
  • 10. placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is no agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized. Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, that teach the history and methods of environment protection. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human activities. Waste production, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity (resulting from the introduction of invasive species and species extinction) are some of the issues related to environmental protection. Role of individuals Electricity Energy is everywhere. We use energy to move the mouse for a computer, to jump and shout and walk and run. It takes energy to power a light bulb, and the light that the bulb gives off is also a form of energy called radiant energy. Radiant energy from the sun enables vegetables, plants, trees and us to live and grow! Other forms of energy include heat, chemical energy, kinetic (motion) energy, gravitational energy and nuclear power. Electricity is a form of energy and this is what powers the TV, the kettle, dishwasher, hairdryer, toaster, remote control, mobile phone, fridge, stereo, electric toothbrush, mp3 player and more! Detectives - Can you guess how many things need electricity in your house? Take a guess, then go on a detective mission and write down all the things you find. Set up a competition in your family and see who's guess is the closest! Our growing need for energy is one of the problems facing the world today, because producing electricity also produces our next topic - pollution. We also have some cool downloads, here’s two - Energy and Alternative Energy. How to help When you’re using electricity think about where it comes from and how you can use less to take the strain off of the environment - here are some simple ways to make a big difference: • On or Off? Leaving televisions, stereos and computers on standby with the little red light showing still uses up electricity, even though they might look like they're turned off. To stop this you can turn them off at the wall. Simple! • Lights out! Turning lights off when you're not in the room (make sure no-one else is too!) can save a lot of energy. • Putting the kettle on Britons drink an amazing 60.2 billion cups of tea a day according to The Tea Council. That's a lot of tea, and a lot of electricity too! That's why it's important
  • 11. to only boil as much water as you need in your kettle. It's best to boil enough water for one cup, not three or five - plus you won't have to wait as long, which is a bonus! • Brrrr The fridge is an important part of the kitchen, it keeps food fresh, cool and healthy! But it takes a lot of energy to keep cool, so help it by not leaving the fridge door open or putting hot things inside. • Shopping Many products are now helping you to reduce your energy use and your parents’ energy bills! Check new products for their efficiency grade and rating and keep an eye out for the Energy Efficiency Recommended logo. • Harness the sun’s energy - An increasing number of people are fitting solar panels to their houses. Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels create electricity from sunlight, which can then be used to power their homes. Solar heating panels make hot water, reducing the need for electricity or gas to heat water or run the central heating system. Pollution Pollution is caused when harmful or poisonous substances are released or found in the air, rivers, seas, animals, plants or even our bodies. Now, we live on a strong planet with robust plants and hardy animals and humans - but there’s only so much we can take. Unless we are using renewable energy sources such as solar panels or wind turbines, producing the electricity that powers our homes and gadgets causes pollution. Some of the petrol or diesel that we put into our cars turns into pollution, which is contained in exhaust fumes. Diesel fumes contain particulates - a fine dust, which is not good for asthmatics, for example. “What about cow farts?” I hear you ask. Actually, I didn’t hear and you probably weren’t asking that but yep, that’s right - we can’t leave out the massive impact of farming. The livestock we rear for meat emit more greenhouse gas than all the world’s transport! The greenhouse gas that livestock produce is called methane. Methane, together with other greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide contribute to global warming by acting like a blanket surrounding the whole planet, trapping the sun’s heat within the atmosphere and causing global temperatures to rise. Chemical waste from factories and sewage works can also cause pollution that can get into our rivers and seas, which soon carry the harmful particles for miles. Litter is considered pollution as it can cause harm to wildlife and disrupt rivers, streams, seas and other habitats. Harmful chemicals can also be found in many household and garden items, from plastics to cleaning products, weedkillers and sprays. How to help: • Don’t drop litter Birds and animals can mistake litter for food. Litter can end up in rivers and block drains, or in the sea and be eaten by fish. Also, some litter will stay around for thousands of years!
  • 12. • Save it! All of the electricity saving tips in the above section will also help reduce pollution. • On your bike Instead of taking the car get your bicycle out or take the ‘shoelace express’ - also known as walking. • Pleasing products Many household cleaning products contain harmful chemicals which are washed down the drain. Encourage your parents to buy eco-friendly products or even make your own from natural substances like vinegar and lemon juice. • Detectives If you spot pollution, such as oil on the beach, report it to the local council. If you suspect a stream is polluted, report it to the Environment Agency. Food We can’t live without it! With more than 7 billion people on earth the demand for food has never been bigger. In the UK alone we spend about £182 billion pounds a year keeping fed and watered. That’s a lot of food! The first question is - where is all this food coming from? Our food comes from all over the world - your green beans might come from Egypt, coffee maybe from Africa, perhaps your bananas have travelled from Ecuador and apples flew across the Pacific Ocean from New Zealand. All of these ‘food miles’ amounts to a lot of transport and transport means fuel and fuel means pollution. What else does food need to grow? Water and good soil! Plants and trees that give us fruit need to eat too you know. Some countries and farms add pesticides and insecticides to food to keep away pests and insects. These chemicals can sometimes be harmful to wildlife and their habitats and sometimes to humans too. Look at ‘How to help’ to find out more. Here in the west we eat 7 times more than people in poorer countries. And one thing we eat a lot of is meat and dairy food. What do these foods have in common? Meat and dairy food both come from animals, and animals also need food and water. And as we saw above, they also fart a lot! Livestock farts produce a greenhouse gas called methane and all this amounts to 20% of the world’s climate-changing gases. Phwoar! A suggested alternative to meat is insects - Insect Burger anyone? How to Help: • Reduce your mileage eating food and drinking drinks produced in the UK reduces the carbon footprint of your diet. This means that you are helping to reduce pollution! Look at the for little red tractor on products in your supermarket. • Meat Free Mondays are an easy and effective way to cut down on meat. Make one or even two of your days meat-free.
