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Foundation of Individual Behavior

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  • 1. Dr. Edwin B. R. Gbargaye Asst Professor Public Management University of Liberia
  • 2. Values Value - is a specific mode of conduct which is personally or socially preferable
  • 3. Generations Entered workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant working values Veterans 1950’s-60’s 60+ Hardworking, conservative, conforming, loyalty to the organization Boomers 1965 - 1985 40-60 Success, achievement, ambitions, dislike of authority, loyalty to career Dominant Values in Today's Workforce
  • 4. Dominant Values in Today's Workforce Generations Entered workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant working values Xers 1985- 2000 25-40 Work/Life balance, team oriented, dislike of rules, loyalty to relationship Nexters 2000 - present Under 25 Confident, financial success, self reliant but team oriented, loyalty to both self and relationships
  • 5. A Framework for Assessing Cultures by Geert Hofstede (1993) 1. Power Distance – the degree to which people in a country accept that power in the institutions and organization is distributed unequally 2. Individualism vs. Collectivism – Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individual rather than members of groups
  • 6. 3.Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life – Quantity of Life is the degree to which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods, and competition prevail. Quality of Life is the degree to which people value relationships show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of other A Framework for Assessing Cultures by Geert Hofstede
  • 7. 4. Uncertainty Avoidance – The degree to which people prefer structured over unstructured situations. 5. Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation – People in long term orientation countries look to the future and value thrift and persistence. A short term orientation values the past and present and emphasizes respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations A Framework for Assessing Cultures by Geert Hofstede
  • 8. Examples of Cultural Dimensions Country Power Distance Individualism Quantity of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long term Orientation Philippines Indonesia High Low Moderate Low Low Liberia Japan Moderate Moderate High Moderate Moderate Germany Low High High Moderate Moderate USA Low High High Low Low Russia High Moderate Low High Low
  • 9. Implication on Assessing Culture • Not all OB theories and concepts are universally applicable in managing people • Consider cultural values when trying to understand the behavior of people in different countries • Moral flavor varies relative to individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable
  • 10. Rokeach Value Survey - Milton Rokeach created Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) in 1973. - The RVS consists of two set of values: a. Terminal Values – these are goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime b. Instrumental Values – means of achieving terminal values
  • 11. Terminal Values Rank A comfortable life (a prosperous life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of peace (free of war and conflicts) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of love ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (saved, eternal life) Social Recognition (respect, admiration) True friendship (close companionship
  • 12. Instrumental Values Rank Ambitious ( hardworking, aspiring) Capable (competent, effective) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat and tidy) Courageous (standing up for ones belief) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite (courteous, well mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable)
  • 13. Most Important Terminal Values National Government Agencies LGU Business Private
  • 14. Most Important Instrumental Values National Government Agencies LGU Business Private
  • 15. Implications on RVS • RVS values vary according to groups • Understanding the differences should be helpful in explaining behavior of employees in different organizations
  • 16. Ethical Behavior • Has there been a decline in business ethics?
  • 17. Attitudes • Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people or events • They reflect how one feels about something
  • 18. • A person can have thousands of attitudes but OB focuses on a very limited job- related attitudes such as: a. Job satisfaction b. Job involvement c. Organizational commitment
  • 19. What determines job satisfaction? • Mentally challenging work • Equitable rewards • Supportive working conditions • Supportive colleagues
  • 20. Are satisfied workers more productive than the dissatisfied workers?
