Number of LGUs by Level 42025 80 122 1512 Provinces Cities Municipalities BarangaysSource: NSCB 2010
Number of Capital Towns, Component Cities and Independent Component Cities as of June 30, 2010 Capital Towns 41Independent Component Cities (ICCs) 5 Component Cities (CCs) 84 Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) 33 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Section 76. of LGC of 1991Organizational Structure andStaffing Pattern.Every local government unit shalldesign and implement its ownorganizational structure and staffingpattern taking into consideration itsservice requirements and financialcapability, subject to the minimumstandards and guidelines prescribedby the Civil Service Commission
National Government ARMM MMDA5 Provinces 16 Cities 1 Municipalities 1 City Barangay Barangay 117Municipalities 2490Barangays
National Government Province Highly Urbanized CityMunicipality Component City Barangay Barangay Barangay Structure of Philippine Local Government Padilla: 1998
The Role of the Local Government in Development• The local government is also called thegovernments of the parts of a nation. Its levelsvary according to the political pattern andexperience of each and every nation like thePhilippines. According to (Humes and Martin1969), the state supervised units which canalso be described as “infra-sovereign” localgovernments do not have any aspect ofsovereignty.
The Role of the Local Government in Development• In unitary states like the Philippinesthe supervision over local governmentsis done by the national government.• The UN defines local governmentsas “political subdivisions of a nation orstate” (UN 1962); some authorities referto them as “parts” of the government ofa nation or state.
The Role of the Local Government in Development• This entails assessment of the resources, leadershippotentials and administrative capabilities of the differentlevels of local government, which would be the basis fordetermining the powers, functions and services to bedevolved to them.• Local government officials, as earlier mentioned,make political decisions. Like earmarking revenues fordifferent projects for the public good. These decisionsgenerally take the form of ordinances.
The Role of the Local Government in DevelopmentOn Development• National development is a good achieved through aneffective partnership between the central and localgovernments, each one performing a service as an aspectof a function which it can adequately perform.• The local government code (LGC) devolves to alllocal units the administration of five basic services :agriculture, health, social welfare, maintenance of publicworks and highways, andenvironmental protection. What this means is that theappointment of persons performing these functions in theirlocal areas is now done by the local chief executives.There salaries are also paid from local funds.
The Role of the Local Government in DevelopmentRevenue Generation Local governments are authorized by law toimpose certain taxes to support their activities.However, their main source of revenue is theinternal revenue tax, which is shared by thenational government with them. The Code raisestheir share of these taxes from 20percent to 40 percent. It also modifies the sharingschemes by providing for the following: 34percent to the municipalities, 23percent to the cities, 23 percent to the provinces,and 20 percent to the barangays.
The Role of the Local Government in DevelopmentRevenue Generation- Internal revenue allotments (IRA) are also dividedaccording to other criteria: 50 percent by population, 25percent by area, and 25 percent in terms of equalsharing. Local units impose the property realty tax, andmuch depends on their assessment and collectionefficiency. They also tax business. Cities andmunicipalities impose the amusement tax. Barangayclearance is now needed before permits can be given bythe cities and municipalities for businesses.
The MAJOR FEATURESRepublic Act No. 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991
A. Sec. 17 of LGC of 1991, Basic Services and Facilities.a. Local government units shall endeavor to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the powers anddischarging the duties and functions currently vestedupon them. They shall also discharge the functionsand responsibilities of national agencies and officesdevolved to them pursuant to this Code. Localgovernment units shall likewise exercise such otherpowers and discharge such other functions andresponsibilities as are necessary, appropriate, orincidental to efficient and effective provision of thebasic services and facilities enumerated herein.