  • 13. • Eat organic organic foods have had no insecticides and pesticides added to them which makes them that bit more natural and healthy. Eating organic food reduces how many chemicals are made and spread across the countryside. • Get worms! Food waste is an important issue as 7 billion of us munch our way through millions of tonnes of food. Give your leftovers to worms in your very own wormery and they’ll turn it into rich and healthy compost for your vegetable garden and flowers! • Washing Always wash your hands before eating to prevent the spread of invisible bad stuff like bacteria and chemicals. It’s also good to wash fruit and vegetables before eating or cooking. Water Turn on the tap and there it is. Getting water is so easy that you’d be mistaken for thinking that there was an endless supply. But the world has a water shortage. 70% of the world is covered in water - we should call our planet ‘ocean’ not ‘earth’! But most of this water is salt water, leaving only a small percentage of fresh drinking water. Countries including Spain, Italy, Peru, China and South Africa actually import water from exporting countries such as the US, Australia and Argentina. A staggering 1.1 billion people on earth have no access to clean drinking water. This global shortage is predicted to get worse as global temperatures rise. Every person in the UK uses about 150 litres of water a day - compare this to some countries where they only have 5-10 litres! Poor countries would be shocked to hear that we use drinking water to flush our toilets. There are many simple ways that we cam reduce our water use. Let’s have a look at how you can help: How to help: • Get your teeth into it We brush our teeth twice a day and by turning the tap off while we brush we can save 5-10 litres of water. If every adult in the UK did this then we’d save enough water for 500,000 homes. So, kids - let’s show them how it’s done! • Bottle in your loo What? Put a bottle in your loo? That’s right. If it will fit, fill up a lemonade or cola bottle with water and pop it into your loo’s water tank. Then when you flush and the water fills back up you’ll save a bottle’s worth every time. • Rain Gain Collecting rainwater in a water butt in your garden is a great way of collecting and reusing the water to keep plants healthy in the summer. • Reuse Share bath water with your family to reduce costs and water use. Or, set yourself a challenge to cut down your shower time by 1 or 2 minutes.
  • 14. Organizations and government in pollution control Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). It was established in 1974 under Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. It Co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and resolve disputes among them. It is an apex organization in country in the field of pollution control, as technical wing of MoEF. The board is led by its chairman, who is nominated by the Central Government. The current acting chairman is Susheel Kumar. CPCB has its head office in New Delhi, with seven zonal offices and 5 laboratories. The board conducts environmental assessment and research. It is responsible for maintain national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with zonal offices, tribal, and local governments. It has monitoring the water and air quality and maintains respective quality data. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. It advise the central government to prevent and control water and air pollution. It also advise the Governments of Union Territories about an industry or the pollution source causing water and air pollution. CPCB along with its counterparts State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) are responsible for implementation of legislations relating to prevention and control of environmental pollution. The board has approximately 500 full-time employees including engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists. Organizational structure Organizational structure of CPCB CPCB is led by its Chairman following by the Member Secretary. The CPCB performs its various functions through the following nine major project budget heads. • Pollution assessment (survey and monitoring). • R&D and laboratory management.