  • 21. “ A happy worker is a productive worker” • Fairly small effect. The introduction of moderating variable such as: the behavior is not constrained or controlled by outside factor like machine-paced jobs ( influence by the speed of the machine not by satisfaction level)
  • 22. • Productivity is more likely lead to satisfaction rather than the other way around. If you do a good job you intrinsically feel good about it. • If the organization rewards productivity, your higher productivity should increase verbal recognition, pay level, chance for promotion, this will in turn level of satisfaction
  • 23. • Satisfaction a major determinant of positive Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). Satisfied employees would seem more likely: a. Talk positively about the organization b. Help others c. Prone to go beyond the call of duty
  • 24. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance - is a theory of human motivation that asserts that it is psychologically uncomfortable to hold contradictory cognitions. The theory is that dissonance, being unpleasant, motivates a person to change his cognition, attitude, or behavior. This theory was first explored in detail by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1956)
  • 25. • Suggests that people seek to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes • Degree of influence will be low if they perceive the dissonance to be an uncontrollable results (no choice) • Reward or remuneration for their services are motivated to reduce dissonance • Dissonance should be moderated by importance, choice, reward factors
  • 26. What are the implications on the theory of cognitive dissonance? • It can predict the propensity to engage in both attitude and behavioral change • Dissonance should be moderated by importance, choice, reward factors
  • 27. Relationship Between Attitude and Behavior • A-B studies yield positive result • Attitudes do influence behavior
  • 28. Perception Perception – is a process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
  • 29. Factors Influencing Perception a.Factors that reside in the perceiver b.The objects and targets being perceived • OB is concerned with human beings • Our perception and judgment of a person’s action, will be significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state
  • 30. Attribution Theory • has been proposed to develop explanation of how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior, either it was internally (under the personal control of individual) or externally caused (outside forces).
  • 31. • The determination of whether the attribution theory is internally or externally caused depends on three factors: a. Distinctiveness – an individual displays different behaviors in different situation (uniqueness can be judged as external attribution, if the action is not unique, it will be judged as internal,
  • 32. b. Consensus – everybody who is faced with a similar situation respond the same way over time. If the consensus is high caused by external but if other employees who took same route and change conclusion is internal causation c. Consistency – more consistent behavior, the more the observer is inclined to attribute to internal causes
  • 33. Another important finding from attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distorts attribution. Fundamental Attribution Error – tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. This is called the “self serving bias” – feedback or review will be predictably distorted (+ and -)
  • 34. Shortcuts to Judging Others • Selectivity – Individuals cannot assimilate all they observe. Selective perception allows ”speed read” others but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture • Assumed similarity – “like me” effect. In instances that people are really like them chances are they will be right. The rest of the time, they will be wrong
  • 35. • Stereotyping – Judge people on the basis of our perception of the group to which he/she belongs. Many stereotypes have no foundation and can distort judgment • Halo effect – draw a single impression about an individual on the basis of single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability or appearance
  • 36. Learning • “Its what we did went we went to school” • Continuously “going to school”
  • 37. The Learning Process Environment Law of Effect Shaping Modeling Behavior
  • 38. Key Variables Affecting Individual Behavior Values Attitudes Personality Ability Motivation Perception Learning Individual behavior
  • 39. Implications for Managers Values • Values strongly influence a person attitude • Use RVS to evaluate job applicants and determine if their values align with the dominant values in the organization • An employee’s performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his/her values fit well in the organization
  • 40. Attitudes • Attitude influence behavior • Research on satisfaction/productivity relationship has important implications for managers. It suggest that managers would get better results by directing their attention primarily to what will help employees become more productive (feeling of accomplishment, rewards, increase pay, promotion which will lead to job satisfaction
  • 41. • Dissonance can be managed. • The pressure to reduce dissonance as are lessened when employees perceive the dissonance as externally imposed and beyond his/her control or if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonance
  • 42. Perception • Managers need to recognize that their employees react to perception not to reality • Employees organize and interpret what they see (potential for perceptual distortions) • Managers need to pay attention to how employees perceive both their jobs and management practices
  • 43. Learning • The only issue is whether they are going to let employee learning occur randomly or whether they are going to manage learning – through the rewards they allocate and the examples they set
  • 44. Reference Revisiting Hofstede's Dimensions: Examining the Cultural ... www.na- sinesspress.com/AJM/BergielEB_Web12_1_.pdfCached Similar by EB Bergiel - 2012 VALUES LIST OF MILTON ROKEACH, 1973 - Mio-Ecsde www.mio-ecsde.org/protarea/Annex_4_3_values_lists.pdf Cognitive Dissonance Theory Leon Festinger ( 1919-1989) www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Theory/dissonance