Devolved Basic ServicesOn Health and Social Services:1. include the implementation of programs and projects on primaryhealth care, maternal and child care, and communicable andnoncommunicable disease control services;2. Health services which access to secondary and tertiary healthservices;3. Purchase of medicines, medical supplies, and equipment neededto carry out the services4. Social welfare services which include programs and projects onchild and youth welfare, family and community welfare, womenswelfare, welfare of the elderly and disabled persons;
On Environmental Management:1. Solid waste disposal system;2. Services or facilities related to general hygieneand sanitation;3. Implementation of community-based forestryprojects which include integrated social forestryprograms and similar projects;4. Management and control of communal forests;
On Agriculture:1. Inter -Barangay irrigation system;2. Water and soil resource utilization andconservation projects;3. Enforcement of fishery laws in municipalwaters including the conservation ofmangroves;
On Infrastructure:1. Maintenance and Rehabilitation of the following: a. roads and bridges b. school buildings and other facilities for public elementary and secondary schools; c. clinics, health centers and other health facilities d. small water impounding projects e. fish ports; artesian wells, spring development, rainwater collectors and water supply systems; f. seawalls, dikes, drainage and sewerage, and flood control; g. traffic signals and road signs; and similar facilities;
On Tourism:1. Tourism facilities and other tourist attractions;2. Acquisition of equipment;3. Regulation and supervision of business concessions; and4. Security services for such facilities
Devolved Regulatory FunctionsInspection of food products such as meat, fruits, poultry, milk, fish, vegetables and other foodstuffsAdoption of quarantine regulationsEnforcement of the National Building CodeRegulations of tricycle operations Regulation of the real estate tradeLicensing of cockpitsB. It granted the local government units the power to develop theirown organizational structure staffing pattern and appoint officialswholly paid by the local governments;
Sec. 447. of LGC of 1991Powers, Duties, Functions and Compensation. –a. The Sangguniang Bayan, as the legislative body ofthe municipality, shall enact ordinances, approveresolutions and appropriate funds for the generalwelfare of the municipality and its inhabitantspursuant to section 16 of this Code and in theproper exercise of the corporate powers of themunicipality as provided for under section 22 of thisCode, and shall
(i) Review all ordinances approved by the SangguniangBarangay and executive orders issued by the PunongBarangay to determine whether these are within the scope ofthe prescribed powers of the sanggunian and of the PunongBarangay;(vii) Subject to the provisions of this Code and pertinentlaws, determine the powers and duties of officials andemployees of the municipality;(viii) Determine the positions and the salaries, wages,allowances and other emoluments and benefits of officialsand employees paid wholly or mainly from municipal fundsand provide for expenditures necessary for the properconduct of programs, projects, services, and activities ofthe municipal government;
NEDA Board RDC PDC CDC MDC BDCDILG: 1992 The Government Planning Hierarchy
The Local Government Code of 1991provided the policy context forthe emergence of entrepreneurial localgovernments by encouragingLGUs to enter into joint ventures andpartnerships with the privatesect6or such as build-operate-transferarrangement and bondflotation.
Section 35 of the LGC of 1991 Linkages with Peoples and Non-Governmental Organizations. – LocalGovernment units may enter into joint ventures and suchother cooperative arrangements with peoples andnongovernmental organizations to engage inthe delivery of certain basic services, capability-buildingand livelihood projects, and to develop local enterprisesdesigned to improve productivity and income, diversifyagriculture, spur rural industrialization, promote ecologicalbalance, and enhance the economic and social well-beingof the people.
Section 34 of the LGC of 1991Role of Peoples and NongovernmentalOrganizations. – LocalGovernment units shall promote theestablishment and operation of peoplesand nongovernmental organizations tobecome active partners in the pursuit oflocal autonomy.
The Significant Provision of RA 7160 (Local Government Code)1.When the local government code of the Philippine was passed it was hailed as a giant step towards the increase of autonomy in the country (Cariño, 1998).2.It is about the transfer of certain powers from national to local levels, increased the financial capacity of local government units, and give greater voice not only to local governments but to the people as well.3.When Filipinos speak of devolution today they usually refer to the Code.4. The essence of Devolution
The Significant Provision of RA 7160 (Local Government Code)5. The essence of Devolution6. Democracy and Decentralization7. Decentralization is the means for increasing democratic strides.8. Stresses the greater effectiveness of service delivery through a decentralized system.9. Decentralized powers are utilized for more effective management.
THE ISSUES/ CONCERNS(a) The inadequacy of the internal revenue shares of the localgovernment units to meet the budgetary requirements ofthe devolved function, programs and projects;(b) The continued lack of budgetary support from the nationalgovernment for the full implementation of devolvedtertiary health services;(c) The interference of national government in personnel andfiscal management of eth local government units;(d) The need to further broaden the tax base of the localgovernment units; and(e) The need to devolve more power functions and programs.
Issues and Problems in Decentralization•In the Phil decentralization is a strategy for developmentand democratization since the 1950s. This thrusts,however, have shifted over time. Decentralization in thepast focused on deconcentration (administrativedecentralization)•Decentralization during the late eighties up to the presentfocused on devolution or political decentralization. Thegovernment had stepped up its decentralization efforts byemphasizing devolution.
Issues and Problems in Decentralization• Under the LGC responsibility sharing andauthority sharing, local governments weremandated to supplement or assist in the delivery ofthese functions.• Decentralization changes have been made topursue development and democratization goals.• Privatization is another area of decentralization. Itis a policy reform that disposes idle GOCCs. Its aneconomic and political benefit to nationalgovernment.
Some of the Problemsof Decentralization are:• Political dynasty (elite dominated politics)• It encourages corruption
Reference: RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF LOCAL GOVRNMENT CODE OF 1991 Comparative Study Tour on Local Government Administration and Management Development Academy of the Philippines, 2006