  • 15. • Development of standards and guidelines for industry specific emissions and effluents standards • Training • Information database management and library • Pollution control technology • Pollution control enforcement • Mass awareness and publications • Hazard waste management[28] Divisions of CPCB Head Office CPCB head office is currently divided into 22 divisions. Each division have its own in charge and individual sets of goals. • Pollution Control Planning Division (PCP). • Pollution, Assessment, Monitoring & Survey (PAMS). • Pollution Control Implementation Division -I (PCI-I). • Pollution Control Implementation Division-II (PCI-II). • Pollution Control Implementation Division - III (PCI-III). • Urban Pollution Control Division (UPCD). • Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWMD). • Environmental Surveillance Squad Division (ESS). • Information Technology. • Infrastructure Division (IFD). • Environmental Training Unit (ETU). • LEGAL CELL. • PR SECTION. • AS SECTION. • BUILDING SECTION. • LIBRARY. • HINDI SECTION. • ADMINISTRATION (RECRUITMENT). • PCI (SSI). • ADMINISTRATION (PERSONNEL). • MATERIAL. • Accounts. Environmental Protection Law In the Constitution of India it is clearly stated that it is the duty of the state to ‘protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country’. It imposes a
  • 16. duty on every citizen ‘to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife’. Reference to the environment has also been made in the Directive Principles of State Policy as well as the Fundamental Rights. The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country. This later became the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985. The constitutional provisions are backed by a number of laws – acts, rules, and notifications. The EPA (Environment Protection Act), 1986 came into force soon after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and is considered an umbrella legislation as it fills many gaps in the existing laws. Thereafter a large number of laws came into existence as the problems began arising, for example, Handling and Management of Hazardous Waste Rules in 1989. Following is a list of the environmental legislations that have come into effect: General Forest and wildlife Water Air General 1986 - The Environment (Protection) Act authorizes the central government to protect and improve environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources, and prohibit or restrict the setting and /or operation of any industrial facility on environmental grounds. 1986 - The Environment (Protection) Rules lay down procedures for setting standards of emission or discharge of environmental pollutants. 1989 - The objective of Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules is to control the generation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling of hazardous waste. 1989 - The Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Rules define the terms used in this context, and sets up an authority to inspect, once a year, the industrial activity connected with hazardous chemicals and isolated storage facilities. 1989 - The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export, and Storage of hazardous Micro-organisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules were introduced with a view to protect the environment, nature, and health, in connection with the application of gene technology and microorganisms.
  • 17. 1991 - The Public Liability Insurance Act and Rules and Amendment, 1992 was drawn up to provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by accident while handling any hazardous substance. 1995 - The National Environmental Tribunal Act has been created to award compensation for damages to persons, property, and the environment arising from any activity involving hazardous substances. 1997 - The National Environment Appellate Authority Act has been created to hear appeals with respect to restrictions of areas in which classes of industries etc. are carried out or prescribed subject to certain safeguards under the EPA. 1998 - The Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules is a legal binding on the health care institutions to streamline the process of proper handling of hospital waste such as segregation, disposal, collection, and treatment. 1999 - The Environment (Siting for Industrial Projects) Rules, 1999 lay down detailed provisions relating to areas to be avoided for siting of industries, precautionary measures to be taken for site selecting as also the aspects of environmental protection which should have been incorporated during the implementation of the industrial development projects. 2000 - The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 apply to every municipal authority responsible for the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing, and disposal of municipal solid wastes. 2000 - The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules have been laid down for the regulation of production and consumption of ozone depleting substances. 2001 - The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 rules shall apply to every manufacturer, importer, re-conditioner, assembler, dealer, auctioneer, consumer, and bulk consumer involved in the manufacture, processing, sale, purchase, and use of batteries or components so as to regulate and ensure the environmentally safe disposal of used batteries. 2002 - The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) (Amendment) Rules lay down such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution, permit use of loud speakers or public address systems during night hours (between 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight) on or during any cultural or religious festive occasion 2002 - The Biological Diversity Act is an act to provide for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources and knowledge associated with it
  • 18. Forest and wildlife 1927 - The Indian Forest Act and Amendment, 1984, is one of the many surviving colonial statutes. It was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce, and the duty leviable on timber and other forest produce’. 1972 - The Wildlife Protection Act, Rules 1973 and Amendment 1991 provides for the protection of birds and animals and for all matters that are connected to it whether it be their habitat or the waterhole or the forests that sustain them. 1980 - The Forest (Conservation) Act and Rules, 1981, provides for the protection of and the conservation of the forests. Water 1882 - The Easement Act allows private rights to use a resource that is, groundwater, by viewing it as an attachment to the land. It also states that all surface water belongs to the state and is a state property. 1897 - The Indian Fisheries Act establishes two sets of penal offences whereby the government can sue any person who uses dynamite or other explosive substance in any way (whether coastal or inland) with intent to catch or destroy any fish or poisonous fish in order to kill. 1956 - The River Boards Act enables the states to enroll the central government in setting up an Advisory River Board to resolve issues in inter-state cooperation. 1970 - The Merchant Shipping Act aims to deal with waste arising from ships along the coastal areas within a specified radius. 1974 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act establishes an institutional structure for preventing and abating water pollution. It establishes standards for water quality and effluent. Polluting industries must seek permission to discharge waste into effluent bodies. The CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) was constituted under this act. 1977 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act provides for the levy and collection of cess or fees on water consuming industries and local authorities.
  • 19. 1978 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules contains the standard definitions and indicate the kind of and location of meters that every consumer of water is required to affix. 1991 - The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification puts regulations on various activities, including construction, are regulated. It gives some protection to the backwaters and estuaries. Air 1948 – The Factories Act and Amendment in 1987 was the first to express concern for the working environment of the workers. The amendment of 1987 has sharpened its environmental focus and expanded its application to hazardous processes. 1981 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act provides for the control and abatement of air pollution. It entrusts the power of enforcing this act to the CPCB . 1982 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules defines the procedures of the meetings of the Boards and the powers entrusted to them. 1982 - The Atomic Energy Act deals with the radioactive waste. 1987 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act empowers the central and state pollution control boards to meet with grave emergencies of air pollution. 1988 - The Motor Vehicles Act states that all hazardous waste is to be properly packaged, labelled, and transported. Conventions and Treaties National legislation This section contains information relating to national legislation and other regulatory measures adopted by Parties and are intended to assist Parties and others to implement the provisions of the Basel Convention. Recognizing the importance of national legal and administrative instruments for the effective implementation of the Basel Convention, Article 4(4) of the Convention provides that: "Each Party shall take appropriate legal, administrative and other measures to implement and enforce the provisions of this Convention, including measures to prevent and punish conduct in contravention of the Convention". The Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting in addition
  • 20. urges Parties to promulgate, update or develop stringent legislation on the control of trans boundary movement of hazardous wastes and to incorporate in their legislation, appropriate sanctions or penalties for illegal traffic in hazardous wastes. Text of National legislation The texts of national legislation included on this site have been supplied by the Parties to the Secretariat. Some of the texts are available only in the national language of the country concerned and are not translated into one of the official UN languages. It is also noted that this section of the site does not purport to contain a complete set of the national legislation adopted by all the Parties to implement the Convention. As texts are received, they shall be added to the collection on this site. The Checklist for the Legislator The Checklist for the Legislator (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish) has been prepared by the Secretariat of the Basel Convention in cooperation with the Committee for Administering the Mechanism for Promoting Implementation and Compliance (the Compliance Committee) as a complement to the Model National Legislation. The checklist is aimed at the legislator who will be drafting the national implementing legislation and seeks to identify the most fundamental matters that should be addressed in national implementing legislation, taking into account that such legislation may be combined with national legislation to implement the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. It should be noted that this checklist does not address all matters that a legislator could choose to address in national implementing legislation and that the Secretariat and the Compliance Committee welcome all comments from Parties to further elaborate and update the list. Model National Legislation The Model National Legislation (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish) was developed by the Legal Working Group on the basis of existing national legislation and institutional arrangements in various countries. It is designed to assist Parties in developing and/or up-dating their national legislation and institutional arrangements to ensure the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and their disposal and to facilitate and ensure the compliance of Contracting Parties with the provisions of the Convention
  • 21. Issues in the enforcement of environmental legislation  Most governments want to be regarded as responsible members of the "community of nations" and their ability to influence the choices of other states may turn on achieving this perception. Participation in environmental lawmaking efforts could be deemed of significant importance by governments even if the results of participation, whatever agreements and laws are negotiated, are not considered especially relevant.  For many developing countries, participation in international environmental proceedings on a relatively equal footing with more powerful states offers an opportunity to reinforce their sense of national identity and importance. This participation may also enable them, often acting in concert with other developing nations, to pursue specific national interests as they perceive them.  Foreign aid from developed nations and economic or technical assistance from multilateral institutions may often depend on developing states maintaining the appearance of adequate environmental protection laws. The World Bank, for example, requires applicants to demonstrate through a document-submission process that the governments possess an appropriate legal framework to mandate environmental impact assessments and mitigate ecological damage from development projects.  Developing nations may also need to ratify IEL agreements and enact environmental laws as a precondition for obtaining trade advantages offered by wealthy countries influenced by environmental concerns. An example of this inducement is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in which the primary motivation of all three nations was to increase trade and economic growth. However, environmentalists in the U.S. and Canada threatened to derail NAFTA negotiations unless Mexico upgraded its environmental protection laws. In response, Mexico did adopt strong pollution control and conservation laws on paper, but legal implementation has been predictably erratic if not wholly illusory.  Adoption of IEL treaties and national conservation laws may defuse adverse publicity and controversy that could deter potential investments and tourism in the state. For example, environmentalists have often publicized the high deforestation rate in the Malaysian State of Sarawak on Borneo, which conflicts with the Sarawak government's attempt to attract tourism by emphasizing that it still possesses among the largest and most pristine rainforest areas in the world. Whether a government wants favorable treatment from other governments, multilateral organizations, or private parties, the adoption of paper laws offers a visible indication that the environmental objectives of the other actors are being taken seriously.  Environmental lawmaking may help deflect internal political criticisms as well as external pressures from the international community. Lawmaking without major investments in implementation and compliance may, from a government's perspective, defuse media scrutiny and public aspirations for environmental protection in a way that
  • 22. does not jeopardize economic development. In this sense, the creation of illusory conservation obligations may function as a high-pressure steam relief valve on a boiler, mollifying environmentalists without the need to impose severe regulatory burdens on entrepreneurial activities. In short, governments may achieve "the best of both worlds" from a political perspective by enacting strict conservation laws to placate environmentalists but then not implementing or enforcing those laws to reduce administrative costs and to accommodate pressures from business interests. The point to keep in mind is that governments in developing states may derive a range of benefits from adoption of conservation laws that have little connection with the ecological and social benefits from genuine environmental protection. And most other governments almost never make serious attempts to h these states to their self-assumed legal obligations. Inadequately Designed Legal Mandates Most international environmental laws and national laws in developing states have been poorly conceived--they are overly general, deliberately ambiguous, often self- contradictory, excessively lenient, lacking real teeth--but even thoughtful environmental laws responsive to the specific ecological and social conditions in each country can seldom serve as the foundation for successful conservation in most nations. Aspirations for economic growth and inappropriate, or no-longer- appropriate, resource exploitation traditions are the main causes of ecological destruction, and effective remedies must function in these same domains. In other words, effective conservation strategies must respond directly to the economic circumstances and human motivations underlying specific environmental hazards. Legal mandates cannot provide satisfactory replacements for economic and social measures that would address the root causes of ecological harm. Legislation initiatives by non- governmental organizations The major international non-governmental organizations in the disability field were, from the very beginning, actively involved in the elaboration of the Standard Rules. Even though some parts of the Rules were agreed upon through compromise, it is important to note that the international non-governmental organizations fully supported the adoption of the Rules. NGOs and the states Under present public international law only states are able to occupy and administer the inhabitable parts of the earth's surface. Thus intergovernmental organisations are obliged, if they wish to occupy a given point on the globe, to make "headquarters agreements" with the
  • 23. government on whose territory they have chosen to settle. As they have no territorial basis NGOs are bound, in order to function, to take refuge in the territory of one of some 160 states which control the earth's surface. As a result they are subject to the regulations andjurisdiction of the authorities which agree to have them. A major contradiction at once emerges between an NGO's international vocation, which is its raison d'être, and the national legal status in which it is confined. It would require a huge inventory and encyclopaedic knowledge to describe and compare the various kinds of legislation which the 160 countries of the world apply to NGOs. Even on the assumption that a great many countries give little attention to the question of associations and bestow their favours above all on "private" organisations whose real purpose is to mould and indoctrinate the population according to the instructions of the powers-that-be, the list of states in which the problem of the status of NGOs truly arises is too lengthy to allow of systematic comparison, especially in a short report of this kind. A typology will help here. In practice there are only three possible solutions to the problem of the national status of NGOs: The discrimatory system whereby the establishment and operation of NGOs is made subject to conditions more restrictive than those applied to national associations. Until 1981 this was the French solution since, under the terms of a decree of 1939 (issued in the climate of growing peril in Europe), associations deemed to be "foreign" on account of the composition of their governing bodies, could not be created without prior authorisation and could be dissolved by a simple administrative decision. However, this retrograde, vexatious legislation was applied in a liberal manner. The best proof is the fact that France has always been, and still is the country with the highest number of NGO headquarters. This remark is not intended to justify the situation but it does show -and it would be quite wrong of us to forget this fact here or elsewhere - that there can often be a wide gap between law and reality. Application of the general law This is the system whereby NGOs are purely and simply assimilated in status to national associations as regards both the conditions of formation and dissolution and the rules under which they operate. This is, in my experience, the situation in countries with a liberal tradition; it is the situation now in France since the Act of 9 October 1981 repealed the legislative Decree of 1939. Thus an NGO may now be created and form an association on French territory simply by means of a "declaration published in the Official Gazette (Journal Officiel)". Once declared the NGO enjoys the same rights as any other association set up in France by French nationals. Abolition of the discriminatory system does, quite clearly, constitute progress. But is does not solve the problems facing NGOs - far from it. Although based on liberal principles, French legislation on associations contains a whole series of restrictions which turn NGOs into second- class legal entities in comparison with commercial companies or trade unions. The same is true in most countries. Thus the principle of assimilationsubjects the NGOs to the same restrictions as all the national associations with which their lot is bound up.
  • 24. ut the most serious drawback to this arrangement is that it does not meet the specific requirements of NGOs which have to do, essentially, with their relations with individual members or sections beyond the frontiers. For example the introduction of rigorous exchange control has no effect on the running of a French anglers association but can paralyse the financing and thus the activities of an international NGO. Preferential status This is the system set up in the well known Belgian Act of 25 October 1919 which still serves as a reference point in this question (see Appendix 6). With the aim of encouraging the establishment of NGOs in Belgium territory the Act recognises them as corporations even when they are composed of non-Belgian nationals, provided that one of their directors is a Belgian national. Its provisions are more flexible than those of French legislation concerning property rights and donations. But nonetheless prior authorisation is required and fairly strict requirements are imposed concerning the drafting of the statutes. In fact the most audacious provision of Belgian legislation concerns recognised rights in Belgian territory, of international associations with headquarters in another country (2). This measure which has no parallel in other legislations, has the advantage of conferring rights on an extraterritorial private entity. If a similar measure were adopted by the legislation of other countries it would effectively solve many problems and open the way to multilateral "transnationality", without there being any need to introduce an international status worked out by all the governments. But the fact is that the Belgian example has not been followed and it seems unlikely that it will be in the near future (3). The unilateral granting of preferential status, even if combined with facilities to NGOs established in other countries, solves only part of the problem of the functioning of NGOs. In the most developed version (the Belgian Act) national legislation can go so far as to recognise, within the national territory, the validity of activities whose origin is outside their frontiers but it cannot and will never be able, without the consent of foreign states, to control those same activities beyond the limits of national territory. But the problem raised by the existence and functioning of NGOs is precisely how to escape the constraints of the legislation of the host state and how to find in one form or another the legal means of gaining recognition and respect for the specific nature of their activities. Unless we can hope for a sudden unanimous conversion of all states thoughout the world to the position adopted by Article 8 of the Belgian Act recourse to national legislation will remain ineffective. The hypothesis of a sudden conversion of that kind is the more improbable as apart from the major obstacle of territorial sovereignty, account must be takenof the factors of state interest, public order and the defence of economic interests. It is these considerations which also explain, as we
  • 25. shall see below, the reticence of governments with regard to the preparation of an international status for NGOs. NGOs and IGOs The granting of "consultative status" to a great many NGOs by the UN, its specialised institutions and several regional organisations, obviously constitutes considerable progress as compared to the situation at the time of the League of Nations. Although commentaries on the question are too often not supported by statistics and factual research defining the extent of the phenomena, there is little doubt that the consultation machinery and, especially, practical co- operation in the field have resulted in an unprecedented dialogue between governments acting collectively and vast sectors representing numerous currents of opinion throughout the world. But while we many take note of this progress we can still cast a critical eye on the limits of the evolution that has been taking place around us over the last 36 years or more. a. "Consultative status" is at present granted only to a minority of NGOs (approximately 600 of the 4,000 listed by the UAI). The majority are thus excluded and cannot enjoy the advantages of this status. b. The term "consultative status" is ambiguous, to say the least. It simply governs relationships between a given IGO and a given NGO and does not confer any right on an NGO capable of being exercised before any other national or international authority. The fact of belonging to that category of privileged bodies does provide a kind of badge of respectability and leaders of NGOs are jealously devoted to the granting and maintaining of such status, but access to consultation has only limited effects and under no circumstances can it amount to legal status in the full meaning of the term. c. The three levels of consultation which have been introduced in most IGOs establish a new form of discrimination among NGOs. In fact most of them are confined to a role of recipient of information from the IGO and are legally powerless to take any effective part in consultation. d. "Consultative status" is "granted" at the discretion of IGOs and may be withdrawn on the same basis. We may refer here to incidents that occurred in the Economic and Social Council at the end of the 60s or in UNESCO in the 70s in order to show the tendency of IGOs to demand a sort of ideological conformity on the part of their "consultants". Insofar as the question involved is observance of the statutes of the IGO, conformity may be a legitimate requirement; but this is less the case when it isimposed, in individual cases, by temporary majorities in connection with political disputes between member states. If tendencies of this sort were to predominate in future the very basis of co- operation between NGOs and IGOs would be threatened and NGOs would be simply left with a choice between withdrawal from the consultative system or complicity in manoeuvres in contradiction with their own aims.
  • 26. e. For these various reasons the "consultative status" offered and controlled by IGOs cannot give NGOs the protection or guarantees they need in order to carry out, in complete independence, the functions which they have assumed. Global efforts in environmental protection The Promise of Rio The 1992 Rio Earth Summit was heralded as the turning point for global environmental policy. More than one hundred countries came to the Rio summit, which sought to merge two critical international concerns—environmental protection and economic development—that had been evolving on different tracks during the 1970s and 1980s. For developing countries, the merger of environment and development was a major improvement over earlier environmental conferences and provided hope for increased North-South cooperation. In addition, the cold war had recently ended, and the rise of a one-superpower world meant that East-West conflicts would not dominate this conference, as they had earlier international environmental efforts. On paper, at least, the Earth Summit did provide a potential vision for moving toward sustainable development—that is, toward both greater environmental protection and greater economic justice. The Earth Summit yielded two legally binding treaties: the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Also a product of the Summit were a set of nonbinding general principles known as the Rio Declaration, a set of nonbinding principles on forest management, and the blueprint for sustainable development entitled Agenda 21. The assembled governments also established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) to integrate environment and development into the UN system while providing a forum to monitor the implementation of summit commitments. Looking for U.S. Leadership More than any other country, the United States is responsible for the existing gulf between Rio’s rhetoric of international environmental consciousness and the post-Rio environmental reality. Not only is the U.S. the world’s only remaining economic and political superpower, it’s also the largest polluter and the largest user of most important resources. Although the United States is often in the vanguard in recognizing global environmental threats and in calling for a multilateral response, it often lags in changing its own behavior. Once considered the leader in environmental regulation, the United States now lags well behind Germany and other European countries in adopting new and innovative regulatory approaches such as ecological taxes, extended product responsibility, and the precautionary principle on avoiding probable environmental damage.
  • 27. Although a leader in previous environmental conferences and negotiations, the United States (under then-President George Bush) almost single-handedly undermined the Earth Summit. Just days before the Rio summit opened, for example, the United States announced that it would not sign the Biodiversity Convention, despite provisionally adopting the draft version at the end of the negotiation session two weeks before. Instead, the United States emphasized the need to conserve the world’s forests and offered what was considered a small, $150-million aid package to protect forests in developing countries. Southern leaders immediately labeled this gesture as “greenwash,” viewing U.S. support for forest conservation as a cynical effort to shift the focus from the North’s responsibility to control industrial pollution to the South’s responsibility to conserve forests as carbon sinks. Malaysia’s Ambassador Ranji Sathia responded, “The [$150 million] does not impress us. They are just trying to divert attention from their failing elsewhere—for example, in the watering down of the climate change convention and their refusal to sign the biodiversity treaty.” Filling the Environmental Policy Gaps Despite the many environmental regimes and action plans negotiated in the past quarter century, important gaps still exist in the international environmental policy framework. The framework has not developed in any systematic or strategic way. Rather it is a collection of numerous treaties, each addressing relatively discrete global or regional environmental issues. Superimposed over these binding treaties are a set of broader, nonbinding declarations or resolutions, such as the Stockholm and Rio declarations. No binding set of general environmental principles currently exists. Moreover, some new or particularly complicated environmental issues still await international attention, compounding the policy gaps. Developing a Binding Framework of Environmental Principles- The lack of an overarching binding framework has many implications for the future effectiveness of international environmental policies. In trade and environment disputes, for example, environmental concerns are at a disadvantage, because the set of rules for international environmental protection is not as clear as the WTO’s trade rules. Binding environmental principles could help to achieve more balanced integration between environmental protection and other social goals like trade. Such principles could also provide a substantive basis for coordinating the activities of the many international institutions that currently claim a role in environmental policy. Finally, binding principles could help in establishing minimum environmental standards—both for private sector activities and for governments—by assisting in the harmonization of domestic environmental laws. Despite the potential importance of binding principles, the United States has consistently opposed the development of any general environmental covenant. It argues that any covenant negotiated today would not sufficiently protect the global environment, because developing countries would defend their sovereign right to develop. The negotiation of a binding covenant
  • 28. may indeed magnify the overall influence of developing countries, because they do not generally have the financial and human resources to participate effectively in the contemporaneous negotiations of many separate environmental treaties and instruments. In fact, it may be exactly those fears of negotiating on a level playing field that drives U.S. opposition to a covenant rather than a fear that the resulting principles would be too weak. Instead of pursuing a binding covenant, the United States seems intent on weakening some of the key proposed principles. For example, the United States is one of the few remaining countries still opposing the precautionary principle (which holds that a lack of scientific certainty should not be used to prevent cost-effective action to address potentially irreversible environmental threats). The U.S. approach to environmental regulation requires that there be proven environmental damage before control measures are taken. Washington stands virtually alone in rejecting the precautionary principle—a guideline with significant implications for many global environmental issues. Based in part on the precautionary principle, Europe is championing a much stronger regulatory approach to biosafety issues such as the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To make matters worse, the U.S. has been threatening to challenge Europe’s precautionary approach to GMOs in the World Trade Organization, basing its argument on the lack of definitive science for justifying GMO trade restrictions. Getting the Rules Right Regarding the Climate Regime- Climate change may be the single most significant environmental issue of the next few decades. In the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries committed to reduce their net greenhouse gas emissions an average of 5% from 1990 levels by 2012. In addition, the parties also established an international trading system in carbon emissions. Tons of carbon emissions will soon trade like other commodities throughout the world. To incorporate as many countries as possible, the Kyoto Protocol was necessarily general, leaving many critical issues for future negotiations. By the end of 2000 the Conference of the Parties to the Protocol must address such issues as how to count the carbon sequestered by forests, landfills, and agricultural practices in calculating a country’s net greenhouse gas emissions; how to facilitate the trading of carbon emission credits between countries; and how to monitor and enforce such a trading system. Given America’s position as the world’s supreme carbon emitter and energy user, U.S. leadership in getting these rules right will be critical if the climate regime is to have any hope of responding effectively to the threat of climate change. Imposing Liability and Providing Compensation- Few international environmental regimes have addressed the question of liability and compensation for harm caused to the environment. The Montreal Protocol, widely viewed as the model for all international environmental treaties, effectively banned the production and use of most ozone-depleting substances. But it did not hold those responsible for ozone depletion legally accountable, nor did it provide for
  • 29. compensating persons or countries that have suffered from ozone depletion. Even where liability issues have been generally acknowledged in international law—e.g., concerning damage caused by transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes—the parties have been deadlocked in trying to operationalize the concept of liability. The U.S. has often opposed international liability in these contexts, ostensibly out of concern that minimum levels of due process and fairness may be hard to ensure in international forums. However, America’s disproportionate responsibility for many global environmental threats and its vulnerability to liability claims also help explain U.S. opposition. Emphasizing Environmental Restoration- Given how far we have come in damaging the global environment, international environmental efforts in the future will have to be focused more on environmental restoration than protection. Although more expensive and less effective than protecting resources in the first place, restoration may sometimes be the only choice left. Environmental restoration is now a dynamic part of domestic environmental management and will undoubtedly begin to inform future global environmental negotiations. In this country, for example, the increasing trend toward removal of dams, reintroduction of endangered species, and large-scale restoration projects—like the attempt to recover the Florida Everglades—portends a future focus of international cooperation. As an example, international aid agencies are discussing whether to undertake a massive effort to restore coastal mangroves and interior watersheds in Central America. Many mangrove forests have disappeared as a result of shrimp aquaculture, and the region’s watersheds have been deforested for export timber. As a result, Hurricane Mitch struck with greater devastation. In the hurricane’s wake, political pressure has been building in the region for governments to restore these important ecosystems—so fundamental for the region’s environmental sustainability. Addressing Persistent Chemicals: In June 1998, negotiations began in Montreal to establish a global convention to eliminate or manage twelve of the world’s worst chemical contaminants, including dioxins, PCBs, DDT, and other pesticides. These chemicals persist in the environment and accumulate in human and animal tissues. Many of them have been linked to cancer and to adverse affects on human endocrine systems. Although most countries concur on how to regulate the twelve chemicals currently identified in the agreement, major differences exist about how to add new chemicals to the list of globally regulated or prohibited substances. Also critical to any global accord will be the decision about whether countries that are the source of existing stockpiles of phased-out chemicals should be responsible for their disposal. The document (to be completed by 2000) has been closely monitored by the chemical industry, which is pressing the United States to narrow the agreement’s purview. Water Shortages: Most experts agree that access to fresh water may be the most important natural resource issue for the next century. Human health, the environment, and even a country’s national security depend on access to adequate water supplies. But according to a recent UN
  • 30. Freshwater Assessment, humans are already using “about half” of the 12,500 cubic kilometers of water that is readily available. With world population expected to double in the next 50 years and with water consumption historically increasing at twice the rate of population, our global water situation is bleak. To make matters worse, water is allocated unevenly around the globe. Today, 460 million people or 8% of the world’s population live in countries already facing serious water shortages. Regional water shortages may thus exacerbate international conflicts and threaten national security if international management efforts are not successful. A 1997 UN convention on transnational water uses provides a beginning framework for managing these regional disputes, but long-term financial and political leadership from the United States and other powerful countries will be required for the convention to be successful. Consumption Levels: The Earth Summit recognized explicitly that achieving sustainability would require addressing both population and consumption. Two years after the Earth Summit, the world’s governments came together at the Cairo Population Summit to negotiate a comprehensive plan to curb population growth, but the North has yet to allow any meaningful dialogue on consumption. The United States, in particular, has blocked international efforts to address consumption levels. Domestically, the U.S. lacks any comprehensive effort to “green” consumption and lags well behind Europe, Environmental education Environmental education is a learning process that increases people’s knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges (UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1978). For environmental education to be meaningful, it should enable people to gain an understanding of how individual actions on values and participation affect the environment. In Buganda, informal environmental education embraced awareness and sensitivity to issues of nature preservation, dissemination of knowledge in environment conservation via stories, riddles, songs, proverbs and taboos, as well as through participation in sustainable resource use and other eco-friendly activities. Women and value education In the early 1970s an interest in women and their connection with the environment was sparked, largely by a book written by Esther Boserup entitled, Woman's Role in Economic Development. Starting in the 1980s, policy makers and governments became more mindful of the connection between the environment and gender issues. Changes began to be made regarding natural resource and environmental management with the specific role of women in mind. According to
  • 31. the World Bank in 1991, "Women play an essential role in the management of natural resources, including soil, water, forests and energy...and often have a profound traditional and contemporary knowledge of the natural world around them'". Whereas women were previously neglected or ignored, there was increasing attention paid to the impact of women on the natural environment and, in return, the effects the environment has on the health and well-being of women. The gender-environment relations have valuable ramifications in regard to the understanding of nature between men and women, the management and distribution of resources and responsibilities and the day-to-day life and well being of people. Women, Environment and Development (WED) Debate The women, environment, and development debate (WED) began in the early 1970s due, largely in part, to the oil crisis. In Mexico-City, in 1975, at the First World Conference on Women, Vandana Shiva introduced the issue of women and the environment. Concern was raised about the depletion of forestry resources as people began to realize that those resources were finite. Women's role in agriculture and their role as woodfuel users began to come under scrutiny. Soon, a major connection was made between the impact environmental development had on women. According to Schultz et al., "The women, environment and development debate (WED- debate) is anchored in a critical view of development policies where the link between modernization/industrialization and technology on the one hand and environmental deterioration on the other is focused" (p4). The WED debate continues today but is more focused on globalization and sustainable development.

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